Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740; Monthy 
Volume 12 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 89), August 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1208; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740


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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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On the Duality of Hardy Spaces


Ahmed Alnaji Abasher


Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: We are concerned with the duality of the Hardy spaces of antianalytic functions on the disk is given which generalizes a result of Bukhvalov. So we prove that  under the canonical map when  admits analytic projections . If  be a complex Banach space and  is Lebesgue-Bochner space of -valued integrable functions on the circle and  its Hardy type subspace n=0 n<0. Examples are constructed for bad behavior of the analytic projection and of functions in this dual space if  does not belong to the well-known UMD class of Banach spaces.

[Ahmed Alnaji Abasher. On the Duality of Hardy Spaces . Nat Sci 2014;12(8):1-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.01 


Keywords: duality; Hardy spaces; antianalytic function; Bukhvalov; Banach space; Lebesgue-Bochner space

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Monitoring Agricultural Land Degradation in Egypt Using MODIS NDVI Satellite Images


Khalil A.A.; Y.H. Essa and M. K. Hassanein


Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR), Egypt



Abstract: Land degradation is one of the root causes of declining agricultural productivity globally. The aim of this study is mainly directed to monitoring and assessment the agricultural land degradation in Egypt using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with spatial resolution 250 m during the period from December 2010 to May 2012. The results indicated that the agricultural land degradation during 2011 was about 95269 feddan, changed to about 27000 feddan in May 2012. The highest land degradation was found in New Valley Governorate and the highest impact was found in South Sinai Governorate where it lost more than 10% from their total agricultural area.

[Khalil A.A.; Y.H. Essa; M. K. Hassanein. Monitoring Agricultural Land Degradation in Egypt Using MODIS NDVI Satellite Images. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):15-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.02


Keywords: Monitoring Agricultural Land degradation, NDVI, Remote Sensing, MODIS GIS

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Review of diving love at rouzbahan baghli


Baian Forough kermanshahi


Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame noor University, Iran


Abstract: My goal is to do a study of diving love in thoughts rouzbahan the two books is shethayat and description abharolasheghin. In this way according to this study, it was tried to classify the contents of a library to be used then according to the analysis are also presented. The mystic in his life at the world that makes a particular world view in which his work appears, Rouzbahan and the world of ideas and thoughts about what is important is that he is a mystic seekers of truth and love to receive it. He definitions and explanations given love and the division has set a framework and it has diving into twelve the name chosen for each stage and believes after these steps, the true love that can stand up to it and the core of his vision at “ardency” named hand finds.

[Baian Forough kermanshahi. Review of diving love at rouzbahan baghli. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):22-24]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.03


Keywords: Rouzbahan baghli, divine live, passion.

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Glucose Intolerance in Obese Egyptian Adolescents


Mohammed K. Azmy1, Ahmed abdel-Monem1, Gamal Ali Badr1, Moussa Antar Hussein1, Esam M. Ghamry1, Wael Refaat Hablas2 and Mahmoud Ezzat Abdel-Raouf 1.


1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.



Abstract: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents is an important Public Health problem which runs in parallel with childhood obesity. The rates of (IGT) and (T2DM) in youth are increasing recently. The aim of the present study is to assess glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome in obese adolescent and determine the factors associated with it. The study included (88) adolescents divided into two groups: A. 60 Obese adolescents and B. 28 non-obese adolescents. All adolescents are subjected to the following: Clinical assessment for: congenital or acquired illness, anthropometric measures: (height, weight, BMI, W/C and waist/hip ratio), blood pressure in the studied subjects, pubertal state by tanner  classification, family history  of diabetes and/ or hypertension, FBS, PPBS, HbA1C, lipid profile, fasting serum insulin levels to assess  insulin resistance by HOMA equation. The main findings of the present study are that (IGT) and other components of metabolic syndrome are present in obese group and not in normal BMI group. Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence tend to persist into young adulthood with their long-term effects on mortality and morbidity. Insulin resistance is the earliest component of metabolic syndrome occurring as a consequence for obesity in adolescence predisposing to other components of metabolic syndrome and ending lastly into IGT and T2DM.

