Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740; Monthly 
Volume 12 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 86), May 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1204, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740


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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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Histological Study on Pulmonary Changes Induced by Agarwood (Aoud) Inhalation in Albino Rats: Do Omega-3 Fatty Acids Have a Soothing Effect?


Fatimah A. Alhomaid1 and Hoda A. Ali2


1Dept. of Biology, Collage of Science and Arts, Qassim University, KSA. Email: abdo_1416@yahoo.com

2Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, Collage of Designs and Home Economy, Qassim University, KSA. Email: drhodaali@hotmail.com


Abstract: Researches have been carried out on the trunk and resin of Agarwood (Aoud), but little is known about pulmonary detrimental effect induced by inhalation and how to overcome. This work was designed to study the histological and ultrastructure of pulmonary changes induced by Aoud inhalation at low and high levels for various duration. The study also clarifies a possible soothing effect of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on lung tissue of exposed Albino rats. A total of 60 healthy male adult Albino rats were divided into equal 6 groups (G): G1 serves as control; G2 dosed orally with 5 ml/kg/day n-3 PUFA. Rats of groups G3 and G4 were exposed to low level of Aoud vapour (0.928 mm/m3 for 8 hrs per day); G4 was treated with 5 ml/kg/day n-3 PUFA as one dose orally. G5 and G6 were exposed to high level of Aoud vapour (9.28 mm/m3 for 8 hrs per day); G6 was treated with 5 ml/kg/day n-3 PUFA. Lungs were processed for both light and electron microscope. Computerized morphometric measurement was obtained by cell image analysis to monitor the fibrillar components (collagenous, elastic and reticular fibres) changes in each group. Aoud inhalation induces lung injury in exposed rats. The degree of lungs damage and soothing potency of n-3 PUFA are varied according to exposed Aoud dosage and duration. Further investigation is recommended to determine the suitable dose of n-3 PUFA treatment and/ or the potent dose of Aoud that cause no pulmonary change.

[Fatimah A. Alhomaid and Hoda A. Ali. Histological Study on Pulmonary Changes Induced by Agarwood (Aoud) Inhalation in Albino Rats: Do Omega-3 Fatty Acids Have a Soothing Effect? Nat Sci 2014;12(5):1-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.01 


Keywords: Agarwood, omega-3, pulmonary, fibrillar, morphometric

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Corrosion inhibition by Tri Sodium Citrate-Ni2+ System for Carbon steel in Well Water


N.Vijaya1, A. Peter Pascal Regis2, A. John Amal Raj3, C. Rajarathinam2 S. Rajendran4,5, and M.Pandiarajan4


1Department of chemistry, Vellalar College for Women, Thindal, Erode, India, E. mail: chemvijaya68@gmail.com

2Department of chemistry, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, E. mail: drpascalregis@gmail.com and rajarathnamorg@gmail.com

3Department of chemistry, Periyar E.V.R College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, E. mail: amalrajevr@gmail.com

4Corrosion Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul- 624005.E-mail: srmjoany@sify.com.

5Corrosion Research Centre, PG and Research, Department of Chemistry, GTN Arts College, Dindigul- 624005. E-mail: pandiarajan777@gmail.com


Abstract: The inhibition efficiency (IE) of trisodium citrate (TSC) –Ni2+ system in controlling of Carbon steel in well water has been evaluated by weight loss study. The experimental procedures are carried out by varying immersion period and concentration of the inhibitor at room temperature. A synergistic effect exists between TSC and Ni2+.The formulation consisting of 50 ppm of TSC and 25 ppm of Ni2+ provides 81% of IE. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ - TSC complex and Ni(OH)2. Polarization of study confirms the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. The inhibitor system controls the cathodic reaction predominantly.

[N.Vijaya, A. Peter Pascal Regis, A. John Amal Raj, C. Rajarathinam S. Rajendran, and M.Pandiarajan. Corrosion inhibition by Tri Sodium Citrate-Ni2+ System for Carbon steel in Well Water. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):15-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.02


Key words: corrosion; inhibition; carbon steel; trisodium citrate; synergistic effect.

