Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740; Monthy 
Volume 12 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 88), July 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1207, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740


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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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Ecological Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Algae Tolerating Organic Pollution


Hanan A. Abd El-Gawad1 and Salwa M. Abou El Ella2


1Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC), El-Kanater, Qalubiya, P.O. Box 13621/6, Cairo, Egypt

2Channel Maintenance Research Institute (CMRI), National Water Research Center (NWRC), El-Kanater, Qalubiya, P.O. Box 13621/6, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides measured in water, sediment and fish samples along River Nile (the outfall of drain into River Nile) and its branches (Damietta and Rosetta,) that receive runoffs from agricultural lands and industrial pesticides. The study aimed to investigate the toxic waste status in the environmental matrices using biological biomarker, included fish and algae. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of OCPs and Ops during winter closure period (December 2013 – March 2014) were carried out using developing analytical method. Due to possible toxicity and bioaccumulation tendency of the OCPs and OPs in fish, the levels of OCPs and OPs must be detected in the fish samples that could be health problems source in the future. The obtained data depicted the varieties toxic measurements that showed significant differences of OCPs and OPs concentration and algae capacities in water. The OCPs and OPs detected are consistent with the agricultural activities of the study area due to pesticide usage and industrial pesticides. The levels of OCPs and OPs in the studied area were still within safety margins compared to the permissible limits for water and sediment. The study clarified biomarkers included fish and quality of algae communities valuable tool in bio-monitoring pollution for toxic pollution in ecological monitoring.

[Hanan A. Abd El-Gawad  and Salwa M. Abou El Ella. Ecological Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Algae Tolerating Organic Pollution. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):1-12]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.01 


Key words: Ecological Monitoring, Fish, Sediment, Algae, Pesticides, River Nile.

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Diagnosis of Stroke by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)


Hanan.Y.Abbas, Ikhlas O. Saeed and, Mariam S. AL-Juaidi


Diagnostic Radiology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University P.O.Box 80328, Jeddah, 21589



Abstract: Stroke, occurs when the blood supply is disrupted in any part of the brain, causing brain cells to die, which is considered as a medical emergency. So, anyone is having a stroke should be taken to a medical check immediately for evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important diagnostic tools to produce very accurate images of the brain and its arteries. It provides good contrast between the different tissues of the body, which makes it especially useful in imaging the brain, compared with other techniques. The aim of this work was to find out the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in diagnosing of stroke at KAUH. This retrospective study was done in the department of diagnostic radiology at KAUH, where the data was collected from 50 patients who had symptoms of stroke over the years (2010, 2011). MRI was performed using 1.5 T Siemens machine and stroke protocol. The results indicated that, Most of patient (68%) have acute stroke that occurred suddenly, while 32% of the cases have MRI with chronic stroke (after 24 hours from symptoms onset). Out of the two types of stroke; 77% of cases have ischemic stroke, while 23% of patients have hemorrhagic stroke when a blood vessel that spills blood into the brain. Most patients who are found to have ischemic stroke detected by MRI, they have normal result when diagnosed by CT scan, except 6% of cases. The study concluded that, MRI is more accurate for detecting ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. As well as, helping to identify the stage and site of stroke and diagnose other medical conditions with similar symptoms.

[Hanan. Y. Abbas, Ikhlas O. Saeed and Mariam S. AL-Juaidi Diagnosis of Stroke by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Nat Sci 2014;12(7):13-16]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.02


Key words: Stroke, MRI, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DW), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).

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Comparative study between the efficacy of the recombinant HVT-H5 avian influenza vaccine and the reassorted inactivated H5N1 vaccine in broiler chickens


1Khalil S. A., 2 Nassif S. A and 3 Mohamed A. H.


1 Department of Microbiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria

2 Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt

3Ministry of Defense



Abstract:  In a trial to control the wide spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus outbreaks among poultry flocks in Egypt, many inactivated oil adjuvant avian influenza(AI )virus vaccines were used. The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccination programs including rHVT-H5 and inactivated H5N1 vaccines (Re-5 vaccine (Merial), Re-5 vaccine (Qyh Biotech) and Egy-flu 1 vaccine) applied alone or in combination in broiler chickens by using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test against either  homologous or heterologous AI antigens. It be concluded that the combination between the live rHVT-H5 vaccine and the inactivated Egy-flu 1 vaccine in a vaccination program was the best vaccination program compared to the other vaccination programs including the reassorted inactivated H5N1 vaccines alone and the rHVT-H5 vaccine alone.