[Mohammed K. Azmy, Ahmed abdel-Monem, Gamal Ali Badr, Moussa Antar Hussein, Esam M. Ghamry, Wael Refaat Hablas and Mahmoud Ezzat Abdel-Raouf. Glucose Intolerance in Obese Egyptian Adolescents. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):25-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.04


Keywords: glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, obese adolescents

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Incidence Of Hepatitis A Virus Igm Among Residents Of Konduga Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria


1Dawurung J.S., 2Gwa E.,3Ballah A.D., 4Jauro S., 5Kida A., 1,5Bukbuk N.D.


1World Health Organization National Polio / ITD laboratory, University of Maiduguri, Teaching Hospital, P.M.B 1414 Maiduguri, Borno State. Nigeria

2Pharmacy counsel of Nigeria, Maiduguri office.

3 Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, pmb 1414,Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

4Department Veterinary microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri

5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences. University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069 Maiduguri, Borno State. Nigeria



Abstract: The incidence of HAV infection was assessed in 100 sera of male 44 (43.6%) and female 56 (56.4).The age range of subjects in the study is 3-80 years, with mean (SD) age of 22.712.7 years. A total of 2 subjects were positive for HAV giving a prevalence rate of 3.5%. Two females were positive, 2(2.0%) and 0(0.0%) male , despite this there was no significant difference according to gender, meaning that HAV infection is not gender bias. All the two of the positive cases were also positive for fever only, indicating that when looking for HAV infection, patients with fever are the mostly likely suspects to be considered. The age group 0-10 and 11-20 with 1(4.2%) and 1 (3.7%) positive cases respectively were the age groups having positive cases, though there was no significant difference indicating that HAV virus can infect any age group.

[Dawurung J.S., Gwa E., Ballah A.D., Jauro S., Kida A., Bukbuk N.D. Incidence Of Hepatitis A Virus Igm Among Residents Of Konduga Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):32-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.05


Keywords: Incidence,HAV, Konduga,Borno State, Nigeria

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Assessment of Phenotypic Variations in Ten Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana(L) Gaertn) Landraces Germplasm Collected From Northern Nigeria


1Umar, I. D. (Corresp Author) and 2Kwon-Ndung, E.H.


1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

Email : idumaru2013@gmail.com; Phone : +2348036516782

2Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Lafia, Nigeria.

Email : kwon_dung@yahoo.com; Phone: +2348036488345


Abstract: Germplasm identification and characterization is an important link between conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. The present study was conducted to assess the phenotypic variation/diversity of 10 germplasm accessions of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertn) from diverse locations in the geographic region of Northern Nigeria during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons. Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the study and field data were analysed based on phenotypic characters.  Phenotypes were found to express significant diversity for plant height, 1000seed weight, leaf length and number of tillers. The results were analysed using ANOVA model and showed that plant height in accession Ex-Kwi was significantly different from all the other nine accessions while the highest leaf length which was recorded in Ex-Riyom  was significantly different (p<0.05) from accession Ex-Dantse. Similarly, significant variations were observed in the number and length of fingers, and 1000seed weight across all the accessions. Cluster analyses revealed six distinct groups, with one landrace forming an independent colony.  Our results suggest a high phenotypic variability, which could exist among the selected morphological traits.

[ Umar ID., Kwon-Ndung EH. Assessment of Phenotypic Variations in Ten Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana(L) Gaertn) Landraces Germplasm Collected From Northern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):36-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.06


Keywords: Germplasm, Eleusine coracana, characterization, Finger millet

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Polar sea ice characteristics determined from the ENVISAT RA-2 altimeter


Lin Zhua, Lei Yangb, Dong-xu Zhoua, Xing-hua Zhoub, Qiu-hua Tangb


a Shandong University of Science and Technology, College of Geodesy and Geomatics, Qingdao 266590, China

b First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China

Tel: +86 0532-88965357; E-mail: leiyang@fio.org.cn


Abstract: The ground tracks of ENVISAT satellite cover the high latitude area that of 81.4 over north and south hemispheres, which provides a special approach to monitor sea ice using the RA-2 radar altimeter onboard the ENVISAT satellite. In this paper, we developed a method using the backscatter coefficients measured by RA-2 to detect the monthly changes of sea ice extent and surface properties over Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Based on the difference of scattering characteristics over the sea water and sea ice surface, we demonstrate that setting the RA-2 sigma0 to 13db as a threshold can separate the sea ice from sea water efficiently. Except in the summer of each hemisphere, the sea ice boundaries derived from the RA-2 altimeter and from the radiometer data by NSIDC are closely consistent. Due to the lack of measurements over central areas of Arctic, we estimated the sea ice extent of Antarctic zones only. The result of extents shows that the altimeter gives higher values in summer (southern hemisphere) compared to the radiometer, which is related to the excellent capacity of altimeter to monitor the dispersed thin ice. In cold seasons with high sea ice concentration, the disagreements of sea ice extent are very low as the mean difference is just 0.17Mkm2. Differences of polar ice properties, including surface moisture and roughness, were also studied, and result shows that the sea ice surface is dryer and rougher in Arctic than in Antarctic in the cold season.