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In vitro Study Evaluating the Micro-Tensile Bond Strength of Different Restorative Materials After Treatment by Chemo-Mechanical Agent


Mona Abdel Rehim Wahby1; Eman Sayed ElMasry2; Manal Ahmed El Sheikh3 and Sherine Badr Youness4


Resident in Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Sinai University1

Professor of Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University2

Lecturer of Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University3

Lecturer of Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University4



Abstract: Aim of study: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the application of a papain-based gel on the micro-tensile bond strength of different restorative material to carious dentin. Material and methods: Thirty two extracted human primary posterior teeth with moderate caries were assigned into two groups according to mechanism of caries removal, each containing sixteen (16) teeth [thirty two (32) halves].Group 1: Caries are mechanically removed with a round bur "control group" and restorative material was applied. Group 2: Caries are chemo-mechanically removed with a chemo –mechanical solvent (Papacarie) and restorative material was applied. Both groups were subdivided into two subgroups: Sub-group A: Glass iomomer restoration Sub-group B: Light curing composite resin restoration. The samples were sectioned longitudinally to the long axis of the tooth to obtain sticks of standardized cross sectional area. These sticks were stressed to failure under tensile force in a universal testing machine. The micro-tensile bond strength for each specimen was calculated in megapascal (MPa). Results: Papacarie may decrease the bond strength of restorative materials regardless the type of adhesive filling. Conclusion: Papacarie may affect negatively the bond strength and consequently the durability of restorative materials.

[Mona Abdel Rehim Wahby; Eman Sayed ElMasry; Manal Ahmed El Sheikh and Sherine Badr Youness. In vitro Study Evaluating the Micro-Tensile Bond Strength of Different Restorative Materials After Treatment by Chemo-Mechanical Agent. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):22-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.03


Keywords: Dental caries, chemo-mechanical caries removal, Papacarie, micro-tensile bond strength, adhesive restorative materials.

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Loss Reduction in Electrical Distribution Systems Using Artificial Intelligence


A. Mabruok khafagei, A. Mahmuod Agwa and M. Ibrahim El-Sayed


Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: This paper using the artificial intelligence tools in identifying the optimal locations and sizes of shunt capacitors to be placed in radial distribution system to loss reduction have overall economy considering the saving due to energy loss minimization and cost of capacitors. Capacitor banks are added on Radial Distribution system for Power Factor Correction, Loss Reduction and Voltage profile improvement. For these purpose two stage methodologies is used in this paper. In first stage, the load flow of pre-compensated distribution system is carried out and performed the power loss reduction index (PLRI). Fuzzy controller identifies the candidate number of buses on the basis of load flow solution and (PLRI). In the second stage, genetic algorithms are used to identify the size of the capacitors for minimizing the energy loss cost and capacitor cost. The developed algorithm is tested for 33-BUS, IEEE 69 redial distribution system at 12.66 KV high voltage distribution system (HVDS).

[A. Mabruok khafagei, A. Mahmuod Agwa and M. Ibrahim El-Sayed. Loss Reduction in Electrical Distribution Systems Using Artificial Intelligence. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):27-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.04


Keywords: Shunt Capacitors Placement and Sizing, Fuzzy Controller, Genetic Algorithms

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First geographical seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection (anaplasmosis) by ELISA in Ovis aries, in district Peshawar, Pakistan


1Muhammad Kashif, 1Munawar Saleem Ahmad, 2Ghufran Ullah and 3Iftikhar Fareed


1Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra-23100, Pakistan

2Director General, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar-25000, Pakistan

3Department of Natural Resource Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq



Abstract: Geographical sero-prevalence of Anaplasma marginale (T) in sheep, Ovis aries (L) was done from January-May, 2012 in district Peshawar which is a crowded area of Pakistan. In this area sheep’s infection with A. marginale is not reported before. For this purpose, 376 serum samples were obtained conveniently from 4 different breeds of sheep, from different geographical areas of Peshawar. An indirect ELISA using recombinant MSP-5 as antigen of A. marginale, was performed. Totally, 92/376 (24.47%) of the overall sheep sera were positive. In 6 areas of Peshawar, Peshthakhara and Mashokhel area were found highly infected i.e. 32.00% and 32.00% respectively, while Ghazi baba area was less infected comparatively. This is the first record of A. marginale showing high rate infection in sheep in Peshawar, Pakistan, This research should be useful in epidemiological applications.