[Khalil SA, Nassif SA, Mohamed AH. Comparative study between the efficacy of the recombinant HVT-H5 avian influenza vaccine and the reassorted inactivated H5N1 vaccine in broiler chickens. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):17-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.03


Keywords: vaccines, homologous or heterologous AI antigens, haemagglutination inhibition.

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Occurrence of Coliforms and water borne pathogens in two coastal waters in Lagos, Nigeria


Ogochukwu Agwu, Theresa Oluwagunke


Department of Biological Oceanography, Nigeria Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research. PMB 12729,

Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria


Abstract: The abundance of coliforms and some water borne pathogens were investigated in the surface water of Badagry Creek and Ologe Lagoon at two different sampling events. The average surface water temperature was 31.24oC, while the pH ranged from 7.14 to 7.28 at the first sampling, and 8.16 to 8.40 at the subsequent period. The salinity at Badagry Creek was from an average of 0.29 – 7.36‰ but Ologe Lagoon had a lower range of 0.04 – 0.05‰. The conductivity also varied from 0.034 – 0.4 to 5.59 – 12.86 S/m for Ologe Lagoon and Badagry Creek respectively. Although total coliforms were widespread across the sampling sites, Badagry Creek had higher population (0 – 290 MPN/100 ml) than the values (0 – 90 MPN/100 ml) encountered at Ologe Lagoon. The quality of the water bodies was further emphasized by the population of the water pathogens Vibrio species (3 – 4.05 x 102 cfuml-1; 4.5 x 101 – 6.77 x 102 cfuml-1) and Salmonella/Shigella species (2.15 x 101 – 8.70 x 102 cfuml-1; 0 to 2.43 x 102 cfuml-1) for Ologe Lagoon and Badagry Creek respectively. The microbiological status of these coastal waters indicates fecal pollution and the risk of the spread of water borne diseases.

[Agwu O., Oluwagunke T. Occurrence of Coliforms and water borne pathogens in two coastal waters in Lagos, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):21-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.04


Keywords: Fecal pollution, microbial indicators, Ologe Lagoon and Badagry Creek.

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Thrombus Precursor Protein is Significantly Elevated in Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients


Mohamed Hanafy Morsy1, Alaa M Hashim2, Samy M. Abdel-Aziz3, Mostafa Mukkarab4 and Ashraf Elbahrawy5


1Department of Clinical Pathology, Al-Azhar School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Al-Azhar School of Medicine, Asyut, Egypt

3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Najran, Saudi Arabia

4Department of Cardiology, Al-Azhar School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt

5Department of Internal Medicine Al-Azhar School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Elevated levels of TpP are indicatives of a prothrombotic state and active thrombogenesis. Common conditions that lead to hypercoagulable state and constitute major risk factors for thrombogenesis are diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Screening diabetic patients and early detection of patients vulnerable to thrombogenesis is essentially needed. Aim: In this study we tested the serum levels of TpP in a group of asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: 43 subjects without symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular events were included in the present study, they classified into; type II diabetic patients (n=34) and healthy controls (n=9). The plasma levels of thrombus precursor protein (TpP), Troponin I measured in both groups using ELISA & sandwich immuno-assay respectively. Results: There were no significant difference between groups regarding, age and sex (P > 0.05). Although the plasma levels of TpP was significantly elevated in type II diabetic patients (P ≤ 0.05), there were no significant difference regarding Troponin I levels (P > 0.05). Diabetic hypertensive patients had significantly elevated TpP levels compared with diabetic normotensives. Conclusion: TpP may be a promising marker for detection of asymptomatic diabetic patients vulnerable to cardiovascular events.

[Mohamed Hanafy Morsy, Alaa M Hashim, Samy M. Abdel-Aziz, Mostafa Mukkarab and Ashraf Elbahrawy, Thrombus Precursor Protein is Significantly Elevated in Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):26-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.05


Keywords: TpP, type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular events

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Impact of Designed teaching Program on Osteoarthritic patients' Outcome at Minia University Hospital


Eman Fadl Abd Elkhalik, Warda Yousef Mohamed2, Abdou Saad Taha EL-Labban3, Samia Mahmoud Teleb4 and Lobna Mohamed Gamal1


1 Medical – Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University, Egypt.

2 Critical and Emergency Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt.

3 Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt.