[Lin Zhu, Lei Yang, Dong-xu Zhou, Xing-hua Zhou, Qiu-hua Tang. Polar sea ice characteristics determined from the ENVISAT RA-2 altimeter. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):40-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.07


Key words: backscatter coefficient, satellite altimetry, sea ice extent, sea ice boundary

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Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) Leaf on some Selected Organs in Iron Deficient Albino Rats


*Oladiji, A.T., Olatunde, A., Yakubu, M.T. and Oloyede, H.O.B.


Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria temidayooladiji@yahoo.com


Abstract: The effects of administration of aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaf at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight on some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in iron deficient albino rats were investigated. Thirty six albino rats (51.171.02g) were used for the study. Eight rats were fed on iron-sufficient diet while the remaining twenty eight were made iron-deficient by maintaining them on iron deficient diets. After five weeks of feeding, haematological parameters (PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC) of the iron-deficient rats were significantly reduced compared with rats fed on iron-sufficient diets (p<0.05). The iron-deficient rats were then treated with the extract, reference iron drug (FeSO4) and iron-sufficient diets for two weeks. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) in the serum, liver and kidney of rats in the iron deficient group (IDG) and significant decrease in the level of GSH in the serum, liver and kidney of rats in the iron-deficient group when compared to other treated groups. Also, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of malondialdehyde in liver, kidney and brain of untreated iron-deficient rats when compared with the control (iron sufficient group). The results revealed that the administration of aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaf at all doses to the iron-deficient rats significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, increase in the level of GSH and decrease in the level of MDA. Therefore, aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaf reversed oxidative stress in iron deficient rats; these may be attributed to its rich phytochemical contents.

[Oladiji, A.T., Olatunde, A., Yakubu, M.T. and Oloyede, H.O.B. Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extract of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) Leaf on some Selected Organs in Iron Deficient Albino Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):48-55]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.08


Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; Oxidative stress; Alchornea laxiflora; Lipid peroxidation; Iron deficiency anaemia

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Effect Of Two Plant Extracts and Four Aromatic Oils on Tuta Absoluta Population and Productivity of Tomato Cultivar Gold Stone


Hussein, Nehal, M. 1, M.I. Hussein2, S.H. Gadel Hak3and M.A. Hammad2


1 Plant Protection Institute, ARC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Department of Pant Protection Dep., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El-Kheima, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Horticulture Dep., Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ., Minia, Egypt.



Abstract: Plants extracts and essential oils were used in pest management in different crops against various pests. Under field conditions, we examined the effect of two plants extracts and four essential aromatic oils on the response of tomato hybrid cultivar Gold Stone to Tuta absoluta infestation. Also, their effects on some growth characteristics of tomato plants as well as their total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids contents were explored in the two successive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012. The treatments were Lemon grass extract (Cymbopogon citratus) at 25 gm /L., Garlic extract (Allium sativum) at 5ml / L., Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus spp.) at 0.5%, Rue oil (Ruta graveolens) at 0.5%, Anise oil (Ocimum basilicum) at 0.5%, Basil oil (Pimpinella anisum) at 0.5%. Ethyl acetate (Solvent) and tap water (Control). The plants were sprayed three times at two week intervals starting after 40 days from transplanting. All treatments reduced population density of Tuta absoluta significantly. The highest reduction was recorded by garlic extract followed by lemon grass extract and basil oil. Lemon grass extract significantly increased L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) contents in tomato fruits followed by basil oil. Also, garlic extract increased the yield of tomato significantly followed by eucalyptus oil in the first season while in the second season, anise oil followed by garlic extract were insignificantly increased the fruit yield than the other tested treatments. On the other hand, garlic extract recorded the highest values of total phenolic compounds (TPCs) and total flavonoids (TFs) in unifested and infested – treated tomato leaves.