[Muhammad Kashif, Munawar Saleem Ahmad, Ghufran Ullah and Iftikhar Fareed. First geographical seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection (anaplasmosis) by ELISA in Ovis aries, in district Peshawar, Pakistan. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):36-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.05


Keywords: Sheep; Sero-prevalence; A. marginale; MSP-5; Peshawar.

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Development of a rapid and cost effective molecular diagnostic assay for species identification of MOTT culture isolates


Singh P1, Kumar Nishant 2, Singh YK2*


1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali, Rajasthan, India.

 2Auroprobe Laboratories, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad (U.P), India.



Abstract: Disease caused by Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) frequently causes sickness and death. These bacteria are found in water sources and soil and are particularly concentrated in biofilms. Species identification is important in those cases, of patients positive for AFB and do not improve clinically. Present study includes development of High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis to characterize the mycobacterium species. Six thousand nine hundred thirty three samples were processed and 1386 isolates were used for the development of HRM curve analysis for differentiating MOTT. An HRM curve was generated for each isolate to identify the MOTT species. Most specific technique for species identification is sequencing. The sequencing of the strains was also evaluated using the same isolates. The results of both techniques were compared to the gold standard proportional method. With the use of this assay we can identify 27 clinically relevant Mycobacterial species. Sequencing is good technique but it is an expensive for resource limited settings and needs expertise for analysis, while the HRM curve makes this assay an ideal identification method for the TB laboratory.

[Singh P, Kumar Nishant, Singh YK. Development of a rapid and cost effective molecular diagnostic assay for species identification of MOTT culture isolates. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):40-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.06


Key Words: Mycobacterium, AFB, MOTT, Polymerase Chain Reaction, High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

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The Role Of Law In Bringing About Reforms In The Life Of Women In India


Jamshed Ansari


Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com

Mob. No. 09811365596

Address: F-379, Main Jagatpur Road, Wazirabad, Gali No. 6, District- North Delhi, State- Delhi- 110084, Country- India


Abstracts: The Constitution of India guarantees the equality before law and equal protection of laws within the territory of India. The Constitution gives the special protection to women. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the role of law in the bringing about reform in the life of Indian women, keeping in view the provisions of Constitution of India and the other legislations passed for the protection of the women. The author has done doctrinal research on the basis of available secondary sources like Books, Journals and websites.

[Ansari, Jamshed. The Role of Law in Bringing About Reforms in the Life of Women in India. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):43-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.07


Key Words: Women, Social change, Divorce, Maintenance, Dower, Male dominant etc.

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The role of social security in balancing families' consumption An econometrics (study of the heteroscedasticity phenomenon-the application of the Khurmah province).


1 Saosan Bashir Abdallah Alnaeim, 2 Mohammednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir


1 Department of Marketing khurmah Community College - University of Taif -Saudi Arabia& Institute of Family Studies - Omdurman Islamic University - Sudan.


. 2 Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Sciences& Art in Taif University, Saudi Arabia& Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, –Sudan mnour2626@gmail.com.


Abstract: This study aimed to explore the phenomenon of heteroscedasticity to measure economic gap between certain categories of the community. It addresses the phenomenon and consumption model through social security tools. It identifies the shortcomings and attempt to handle them. Similarly, the study aimed to examine the common impact of the prevalence of the phenomenon before social security, and the extent of balance achieved after social security that may lead to Homoscedasticity Moreover, the study dealt with the importance of social security and its role to achieve the consumption balance of families, and explore the extent to which that consumption balance targeted the categories of social security services. Consumption model demonstrated the consumption of households in the province of Khurmah before and after the Social Security. It is conducted on 45 families by 9 families each year for a period of 5 years, to measure the extent to which that balance through the econometric tool (phenomenon), through the formulation of the model. First the model was tested and evaluated it under Arch & White test of the sample used and the level of the gap (rate of heteroscedasticity) and rates of social security. The model is used to develop solutions to expected problems in the near future, through a model of Forecast for years to come. Using the E-economy models Curran Theater designer standard, the phenomenon of heteroscedasticity the study reached the following: The model showed statistical indication between changes in consumption and income with the emergence of the impact of some other factors in the model before social security. After social security services, model achieved higher rates, therefore there is statistical significance of the relationship between consumption and income, but lesser the impact of other factors (Zakat or assistance... etc.) and balance families consumer and dispensing with the other sources to support consumption

[Saosan Bashir & Mohammednour Eltahir. The role of social security in balancing families' consumption An econometrics (study of the heteroscedasticity phenomenon-the application of the Khurmah province). Nat Sci 2014;12(5):50-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.08


Keywords: social security, families' consumption, heteroscedasticity phenomenon.