4 Adult Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt.



Abstract: Back ground: Osteoarthritis is the most common disease of the joints and one of the most widespread of all chronic diseases; several studies have indicated that patients knowledge and practices about osteoarthritis prevention and management are inadequate. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of a designed teaching program on osteoarthritis patients' outcome as indicated by knowledge, practice, pain, muscle strength and level of dependence. To fulfill the aim of these study five research hypotheses were formulated; Design quasi-experimental research design was utilized to fulfill the aim of this study. The study sample included 100 male and female adult patients with osteoarthritis. They were matched and allocated randomly into two groups, study and control (50 patients each). Sitting Rheumatology and Rehabilitation out patient department, El Minia University Hospital. Four tools were utilized for data collection; socio-demographic and medical data sheet, pre/post knowledge questionnaire interview schedule, Barthel index scale, Pain scale and Muscle strength scale. Structured interview and direct observation techniques were utilized for data collection, An immediate post- test, after one month and after three months post test are performed. Results of the study documented a significant improvement in patients knowledge and practices post program in addition to reaching of an satisfactory level of independence for daily activities living, with relive pain and a significant improvement in muscle strength. Therefore the five stated hypotheses were supported with, (p <0.0001 and p <0.003). In conclusion, education of osteoarthritis patient is necessary to achieve an optimum level of functioning. Replication of this study on larger probability sample is highly recommended.

[Eman Fadl Abd Elkhalik, Warda Yousef Mohamed, Abdou Saad Taha EL-Labban, Samia Mahmoud Teleb and Lobna Mohamed Gamal. Impact of Designed teaching Program on Osteoarthritic patients' Outcome at Minia University Hospital. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):30-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.06


Keywords: Designed teaching program, Osteoarthritic, Patient's out comes, Impact.

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The Impact of Organizational Environment on Job Satisfaction: A Case Study on Khartoum Electricity Companies


Somaia Osman M. Abdelgadir


*Department of Business Administration, College of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Imam M. B.Saud Islamic University, KSA

Email: somaiagadir@hotmail.com


Abstract This research tackles the impact of organizational environment on job satisfaction in Electricity Companies located in Khartoum State, Sudan. The research aims to study the organizational climate in electricity companies and to identify the pressures and problems that the employees may face and its consequences and come out with the recommendations that may help to create an appropriate work environment organization, and raise employees’ morale. The descriptive analytical approach was used in executing this research, focusing on the case study and the statistical method to analyze the data and information. The most important result was that the wages and incentives provided by electricity companies have increased job satisfaction of employees. Add to that, the management has shown concerns about the organizational climate and its improvement, as well as its attention to staff performance evaluation so that to give them a free space to express their opinions. However, the important recommendations can be summarized in: encouraging the creative ideas, the need to reengineering staff functions and tasks, secure appropriate atmosphere to enhance stability, and embrace the idea of work environment continuous improvement an ongoing process as it is a vital for job stability.

[Somaia Osman M. Abdelgadir. The Impact of Organizational Environment on Job Satisfaction: A Case Study on Khartoum Electricity Companies. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):40-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.07


Key Words: job satisfaction, work environment, electricity companies.

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Effect Of Treated Wastewater On Growth Of Vegetable Crops


Mohini Gadhia, Ekhalak  Ansari, Rakesh C. Prajapati, Y.J. Thanki* and N.C. Ujjania


Department of Aquatic Biology

*Department of Biosciences

Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat-395007 (Gujarat) India

Email: aquatic44@yahoo.com, mohinigadhia@yahoo.co.in



Abstract- Present study deals with agricultural practices using treated wastewater of ONGC, Hazira to examine the effectiveness of treated wastewater. In this study, vegetable crop plants like smooth guard (Luffa aegyptica), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus) were grown and irrigated using tap water (control) from VNSGU site and treated wastewater (experimental) from ONGC site. Physico-chemical properties of soil and water used for irrigation of both the sites were analyzed. The soil and treated wastewater of ONGC site were contained more nutrient compared to soil and tap water of VNSGU site. Growth studies on anatomical and histo-chemical observations of ONGC plants were compared with plants grown at VNSGU campus. Higher growth was noticed from the plants grown at ONGC site. However, the development of xylem and phloem tissues was higher in plants at ONGC site. Similarly, histochemical observations revealed that the production of various cellular substances were normal under the effect of treated effluents. But there was higher deposition of cellulose and pectin on the walls of collenchyma in smooth gourds grown at ONGC site. Findings of the study concluded that treated wastewater of ONGC, Hazira was most suitable for growth of vegetable plants and add step towards conservation of water resource.