[Hussein, Nehal, M., M.I. Hussein, S.H. Gadel Hak and M.A. Hammad. Effect Of Two Plant Extracts and Four Aromatic Oils on Tuta Absoluta Population and Productivity of Tomato Cultivar Gold Stone. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):56-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.09


Key words: Lemon grass extract (Cymbopogon citratus), Garlic extract (Allium sativum), Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus spp.), Rue oil (Ruta graveolens), Anise oil (Ocimum basilicum), Basil oil (Pimpinella anisum), Tuta absoluta, Tomato

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Embryo development through in vitro maturation and fertilization of cattle oocytes


Surya Bansi Singh and Subrata K. Das*


Animal Biotechnology Lab, Eastern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute,

Kalyani -741235, West Bengal, India.


Tel. Phone. +91 33 2582 8264 (O); Cell No. +91 9433361567; Fax.      +91 33 2582 8264


Abstract: The present study was conducted to produce cattle embryos through in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture by supplementing culture media with serum, hormone and fresh follicular fluid from slaughter house ovaries. Cattle ovaries were collected from Kolkata slaughter house and brought to the laboratory within 3-4 h in normal saline maintaining 30-35 C. Oocytes were collected from visible surface follicles (3-8 mm) in the aspiration media (TCM-199 + DPBS + 3 mg/ml BSA + 50 mg/ml gentamycin) by 19 g hypodermic needle. The COCs were washed thoroughly 5-6 times in washing media (TCM-199 + 10% FBS + 27 mg/ml Sod. Pyruvate + 50 mg/ml gentamycin) and matured in-vitro for 24 h in maturation media (Washing media + 5 mg/ml FSH-P + 5% Follicular fluid) at 38.5 C in CO2 incubator with maximum humidity. After 24 h matured oocytes were allowed for fertilization with capacitated sperms in Fert-BO media at 38.5 C in CO2 incubator. At the end of 16-18 h presumptive zygotes were separated from sperm-oocytes co-incubation by washing in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% FBS and cultured for cleavage in EDM and RVCL media. After 48 h cleavage was checked and further co-cultured with oviductal cells in RM and RVCL mediafor further development. In this study, overall 67.01% oocytes were cleaved, and developed to different stages of embryos viz. 39.00% morula and 8.37% blastocyst. The cleavage rate in EDM was 65.72% and in RVCL it was 68.01%. Embryos reached to morula and blastocyst stage in RM was 38.03% and 7.97% respectively, whereas in RVCL it was 39.72% and 8.67% respectively. The results show that slaughtered house derived immature cattle oocytes could be matured and fertilized in vitro and embryo could be produced both in EDM/RM and RVCL medium, however, RVCL media showed comparatively better result than the EDM/RM for embryo development.

[Surya Bansi Singh and Subrata K. Das. Embryo development through in vitro maturation and fertilization of cattle oocytes. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):67-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.10


Key words: Cattle; oocyte; embryo; IVM; IVF

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An overview of Zea mays for the improvement of yield and quality traits through conventional breeding


Qurban Ali1*, Muhammad Ahsan1, Nazar Hussain Khan1, Muhammad Waseem2 and Fawad Ali1


1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2. Faculty of Agriculture, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences Uthal, Pakistan.

saim1692@gmail.com, saim_1692@yahoo.com; (+9203219621929)


Abstract: Zea mays is an important cereal crop through out the world. The grain, fodder yield and quality traits are the most imperative traits to increase demand to improve its production to fulfill human and livestock requirements. Various breeding methods and techniques are used to get required results in maize under varying environmental conditions. The present review described different breeding aspects to explore the potential of Zea mays germplasm. Different agronomic, physiological and quality traits are described with findings of various researchers at seedling and maturity stage. Importance of different yielding and quality traits may be understand by knowing the type of gene action and transfer of trait becomes easy after studying mode of gene action and inheritance pattern. The information about heritability, genetic advance, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), additive and dominance effects, epitasis, heterosis and heterobeltiosis provides the breeder a suitable breeding method to develop synthetic variety of hybrid. It was concluded that traits like fresh root length, fresh shoot length and biomass of seedling are the traits on the basis of which selection of stress tolerance genotypes may be effective to improve grain yield at seedling stage while 100-seed weight, cobs per plant, grain rows per cob, total dry matter, green fodder yield per plant, cob diameter and grains per ear row are important traits to improve grain and fodder yield per plant at maturity stage. The grain and fodder quality traits may also be improved on the basis of protein contents, oil contents, nutrient detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), starch, fibre percentage and carbohydrate percentage.