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Efficacy of Exogenous Elicitors against Tuta Absoluta on Tomato


Hussein, Nehal, M. 1, M.I. Hussein2, S.H. Gadel Hak3, M.A. Hammad2 and H.S. Shaalan1


1Plant Protection Institute, ARC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Pant Protection Dep., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El-Kheima, Cairo, Egypt

3Horticulture Dep., Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ., Minia, Egypt


Abstract: Plant defensive systems against herbivores such as leafminers can be induced by application of biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study we examined the effect of some elicitor treatments on the response of tomato hybrid cultivar Gold Stone against (Tuta absoluta). Also, their effects on the growth characteristics of tomato were studied in the successive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012. The treatments were salicylic acid (SA) at 200 ppm, L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) at 200 ppm and at 500 ppm, benzothiadiazole (BTH) at 200 ppm, effective microorganisms (EM) at 5m/L., ethanol (solvent) at 1m/L. and tap water (control). The application were treated three times in three stages of growth. L-AA at 200 ppm followed by BTH at 200 ppm were significantly reduced the percentage of (Tuta absoluta) density population and significantly reduced the percentage of infested leaflets on tomato. Also, most of growth characteristics were responded. SA and L-AA at 200 ppm as well as EM treatments enhanced significantly L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Moreover, SA treatment at 200 ppm significantly decreased tomato yield in both seasons.

[Hussein, Nehal, M., M.I. Hussein, S.H. Gadel Hak, M.A. Hammad and H.S. Shaalan. Efficacy of Exogenous Elicitors against Tuta Absoluta on Tomato. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):68-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.09


Key words: Salicylic acid (SA), L-ascorbic acid (L-AA), Benzothiadiazole (BTH), Effective microorganisms (EM), Tuta absoluta, Tomato.

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Cross-border Outsourcing; Third Industrial Revolution


Shokouh Namdar


Iran, Tehran, Doctoral Student of Private Law, Azad University, Science and Research Faculty of Law, Research field; Civil and Private Law


Abstract "Offshoring" or cross-border outsourcing is a new process in the field of economy and trade. Some of the legal and economic experts are mentioned it as a migration or migrated “job business,” and its appearance in the developed countries goes back to 1960. This phenomenon is known as one of the economic processes in recent decades which have impact in other aspects of people’s economic, social, educational life. Generally in the first few years leaded to improving living conditions and increasing global welfare, but gradually the adverse and negative symptoms, particularly in the developed economies of the economic world poles had appeared and leaded to severe protests and extreme scientific, economic and even political positions .The less difficulty of this phenomenon is to create a rising tide of unemployment and migration in worldwide developing countries to find job opportunities. But the developing countries, in this current job positions, grab a large part of the industrial countries' job positions, and gained huge income, the expertise, skill and labor and there after dramatic changes occurred in the global economy, the great changes which are mentioned as the "third industrial revolution" by a large number of Western economists and its trade, economic, social and political scope and consequences will be actually interpreted as a revolution. The scope of current economy has expanded in such a way that resistance to this motion and efforts for stopping it is merely vain and useless and would fail. Nowadays the economists and those involved in the global economy are trying to provide rules and regulations for the control of this process and guide them towards economic profitability. Hereby the writer tries to give a deep understanding of the concept, characteristics, principles, advantages and various phenomena.

 [Shokouh Namdar. Cross-border Outsourcing; Third Industrial Revolution. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):78-79]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.10


Keywords: Cross-border Outsourcing, Third Industrial Revolution

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Optical and Electrical Properties of Undoped GaN Films on Sapphire substrate Grown By Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition


Hanan Abbas1 and Michael Player2


1Department Daignostic Radiology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, KAU, 3Department of Engineering, University of Aberdeen (UK).