[Mohini Gadhia, Ekhalak Ansari, Rakesh C. Prajapati, Y.J. Thanki and N.C. Ujjania. Effect Of Treated Wastewater On Growth Of Vegetable Crops. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):46-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.08


Key words- Effluent, Smooth guard, Spinach, radish, growth, anatomical and histochemical study

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The Influence of Boron Foliar Spraying with Compost and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Green pods and Seed Yield of Pea


Moghazy A. M.; S. M. El. Saed and El. S. M. Awad


Veg. Res. Dep., Hort. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.



Abstract: The objective of this study was to study the influence of a foliar application with boron and five levels of combinations between compost manure and mineral nitrogen fertilizer as well as their interaction on growth, yield and chemical composition of pea cv. Master B. Two field experiments were conducted at a private farm in Dakahlia Governorate during two growing seasons of 2009 - 2010 and 2010 - 2011. The experimental design was split plot design with three replicates. The vegetative growth traits of green pea, i.e., plant length, number of leaves, number of branches, fresh weight per plant, relative growth rate, yields and its components had high significant values by foliar spraying with boron. This increment reached at 5.2 and 6.2 % in 1st season, 6.2 and 6.3 % in 2nd season for total green pod and dry seed yield, respectively. The highest values of all vegetative growth traits, total yield, and yield components of pea, NPK content, protein % and total sugar as well as carbohydrate % in fresh seeds were obtained from a mixture of nitrogen fertilizer at levels 60 kg N fed-1 and compost at 2.5 ton fed-1 in both seasons. This treatment increased both total green and dry yield as (13.8%, 13.9%) and (11.1%, 11.2%) in both two seasons, respectively compared with the control. The effect of interaction between inorganic nitrogen fertilizer at a rate of 60 kg N fed-1 and compost manure at 2.5 ton fed-1 and foliar spraying of boron, (50 ppm) had a positive significant effect on growth traits and the chemical composition of green seeds in both seasons. The green pod yield and dry seed yield increased by (20.7%, 20.6%) and (20.5%, 22.5%) for the two seasons, respectively. It could be concluded that foliar spray with boron (boric acid 17 % B) at 50 ppm with application of nitrogen fertilizer in compost form at 2.5 ton fed-1 and inorganic N- fertilizer at 60 kg fed-1 in pea field were the most effective treatment for improving quality and increasing yield.

[Moghazy A. M.; S. M. El. Saed and El. S. M. Awad. The Influence of Boron Foliar Spraying with Compost and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Green pods and Seed Yield of Pea. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):50-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.09


Keywords: Pisum sativum, nitrogen fertilizer, boron spray, foliar application.

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Morphological characteristics and incidence of diseases on white yam (Dioscorea rotundata L. Poir) tubers in Abuja, Nigeria


Anjorin Toba Samuel1, Nwokocha Onyetugo Violet2, Sanni Abdulmumin Dee3


1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Abuja- Nigeria

2Department of Policy and implementation, FCT, Ministry of Education, Abuja Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja-Nigeria



Abstract: This study was carried out to identify the white yam varieties in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria and investigate their morphological characteristics and diseases. The survey research showed that out of the ten commonly cultivated white yam cultivars in the FCT, Abuja, Gwari and Makakusa were the commonest (43.60 and 41.70% respectively) while Dalunga was the least cultivated (24.10%). Morphologically, Makakusa has the highest weight and length while Akuki had the least weight and length among the surveyed cultivars. Dry tuber rot disease caused by fungi or nematode had the highest incidence (25.68%) on yam tubers in the territory while Meloidogyne tuber gall disease had the least incidence (8.40%) but often more severe. Detailed histological, biochemical, pathological and nutritional studies is necessary on the identified tubers of white yam cultivars in Nigeria. Measures should be taken to prevent damages, pest and disease attack on yam tubers.

[Anjorin Toba Samuel, Nwokocha Onyetugo Violet, Sanni Abdulmumin Dee. Morphological characteristics and incidence of diseases on white yam (Dioscorea rotundata L. Poir) tubers in Abuja, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):58-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.10


Key words: Morphology, incidence, severity, diseases, white yam tuber, Abuja-Nigeria

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An assessment of Climate change impact on wheat evapotranspiration using the CERES-Wheat model