[Ali Q, Ahsan M, Khan NH, Waseem M and Ali F. An overview of Zea mays for the improvement of yield and quality traits through conventional breeding. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):71-84]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.11


Keywords: Zea mays, quality, gene action, additive and dominance effects, GCA, SCA

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Energy Drink Consumption among University Students in Accra, Ghana


Christina A. Nti, Emmanuel Pecku, Clara Opare-Obisaw


Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon - Ghana



Abstract: Although the presence of energy drinks on the market has increased significantly in recent times, there has been little research in the developing world regarding pattern of consumption, reasons for consumption and knowledge of side effects of excessive consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess students’ knowledge and reasons for consumption of energy drinks. In a cross-sectional survey, 120 students were interviewed using a self administered questionnaire to evaluate the frequency of consumption of energy drinks and knowledge of its side effects. Consumption of energy drinks was high among the respondents. Seventy seven percent (77%) of the students drank 5 to 6 cans of energy drinks a week while 23% drank 7-8 cans a week. Majority (91%) have been users for 1 – 3 years. Energy drinks were drank mainly to study and to reduce stress. The respondents were well informed about the side effects associated with energy drink use, but only 24% have experienced some side effects such as stomach pains, headaches and increased heart beats. It is recommended that universities create awareness and sensitize students on the negative effect of energy drinks on health through seminars and talk-shows so as to lower the risks of the negative effects of caffeine ingestion and development of chronic diseases later in life.

[Nti CA, Pecku E, Opare-Obisaw C. Energy Drink Consumption among University Students in Accra, Ghana. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):85-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.12


Keywords: Energy drinks, consumption, knowledge, side effects

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An Investigation of the Relationship Between Audit Quality Through Measure of Auditor Size and Earnings Management in Firms Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)


Seyed Ali Miri


Master of Accounting, Department of Accounting, Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran


Abstract: According to the Literature Background, Audit Quality is Directly is Directly Associated With Reliability of Financial Reports. The Present Study is Mainly Intended to Investigate the Relationship Between Audit Quality Through Metric of Auditor Size and Earnings Management in Firms Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). To Determine Audit Quality From measure of Auditor Size and in Order to Measure Earnings Management, Discretionary Accruals and Adjusted Jones Model Have Been Used in This Study in the Present Study, a total of 122 Listed Firms in TSE Were Investigated During the Time Period (2005- 2009). Linear Regression Models, MC Fadden Test, and SPSS 21 Software Were Used For Hypothesis Testing, findings Show that There is a Significant Relationship Between Independent Audit Quality and Earnings Management. Also, there is a Positive Yet Weak Relationship Between Metric of Audit Quality, That is auditor Size, and Earnings management,Which is Statistically Insignificant; The Positive Relationship Indicates the Positive Impact of an Audit Organization as an Audit Firm With Good Reputation and Credibility on the Level of Earnings Management in Firms. The Weakness of This Relationship Indicates The Influence of Different Structures on Earnings Management in Firms.

[Seyed Ali Miri. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Audit Quality Through Measure of Auditor Size and Earnings Management in Firms Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). Nat Sci 2014;12(8):90-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.13


Keywords: Audit Quality; Accruals; Earnings Management; Auditor Size.

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Growth responses, nutrient utilization and digestibility in Tilapia niloticus fed cottonseed and palmkernel cakes based diets.


Paul Chuks Onuoha


Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria

E-mail: hydro_vision@yahoo.com


Abstract: Growth responses, nutrient utilization and digestibility were investigated in fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus using iso-nitrogeneous (32%) and iso-calaroric (425 kcal/100g diet) cottonseed and palm kernel cakes based diets for 70 days. The diets were formulated with cottonseed and palm kernel cakes at inclusion levels of 39(D1), 31(D2), 28(D3), 22.98(D4) and 0% (control-D5) respectively, and fed to the fish twice daily at 5% body weight. Percentage weight gain, feed utilization efficiencies and survival of O. niloticus increases as inclusion levels of cottonseed cake decreases from 39% (D1)to 0% (D5) – control diet (fish meal) and vice versa for palm kernel cake. Fish fed on diet D3 (28.80% cottonseed and 28.80% palmkernel cakes) had highest growth responses, nutrient utilization and digestibility, followed by D2 (31.62% cottonseed and 21.68% palmkernel) cakes, while the least occurred in diets with only cottonseed (D1) or palmkernel (D4) cakes respectively. The higher weight gain and feed utilization observed in diet D3 could be as a result of higher diet palatability due to optimum presence of dietary fibre, amino acid composition and reduction in gossypol content of the diet. The result of this study indicated that diet of O. niloticus could be substituted with cottonseed and palmkernel cakes at inclusion levels of 28.80% respectively to give optimum growth.