P.O Box 4266, Jeddah 21491, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: Habbas1@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) properties of GaN undoped epitaxial layers grown by (MOCVD) metal organic chemical vapor deposition method on sapphire substrate have been studied in the temperature range of 100-300K. At 10K the spectra obtained are dominated by the well resolved interband free excitons A and B as well as the bound excitons. There was a strong influence of the residual strain in determining the energies of exciton transitions.The replica of neutral donor bound exciton of each sample was observed and was separated from the neutral donor bound exciton by about 0.022eV. A ~29 meV donor depth was deduced for each sample (i.e. ~29 meV below the bandgap). A-band free exciton first excited state was observed, consequently, the free A-exciton binding energy was calculated. XRD analysis corresponding to the (004), (002), (104) and (204) diffraction was performed. By using standard methods the electron concentration and carrier mobility in the films were calculated. Cody’s coefficients for the temperature variation of bandgap were obtained through a study of the temperature dependence of free exciton.

[Hanan Abbas and Michael Player. Optical and Electrical Properties of Undoped GaN Films on Sapphire substrate Grown By Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):80-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.11


Keywords: MOCVD, Undoped, GaN ,Films, Free excitons, bound excitons, XRD analysis, Cody’s coefficients, temperature dependence, residual strain, exciton energies.

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Chemometrics Of Liquid –Liquid Extraction Of Metal Complexes.   A  Review    I


⃰⃰Nworie,  F.S  and  Nwabue,  F.I.


Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi  State  University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.



Abstract: Solvent extraction is an excellent technique for preconcentration and separation of metal complexes. The method is simple, rapid, and highly selective, can be manipulated, prevents co-precipitation, provides solutions to theoretical problems and is wide in scope. Parameters such as distribution ratio, percentage recovery, Sandel sensitivity, molar absorptivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, separation factor, partition coefficient, pH, concentration of chelating, organic, salting out and masking agents, temperature, equilibration time, colour stability and thermodynamic constants are optimized in solvent extraction of metal chelates. Accuracy, precision, reliability and relationship among and between extraction variables, equilibria of complexation and mechanism of complex formation of metal cations with chelating agents are always optimized and mathematically and statistically analyzed. Chemometrics has been found as a valuable tool for result comparison, building of models and as well a predictive tool in analytical research.

[Nworie,  F.S  and  Nwabue,  F.I. Chemometrics Of Liquid –Liquid Extraction Of Metal Complexes. A Review  I. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):87-96]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.12


Keywords. Chemometrics, liquid-liquid extraction,complex formation, extraction variables.

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Characterization of some bioactive glasses based on SiO2–CaO–P2O5–SrO quaternary system prepared by sol–gel method


K.M. Ereiba 1, A.S. Abd Raboh 1* and A.G. Mostafa 2


1. Biophysics branch, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

2. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Different bioactive glass samples of the composition [65%SiO2–10%P2O5–(25-X) %CaO–X%SrO], Ca was gradually substituted by Sr (percentages of X= 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) have been prepared by sol-gel method. These samples were investigated from the structural point of view and the bioactivity by using different techniques: Evaluation of the crystallinity, crystal size, & the developed phases have been done using XRD technique, Assignment of the functional groups of the prepared samples by FTIR technique, Morphological observation of the resultant glasses was performed by (SEM). Dissolution of Ca and P were monitored periodically in physiological fluid which simulate the body fluid (SBF) by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer technique and biochemical Kits. The results showed that the substitution of Sr for Ca in the glass did not inhibit formation of calcium phosphate layer but retarded its precipitation rate, strongly dependent on Sr concentration. Crystal size and crystallinity of apatite peaks decreased gradually by addition strontium amount.

[Ereiba K.M, Abd Raboh A.S and Mostafa A.G. Characterization of some bioactive glasses based on SiO2–CaO–P2O5–SrO quaternary system prepared by sol–gel method. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):97-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.13


Keywords: Bioactive glass; sol–gel; strontium; apatite

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Determination of Quality of Marine Fishes Based on Total Volatile Base Nitrogen test (TVB-N)


B.K.K.K. Jinadasa


Institute of Post Harvest Technology (IPHT), National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA), Colombo-15, Sri Lanka.