Saeed Boroomand-Nasab1,  Mahdi Delghandi 1and Ali Reza Shokoh-Far2


1. Water Sciences Engineering Facualty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Iran



Abstract: Global warming and Climate change are anticipated to cause changes on evapotranspiration. Higher temperatures are expected to lead to increasing evapotranspiration. in studies relating to water availability for crops, evapotranspiration play key role. In order to explicit the impact of climate change on Crop evapotranspiration under standard conditions (ETc) using CERES-Wheat model and Penman-Monteith formula for baseline period (1981 to 2010) and future period (2015-2044) in Ahwaz City, ETc and were calculated. Using thirteen AOGCMs outputs and Cumulative probability distribution function (CDF), climate change scenarios for 2015-2044 under 5 probability levels 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 0.90 generated. ETc was calculated for climate change scenarios and compared with ETc of baseline period using analysis of variance and kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Result showed that cumulative ETc and mean daily ETc in all of climate change scenarios in comparison with baseline period have increased about 100mm and 0.7mm day-1, respectively.

[Boroomand-Nasab S. and Delghandi M. An assessment of Climate change impact on wheat evapotranspiration using the CERES-Wheat model. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):66-72]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.11



Keywords: Climate change; Evapotranspiration; CERES-Wheat; Temperature.

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The Effect of Sample Size on Parameter Accuracy Using Ratio and Regression


Adil Altag Zaidan


Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Shagra University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Abstract: The objectives of this study are to highlight the role of auxiliary variable and their importance to methods of parameter estimation and to stress to the part played by the three estimation methods i.e (ratio estimation between two variables, linear regression and mean) as well as to identify the sample size appropriate to each of the three estimation methods. The present study has generated artificial data using computer simulation, 21 sample of varying size were selected. In this study we have under taken a practical inquiry to verify whether ratio or regression estimation have more accuracy. The results revealed that the regression and mean per unit estimations are better than ratio estimation. In addition, regression estimation is better than mean estimation per unit in small samples.

[Adil Alatg zaidan. The Effect of Sample Size on Parameter Accuracy Using Ratio and Regression. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):73-80]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.12


Keywords: Estimation, bias, ratio, regression, auxiliary.

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Provide an Approach for Evaluating the Security of Software Products


Roya Vaezi 1, Nasser Modiri 2


                    1. Student, Department of Computer, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2. Assoc. prof, Department of Computer, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran



Abstract: In this paper, an approach is proposed which tries to consider security at the beginning of software development. In proposed approach, during life cycle of web-based applications, security measures have been taken to improve security in these applications. By evaluating security in each phase of software development process, we ensure that vulnerabilities properly identified and reduced at each phase; then the next phase is started. In this approach, security verification OWASP ASVS standard, which is a measure in four levels, is the base of activities classification. After that, we have presented all requirements, activities, security controls and countermeasures from the beginning of software development lifecycle systematically and organized.

[Roya Vaezi, Nasser Modiri. Provide an Approach for Evaluating the Security of Software Products. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):81-87]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.13


Keywords: Security Evaluation, Web based Applications, Vulnerability, Security controls, Countermeasures

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The measurement of comments from rural managers regarding evaluation of tourism matrix-physical effects of second homes in rural areas (Case study: Baraghan County)


Hamid Zamani1, Fazileh Dadvarkhani2, Majid Rahmani Seryasat3, Shahram Samadi Khadem4


1&3. Ms.c Student, Faculty of Geography, Department of Tourism Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2. Associate Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4. Ms.c Student, Environmental Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran



Abstract: Post- Second World War urban development caused spreading rural tourism and thus second homes in many countries in the world. Second homes tourism is one of the important tourist models in rural areas, which may be followed by several positive and negative effects and consequences on rural areas within various matrix, physical, economic, social, and ecologic dimensions. In this regard, the current article is intended to evaluate matrix, physical, economic, social, and ecologic dimensions of second homes tourism in Baraghan County in Savojbolagh Town. The present research is of applied type in terms of objective and it is descriptive- analytic in terms of method. Data collection is a type of field survey based on questionnaire. The main tools for gathering research qualitative data in the studied zone include librarian study and also quantitative data comprised of the standard questionnaire that was filled out among population of managers. To determine reliability of questionnaire, Cronbach alpha coefficient was also utilized where this value was calculated 0.80 for group of officials and experts. The sampled statistical population includes a group of experts and officials in this region that was chosen 30 participants as sample size with referring to several organizations and rural councils in this area. The studied variables consisted of evaluation of matrix- physical effects of second homes including texture, selection of location (topology), structure, and investment in these homes. In order to analyze inferential findings, some statistical analytic techniques were employed like simple linear regression, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and for generalization of the comments to total statistical population, statistical single t-tests have been used within the environment of SPSS software. The results indicate this point that the most important changes in occupation of rural lands included destruction of farming lands and gardens, change and or omission of living places for rural people, heterogeneity and conflict with rural traditional texture, selling of gardens and farming lands by rural people, changing number of employed farmers from rural people, and employment for touristic activities. According to viewpoint of rural directors, the analytical evaluation of second homes tourism effects, which have been measured by simple linear regression, may suggest this fact that prediction variable of rural texture in villages of Baraghan County (0.889) may interpret the major part of variance in the studied zone and it is consistent with what it has emerged in Baraghan County.