[Paul Chuks Onuoha. Growth responses, nutrient utilization and digestibility in Tilapia niloticus fed cottonseed and palmkernel cakes based diets. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):95-109]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.14


Key words: growth, nutrient, utilization, digestibility, cottonseed, palmkernel

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Physicochemical Factors Influencing Pectinolytic Enzyme Produced by Bacillus licheniformis under Submerged Fermentation


Madu, Joshua Osuigwe1, Torimiro, Nkem2, Okonji Raphael Emuebie1 James Isreal E.1 and Agboola Femi Kayode1


1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

okonjire@yahoo.co.uk; reokonji@oauife.edu.ng


Abstract: Agricultural wastes containing pectin can be considered as an alternate substrate for the production of pectinase. In this study different agricultural wastes as well as pure chemicals were used for pectinase production. Bacillus licheniformis isolated from cassava waste dump site was used to produce pectinase by submerged fermentation. The levels of the enzyme production detected in culture media varied with the type of carbon source used. Effects of different nitrogen sources revealed that a combination of yeast extract and casein increased the enzyme yield compared to other nitrogen sources. The maximum enzyme activity was obtained under optimum conditions at an incubation period of 48 h, temperature of 40C and pH of 9.0 with orange bagasse as carbon source. The pectinase identified in this study could have potential application in industrial processes.

[Madu, Joshua Osuigwe, Torimiro, Nkem, Okonji Raphael Emuebie James Isreal E. and Agboola Femi Kayode.  Physicochemical Factors Influencing Pectinolytic Enzyme Produced by Bacillus licheniformis under Submerged Fermentation. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):110-116]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.15


Key words: pectin, pectinase, wastes and submerged fermentation

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Effect of Seasons on Colonisation and Suitability of Triplochiton Scleroxylon K. Schum.Wood for Beekeeping in Rivers State, Nigeria


Adedeji, G. A., Aiyeloja, A. A., Larinde, S. L. and Omokhua, G. E.


Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Abstract: Season has been observed as a major factor influencing hives’ colonisation in Nigeria. However, information on the influence of seasons on colonisation is rare. This study therefore explored the effect of seasons on colonisation of hives constructed from local Triplochiton scleroxylon wood in Port Harcourt. Experimental Apiary was established with fifteen Kenyan top bar hives and placed within 50 metres radius in the departmental arboretum in April, 2012 which marked the beginning of the raining season. The apiary was inspected fortnightly. Three hives were colonised in October, 2012 and the remaining twelve in October, 2013. Result indicated that colonisation behaviour was influenced by seasons. Colonisation in the month of October is recognised as a distinct transition month from raining to dry season and is strongly associated with swarming of honeybees colonies, setting and fruiting of trees which provide nutrition for honeybees. The honeybees showed excellent adaptability to the Triplochiton scleroxylon wood hives without any absconding case. The best period for hives placement in the Niger Delta region is between August and September since colonisation usually occur around October. Keeping hives in most sanitary conditions and withdrawal of non-colonized hives in raining season are good preventive measures against deterioration and attack.

[Adedeji, G. A., Aiyeloja, A. A., Larinde, S. L. and Omokhua, G. E. Effect of Seasons on Colonisation and Suitability of Triplochiton Scleroxylon K. Schum.Wood for Beekeeping in Rivers State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):117-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.16


Keywords: Colonisation, hives, honeybees, seasons, T. scleroxylon wood

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Occurrence and Severity of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. on Azadirachta indica Tree in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Harvesting and Replacement