E-mail: jinadasa76@gmail.com


Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of five marine fishes yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores, Bonnaterre, 1788), sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus, Shaw, 1792), slaya/sardine (Sardinella gibbosa, Bleeker, 1849), squid (Loligo duvaucelii, D' Orbigny, 1835) and shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus, H. Milne Edwards, 1837) based on total volatile base nitrogen test (TVB-N). The studied fish was collected from 19 commercial retail outlets in Sri Lanka in 2012, kept under ice and immediately transferred to laboratory for further analysis. The total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) test was performed to assess the quality status of fresh fish. The limits of TVB-N for fishery products in Commission Regulation (EC) NO 2074/2005, which was ranged between 25 to 35 milligrams of nitrogen/ 100grams of fish flesh. The results of the present study revealed that base the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content,  5% of yellowfin tuna, 8% of sailfish, 12% of sardine, 100% of squids and 42% shrimp were not fit for the human consumption.

[B.K.K.K. Jinadasa. Determination of Quality of Marine Fishes Based on Total Volatile Base Nitrogen test (TVB-N). Nat Sci 2014;12(5):106-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.14


Key words: quality, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), retail fish market

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Influence of Different Planting Date on the Performance of New Garlic Genotypes Grown Under El-Minia Governorate Conditions


N. S. Youssef and Tony, H. S.H


Vegetable Res. Dept. Hort. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC) Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons at the Experiment Farm of Mallawy Agriculture Research Station, Institute of Horticulture Research, A.R.C., Giza, Egypt. The objective of the study was to find out appropriate planting time for two colored and two white skin garlic genotypes to overcoming the problem of yield decline under El-Minia Governorate conditions. These problems are commonly attributed to the use of poorly adapted planting material. Three planting dates, viz. September, 7; October, 10 and November, 1) (in the first season) and September, 11; October, 10 and November, 1 (in the second season) and two white skin color (Egyptian, Clone 24) and two red skin color (Sids-40, Egaseed 1) were tested. The results obtained revealed that plant height, No. cloves/bulb, bulb diameter, bulb clove weight, yield (ton/fed.) were higher at, early planting date for the white garlic genotype "Clone 24" followed by "Egyptian". Sowing date for colored garlic genotypes affected yield and yield component and October, 10 date gave the higher values. The lowest yield and higher disease incidence % of leaf blight was scored at the late of planting date (November, 1) with all tested genotypes. So, the white garlic genotypes (Egyptian and Clone 24) must be planted early in the mid of September (7-10) while, colored genotypes (Sids-40 and Egaseed 1) could be planted in the mid of October under El-Minia Governorate conditions Moreover, cultivar Egaseed-1 ranked the first for whole plant weight, bulb weight, clove weight, yield as ton/fed. as well as bulb and leaf TSS followed by Sids-40 when planted in 10 Oct. All tested genotypes gave the lowest values when planted early in the 1st of November in both seasons under El-Minia Governorate conditions.

[N. S. Youssef and Tony, H. S.H. Influence of Different Planting Date on the Performance of New Garlic Genotypes Grown Under El-Minia Governorate Conditions. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):112-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.15


Key words: garlic genotypes, planting dates, early planting, bulb diameter, yield, leaf blight.

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Beneficial Effects of Substitution of Vegetable Soy Protein instead of Animal Protein Casein in Diets for Diabetic Male Rats


Maha Ahmed Al-Ahdab


Home Economic Dept., Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University.


Abstract: The effect of substitution of vegetable Soy protein (SP) for dietary casein protein (CP) on body weight, serum liver enzymes, blood lipids, glucose, insulin , kidney function and activities of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue of alloxan-diabetic rats were evaluated. Fifty four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group (1) was fed on basal diet (Negative control) containing 20% CP, while the other 5 groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. The diabetic rats were assigned to one of five diets as follows: group (2): 20% CP (Positive control); group (3): 5 % SP + 15 % CP; group (4): 10 % SP + 10 % CP; group: (5) 15% SP + 5% CP and group (6): 20 % SP for 6 weeks. The rats were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the feeding period and weight gain was also calculated. Blood samples were collected for separating the serum for biochemical analyses. Kidneys were dissected out and renal homogenates were prepared to assay activities of tissue antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that feeding diabetic rats on diets containing 20 % SP or 15% SP + 5% CP or 10% SP+10% CP significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the elevated serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and blood glucose level while there were an increased in insulin level in diabetic rats fed on the previous diets. Blood urea and creatinine levels were normalized and activities of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase antioxidant enzymes were increased. In conclusion, substitution of Soy protein for dietary casein or more Soy protein and less casein increases body weight gain and produces antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant effects in diabetic rats. Therefore, consumption of Soy protein instead of casein may be beneficial for diabetic patients as it prevents body weight loss, normalizes blood glucose and lipids, and reduces the adverse effects of diabetes on the liver and kidneys in diabetic rats. This study recommends that diets containing vegetable Soy protein instead of animal protein casein or more Soy protein and less casein may be beneficial for diabetic patient.