[Hamid Zamani, Fazileh Dadvarkhani, Majid Rahmani Seryasat, Shahram Samadi Khadem. The measurement of comments from rural managers regarding evaluation of tourism matrix-physical effects of second homes in rural areas (Case study: Baraghan County). Nat Sci 2014;12(7):88-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.14


Keywords: Rural tourism, Second Homes Tourism, Evaluation of matrix-physical effects, rural zones, Baraghan County

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Evaluate Use different Applications and Concentrations of Indole Butyric Acid For Vegetative Propagation of Petunia hybrida Plant


Hamza, M. A.


Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, AlAzhar University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the best applications and concentrations of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for vegetative propagation (stem cuttings) of Petunia hybrid plant with two terms incubation., Liquid (Dipping basal of cuttings) (LDBC) and Liquid (Foliar spray) (LFS) applications of IBA at (1000,1500 & 2000 ppm) produced greater rooting percentage (100%) with different incubation periods than did Powder (Dipping basal of cuttings) (PDBC) application of IBA at all levels., the highest significant values of root number / plant were recorded with two applications of IBA (LDBC) and (LFS) at 2000 ppm under different incubation periods (LFS) at IBA 2000 ppm after 21 days of incubation periods, outperformed significantly in giving a significant increase in root length (10.0 cm / plant) compared with other IBA treatments in the same incubation periods. (LDBC) application at IBA 1000, 1500 & 2000 ppm and (LFS) application at 2000 ppm were recorded significant values in fresh weight g / plantin the second incubation periods and highest significant values of root dry weight were recorded with data taken in the second incubation period with all applications to the level of IBA 2000 ppm.

[Hamza, M. A. Evaluate Use different Applications and Concentrations of Indole Butyric Acid For Vegetative Propagation of Petunia hybrida Plant. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):102-107]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.15


Key words: Petunia hybrida, vegetative propagation, Indole-3-butyric acid, Powder, Liquid, Foliar spray and incubation period.

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Effect Of Two Plant Extracts and Four Aromatic Oils on Tuta Absoluta Population and Productivity of Tomato Cultivar Gold Stone


Hussein, Nehal, M. 1, M.I. Hussein2, S.H. Gadel Hak3 and M.A. Hammad2


1 Plant Protection Institute, ARC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Department of Pant Protection Dep., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El-Kheima, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Horticulture Dep., Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ., Minia, Egypt.



Abstract: Plants extracts and essential oils were used in pest management in different crops against various pests. Under field conditions, we examined the effect of two plants extracts and four essential aromatic oils on the response of tomato hybrid cultivar Gold Stone to Tuta absoluta infestation. Also, their effects on some growth characteristics of tomato plants as well as their total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids contents were explored in the two successive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012. The treatments were Lemon grass extract (Cymbopogon citratus) at 25 gm /L., Garlic extract (Allium sativum) at 5ml / L., Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus spp.) at 0.5%, Rue oil (Ruta graveolens) at 0.5%, Anise oil (Ocimum basilicum) at 0.5%, Basil oil (Pimpinella anisum) at 0.5%. Ethyl acetate (Solvent) and tap water (Control). The plants were sprayed three times at two week intervals starting after 40 days from transplanting. All treatments reduced population density of Tuta absoluta significantly. The highest reduction was recorded by garlic extract followed by lemon grass extract and basil oil. Lemon grass extract significantly increased L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) contents in tomato fruits followed by basil oil. Also, garlic extract increased the yield of tomato significantly followed by eucalyptus oil in the first season while in the second season, anise oil followed by garlic extract were insignificantly increased the fruit yield than the other tested treatments. On the other hand, garlic extract recorded the highest values of total phenolic compounds (TPCs) and total flavonoids (TFs) in unifested and infested – treated tomato leaves.