[Maha Ahmed Al-Ahdab. Beneficial Effects of Substitution of Vegetable Soy Protein instead of Animal Protein Casein in Diets for Diabetic Male Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):120-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.16


Keywords: Soy protein; Casein; Diabetes; Body weight; Liver enzymes; Blood lipids; Glucose; Insulin; Kidney function; Antioxidant.

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Prevalence Of Trichomonas vaginalis Among The Rural Women Of Ekwulumili Community Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria.


Onyido A.E 1, Umeanaeto P.U.1, Irikannu K.C 1, Ekwunife C.A 1, Ezeanya L.C.1,Nwangwu U.C.2,

Ugha C.N 1, Obiechina, I.O 1


1. Department of Parasitology and Entomology Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025, Awka, Nigeria

2. Federal Ministry of Health, National Arbovirus & Vectors Research Centre, 33 Park Avenue, GRA, Enugu Nigeria.



Abstract: A prevalence study of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among the rural women of Ekwulumili community in Nnewi South Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria, was carried out between April and July 2012. A total of one hundred women aged 20-59 years, from the four villages of the community participated in the study. The women were mobilized through advocacy visits to the traditional ruler and opinion leaders of the community, town criers and announcements in the churches, schools, markets and women group meetings. All the women were assembled at the Eziokwubundu Maternity Home on the agreed date. An informed consent of every woman was obtained before a sample of the vaginal swab was carefully and asceptically collected from the high vaginal area using a well-labeled, sterile, non-abrassive high vaginal swab stick. Each sample was stored in a test tube containing 5mls of phosphate buffer. All samples were centrifuged and examined microscopically within 2 hours of collection. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected by its characteristic jerky movement in a wet preparation. An overall prevalence of 15% was obtained. T. vaginalis prevalence varied in the villages, being highest in Owellechukwu 1(25.0%) and least in Urueze 9(13.24%). It also varied with marital groups, being highest among the married women 9(20.93%) and lowest among the singles 3(8.82%). It was highest among the traders 10(23.81%) and lowest among the civil servants 1(9.10%). Among the age groups, prevalence was highest in the age group 30-39 years, 7(35.0%) and lowest among those aged 40-49 years, 2(8.0%). T vaginalis was not detected in pregnant women. Adequate personal hygiene, avoidance of promiscuity, faithfulness to one sexual partner, and health education were suggested for improvement of their health.

[Onyido A.E, Umeanaeto P.U., Irikannu K.C, Ekwunife C.A, Ezeanya L.C., Nwangwu U.C., Ugha C.N, Obiechina, I.O. Prevalence Of Trichomonas Vaginalis Among The Rural Women Of Ekwulumili Community Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):129-134]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.17


Keywords: Prevalence; Trichomonas vaginalis; Rural; Women; Nigeria.

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Alcohols contraband in Iran


Shapor  Mozafari 1, Qaeme  Naderi 2, Farshad  Kamari 3


1. Department of law, Assistance Suspended Province Kermanshah

Legal Expert suspended state

2. Department of law, Khoramabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoramabad, Iran

3. Department of law, Zanjan branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran


Abstract: Alcohols contraband is one of crimes that has not been addressed expressly in many law articles and books and it has been rather implicitly not detailed if addressed. There are a number of useful and valuable hygienic directions in framework oftaboos-recomandedso that human beings′ health be preserved and they be safe against diseases. Directions that ensure the human beings′ physical and mental health God has prevented human beings from drinking alcohol in Quran.

[Shapor Mozafari, QaemeNaderi, FarshadKamari. Alcohols contraband in Iran. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):135-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.18


Keywords: Contraband – Alcohol s – The legislative orocess – Trial

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Correlation Of Vitamin A And Serum Cholesterol Level In Patients Of Carcinoma Of Esophagus


Ali Raza Memon 1, Hina Riaz 2, Kenjhar Rani 2


1Department of Biochemistry Liaquat Medical University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan

2, Department of Physiology Liaquat Medical University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan

Corresponding Author: Dr. Ali Raza Memon: aliraza.biolumhs@yahoo.com


Abstract: The present study has shown the correlation of vitamin A and serum cholesterol level in patients of carcinoma of esophagus. Total 30 patients of carcinoma of esophagus and 30 normal which is control group. Vitamin A analyzed as serum retinol by reverse phase HPLC. Serum cholesterol significantly reduced in esophageal cancer patients and decrease level of vitamin A also observed. The above findings suggest that vitamin A will use as therapeutic and preventable element from esophageal cancer because vitamin A also has antioxidant effect.

[Ali Raza Memon, Hina Riaz, Kenjhar Rani. Correlation Of Vitamin A And Serum Cholesterol Level In Patients Of Carcinoma Of Esophagus. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):139-141]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.19


Key Words: Vitamin A, Serum Cholesterol, Carcinoma of Esophagus.

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Preparation and Evaluation of Combined Inactivated Duck Vaccine against Salmonellosis, Duck Plague and Duck Hepatitis


Hanan, A. Ahmed1, Ghada,M. El Sadek1, Afan,E.G2, Nahed, I.Mohamed2, Ekram, S.Mahmoud1 and Norhan,N.Mohamed1


1Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abassia, Cairo Egypt, P.O.B.131

2Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abassia, Cairo Egypt, P.O.B.131

Email: vetehana@yahoo.com


Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of a locally prepared combined oil emulsified inactivated vaccine against Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Duck Plague (DP) and Duck Hepatitis Virus (DHV) in ducks. Evaluation of such preparation following the quality control tests revealed that, it is stable, free from foreign contaminants, safe and immunogenic .The prepared vaccine was evaluated in 7-days old ducklings and the immune response of vaccinated birds to combined vaccine was estimated by microagglutination test for ST antibodies and serum neutralization test (SNT) for DP and DHV antibodies as well as by challenge test. The results of challenge test showed that vaccinated ducklings were effectively protected against virulent strains of Salmonella typhimurium,Duck Plague and Duck hepatitis virus . The prepared vaccine found to be sterile, safe, potent and protecting ducklings against Salmonella typhimurium , Duck plague and Duck hepatitis virus infections.

[Hanan, A. Ahmed, Ghada,M. El Sadek, Afan,E.G, Nahed, I.Mohamed, Ekram, S.Mahmoud and Norhan,N.Mohamed. Preparation and Evaluation of Combined Inactivated Duck Vaccine against Salmonellosis, Duck Plague and Duck Hepatitis. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):142-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.20



Key words: Salmonella typhimurium, Duck Plague, Duck HepatitisVirus,vaccine.

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Dirac Large Numbers-- Fe/Fg = Ln = 2.271039 Can Be Verified With The New

Formulas of BH-theory Proposed By Author


Zhang Dongsheng


17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook,com


[Preface]. By a comparison of hydrogen atom as a model, a proper ratio Fe/Fg between the electromagnetic force Fe and the gravitational force Fg could be accurately established as a famous Dirac large numbers Ln = Fe/Fg=2.271039, this is because in a hydrogen atom, the electrical force Fand the gravitational force Fg can act on the same electron and the same proton with the same acting distance R. The electromagnetic force Fe and the gravitational force Fg are two fundamental forces in the Universe. Since Fe/Fg = Ln = 2.271039 is a constant for a hydrogen atom, it should not be an isolated case, and it should be universal. In the book < Blackhole(BH)-Cosmology > [1] written by author, on the basis of Hawking's the black hole (BH) theory, author deduced many new formulas and improved the black hole theory. This article will take advantage of several new formulas to test and verify the correctness and accurateness of Dirac large numbers-- Fe/Fg = Ln = 2.271039, it can also verify the correctness of the new BH-theory and new formulas. The question is what kind of a BH can be used as a suitable model of Fe/Fg= Ln.

[Zhang Dongsheng. Dirac Large Numbers-- Fe/Fg = Ln = 2.271039 Can Be Verified With The New. Nat Sci 2014;12(5):148-150]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120514.21


Key Words: The electromagnetic force Fe and the gravitational force FgDirac large numbers Fe/Fg = Ln = 2.271039to test and verify the correctness of Dirac large numbers with some new formulas of BHsideal BH--Mbo formed by pure protonsthe physical meaning of Dirac large numbers.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 7, 2014.

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