[Hussein, Nehal, M., M.I. Hussein, S.H. Gadel Hak and M.A. Hammad. Effect Of Two Plant Extracts and Four Aromatic Oils on Tuta Absoluta Population and Productivity of Tomato Cultivar Gold Stone. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):108-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.16


Key words: Lemon grass extract (Cymbopogon citratus), Garlic extract (Allium sativum), Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus spp.), Rue oil (Ruta graveolens), Anise oil (Ocimum basilicum), Basil oil (Pimpinella anisum), Tuta absoluta, Tomato.

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Response of Two Lentil Varieties to Bio-Enriched Compost Tea


F.Sh.F. Badawi1, A.H. Desoky1 and T. Selim2


1Agric. Microbiol. Dept., Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt

2Food Legume Research Program, Field Crops Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, El-Gharbia Governorate (ARC) located at 30 44 53.279˝ N for Latitude and 31 7 50.843˝ E for Longitude, Egypt, during the two winter seasons of 2010/11 and 2011/12 to evaluate the response of two lentil varieties (Sinai1 and Giza9) to different application rates of bio-enriched compost tea (zero, 100, 200 and 300 L/fed). Lentil seeds were inoculated with gamma irradiated vermiculite-based inocula for two Rhizobium strains (mixture of TAL168 and ICARDA139), prior to sowing. Aerated bio-enriched compost tea levels were sprayed in three equal split doses after 30, 45 and 60 days from sowing. Spraying was made to coat the leaves surface and to drench the soil around plants. The obtained results revealed that: (1) Giza 9 variety significantly surpassed the new released early maturing variety (Sinai 1) in root nodulation, all vegetative growth characters and all yield components as will as lentil yield (seeds and straw) and seed crude protein. (2) Significant predictable improvement in lentil nodulation status, all growth characters, lentil yield and its components due to the stimulatory effect of bio-enriched compost tea treatments. However, results evident that the synergy of using higher doses of bio-enriched compost tea (200 or 300L/fed), relatively to the untreated plants or plants treated with 100 L/fed. (3) Data showed significant interaction between bio-enriched compost tea treatments and the varieties. Data exerted that addition of compost tea caused promotive impression in all studied characters, particularly in case of using 200 or 300 L/fed with Giza 9 variety, as was reflected by its highest values in comparison to other tested combinations or untreated ones. From these results, it could be concluded that the combination between Giza 9 variety and the stimulating dose of bio-enriched compost tea (200 L/fed) may be acting as a good practice for improving the most growth and yield characters and leading to healthier food, particularly under sustainable agricultural systems. However, these trials are in need to be repeated under different soil conditions to reach the level of recommendation and to clarify the best compost tea rate required for each crop.

[F.Sh.F. Badawi, A.H. Desoky and T. Selim. Response of Two Lentil Varieties to Bio-Enriched Compost Tea. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):119-130]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.17


Keywords: Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) varieties, Bio-enriched compost tea, Nodulation, Growth, Yield and Yield components

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The Role of Project Management in the Development of Investment Projects: A Case Study: Fitness Time Clubs - Riyadh


Somaia Osman Mohamed Abdelgadir


Department of Business Administration, College of Economic and Administrative Sciences,

Imam M. B. Saud Islamic University, KSA



Abstract: The research evaluate the role of project management in the development of investment projects, focusing on “Fitness Time” clubs in Riyadh City in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The research objective is to evaluate this experience, examine the project’s mile stones and the steps taken to develop it. We used the primary data (observations) and the secondary data to describe the fitness clubs, its services provided to clients and prices. Relevant references were consulted in this subject. The study indicates that the management employs all sport knowledge available with its updates, and continuously upgrade it machines & services. The most important result that the research has found was that the management adopts strategic thinking and performance which helped developing the project. Add to that, the emerging culture of health awareness spreading among Riyadh people and other cities in the Kingdom to maintain physical fitness. The main recommendations were essentially pointing towards publishing and distributing guide booklets & flyers indicating all information required for existing and potential clients, continual observation of developmental process to assess performance progress and draw future policies.

[Somaia Osman Mohamed Abdelgadir. The Role of Project Management in the Development of Investment Projects: A Case Study: Fitness Time Clubs – Riyadh. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):131-137]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.18


Key Words: Project Management, Investment Projects, Sporting Knowledge, Physical Health.

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The Teratogenic Effects of Carbendazim Compound on Radula of the Different Ages of Land Slug, Arion Linnaeus


Soha Mobarak, A. and Randa Kandil, A.


Plant Protection Research Institute – Agricultural Research Center. Giza.



Abstract: Effect of carbendazim (fungicide) on radula and feeding activity of different ages of land slug, Arion Linnaeus, was studied. Three ages of slug i.e., {(hatching (one month), Juvenile (three months), Adult (nine months)} were treated with different concentrations of carbendazim as contact for one week and the LC50 value was calculated. Results indicated that hatching age was the most susceptible to carbendazim followed by juvenile while the adult age was the lowest susceptible one. On the other hand, the pathological studies showed that the compound caused teratogenic effects and pathological changes in radula of slug whereas all types of teeth were completely absent these effects led animals to refrain feeding bringing death. So, this compound could be used in control programs of land slugs for protecting the plants from this pest.

[Soha Mobarak, A. and Randa Kandil,  A. The Teratogenic Effects of Carbendazim Compound on Radula of the Different Ages of Land Slug, Arion Linnaeus. Nat Sci 2014; 12(7):138-141]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.19


Keyword: Teratogenic – Radula – Slug – Carbendazim

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Using Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Mycoplasma Spp. Contaminant in Live Attenuated Poultry Viral Vaccines


Hanan M. Ibrahim, Hanan A. Ahmed, Gina M. Mohamed, Nourhan N. Mohammad, Shafai, S.M. and Nassif, S.A.


Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt

Email: vetehana@yahoo.com


Abstract: This work was done to assess the accuracy and performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a test for detection of mycoplasmal contamination of live attenuated viral poultry vaccines in comparison with the traditional method (culturing and microscopical examination). For this purpose experimental contamination of 10 different Newcastle disease vaccines batches from 10 different companies was done by adding 1ml of mycoplasmal broth culture containing 5x108 CFU/ml of the reconstituted vaccines. Using traditional method, six vaccines showed positive results for mycoplasmal contamination. Ten vials from one of positive vaccines were experimentally contaminated with mycoplasma by same way after serial dilution, then examined using both the traditional method and PCR. Mycoplasmal contamination was detected up to dilution of 10-7 by both methods. One of negative vaccines was diluted 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5 then contaminated with mycoplasma, after addition of pig serum to the medium as a source of cholesterol which neutralize the effect of inhibitors. PCR was able to detect mycoplasma contamination with dilutions of 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5. It could be concluded the PCR is most robust testing for detection of mycoplasma even those difficult to isolate in culture and saving time and effort.

[Hanan M. Ibrahim, Hanan A. Ahmed, Gina M. Mohamed, Nourhan N. Mohammad, Shafai, S.M. and Nassif, S.A. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Mycoplasma Spp. Contaminant in Live Attenuated Poultry Viral Vaccines. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):142-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.20


 Keyword: Mycoplasama, PCR

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Influence of Maternal Anemia on Placental Volume with Study of Uterine Artery Doppler


Fatma M. El-Sokkary, Madiha M. Hanafy and Hanan Abd Elmonem Mohamed


Obstetrics & Gynecology Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al-Azhar university


Abstract: Objectives: To study the influence of maternal hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) level on placental volume with study of uterine artery Doppler. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study 40 pregnant( singleton pregnancy) cases were selected from the outpatient clinic of Alzahra university Hospital. They were divided into two groups the study group (20 cases)were anemic( iron deficiency) and the control group( 20cases) were healthy. For each case two scans for the placenta and fetal growth were performed, the first at recruitment and the second 5 weeks later. Placenta volume was measured at each visit using three dimensional ultrasound. The maternal Hb and (Ht) were measured in each visit. Results: It revealed a non statistical significance between maternal hemoglobin, hematocrit and placental volume during the 1st visit and 2nd visit in anemic group compared to the control group. As regards Doppler study of the uterine artery in the present study it was noted that the pulsatility index and resistance index showed a non significant increase in the anemic group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Maternal iron deficiency anemia can affect placental growth and development. Placental volume increased with mild anemia during the first trimester but has no significant effect of fetal growth.The use of 3D ultrasound is more accurate and efficient safe technique of great value in evaluating placental growth and volume. Also, the study of uterine artery blood flow during the mid second trimester showed a non significant increase of RI and PI with maternal anemia. Further study are needed for the effect of anemia on fetal growth during preconceptional, first, second, third trimester and the outcome of pregnancy.

[Fatma M. El-Sokkary, Madiha M. Hanafy and Hanan Abd Elmonem Mohamed. Influence of Maternal Anemia on Placental Volume with Study of Uterine Artery Doppler. Nat Sci 2014;12(7):146-152]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120714.21


Keywords: Influence; Maternal Anemia; Placental Volume; Uterine Artery Doppler

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 6, 2014.
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