Adedeji, G. A., A. A. Aiyeloja and G. E. Omokhua


Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Abstract: More than 40% mortality of the 35 years old Neem trees (Azardirachta indica) used as avenue tree in University of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT) has been observed. This phenomenon is strongly believed to have been caused by Ganoderma lucidum – a fungus which causes root rots, cracking of the root and stem barks, heartwood rots, die-back of the branches, deformation of crown and eventually death. Therefore, occurrence and severity of Ganoderma lucidum on the Neem trees from Delta axis road to Ofrima/Senate roundabout were examined for 3 years. Epidemiological observations showed that two genera of Ganoderma appeared early in the years when there was rain and gradually reduce with decreasing rainfall intensity. High occurrences of G.lucidum were observed between April and July for the 3 years of study. Over the years, there were progressive increase in the damaging impact of G.lucidum in all trees and the total mortality associated with its occurrence was greater than 40% at the end of 2013. Occurrence-severity indicated that A. indica trees were affected mostly by decays of roots and stem butts that were associated with tree age (old), soil contact and moisture. Occurrence of Ganoderma lucidum in living trees is recognized as a distinct disease and is strongly associated with declining of A. indica among ornamental trees in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A disk obtained from one of the dying tree was still hard enough without any visible xylem decay, stain, tunnel and discolouration to produce furniture and other indoor wood products for the University community. This study suggests that the trees could be selectively harvested for furniture while replacement with non-vulnerable and fast growing tree like Gmelina arborea is advised before complete harvesting is carried out.

[Adedeji, G. A., A. A. Aiyeloja and G. E. Omokhua. Occurrence and Severity of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. on Azadirachta indica Tree in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Harvesting and Replacement. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):123-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.17


Keywords: Azardirachta indica, Ganoderma lucidum, indoor wood products, Pathogens, Diseases, wood fungus

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Design And Development Of A PIC Microcontroller Based Embedded System Trainer Panel for Electrical Personnel Training


Engr.Muhammad Mujtaba Asad1, Dr.Razali Bin Hassan, Engr.Fahad Sherwani3


FPTV, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja Batu Pahat, Johor Malaysia.

Mujtabaasad11@gmail.com, razalih@uthm.edu.my, fahad.sherwanis@gmail.com.


Abstract: This paper describes a project where the aim is to design and develop PIC based embedded system trainer. Scientific technical courses are important components in any student’s education. Traditionally those courses are usually characterized by the fact that the students execute experiments in special laboratories. This leads to extremely high costs, a reduction in the maximum number of possible participants and also the time constraint in learning. Commonly, experiments were carried out within the laboratory at special fully equipped workstations that comes complete with microprocessor or microcontroller training kits. However, the price range for one trainer is very high and also additional costs such as maintenance of the board should be taken into account. This contributes to the limited number of boards and the ratio of available board to the students. The primary objective is to provide the students with an opportunity to be familiar with software tools like compilers, simulators, and chip programming software. The purpose of designing and development of multifunctional PIC microcontroller based trainer is to design such embedded system trainers which have different functions modules to be used for teaching and learning. This PIC trainer consists of ten on-board embedded modules including main board and programmer, and experimental Lab manuals for all embedded modules.

[Engr.Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Dr.Razali Bin Hassan, Engr.Fahad Sherwani. Design And Development Of A PIC Microcontroller Based Embedded System Trainer Panel for Electrical Personnel Training. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):129-133]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.18


Keywords: Microcontroller, PIC, Training Kit, Technical Education, Electronics, Programming

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Neoplasms in Fish (Review)


Mona S. Zaki1, Hammam A. M.2, Olfat Fawzy3 and Suzan M. Omar3


1Hydrobiology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2Reproduction Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: As more data regarding fish tumors becomes available, regulatory agencies will then be able to determine the magnitude of a particular epizootic. To deal with these issues it is important to know not only which species exhibit neoplasms but whether the prevalence is increasing or decreasing. The most obvious question to answer is whether there is a relationship between tumor formation and chemical exposure. Some field studies have already demonstrated a relationship between certain types of pollutants and the presence of certain kinds of neoplasia in fish, especially liver neoplasia, but in other types of neoplasia, very little information is currently available. Other questions, not without significance, deal with the effects of the tumor on the health of the fish, whether seasonal patterns of tumor occurrence exist, and the relationship between tumor frequency and age of the fish.

[Mona S. Zaki, Hammam A. M, Olfat Fawzy and Suzan M. Omar. Neoplasms in Fish (Review). Nat Sci 2014;12(8):134-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.19


Keyword: Neoplasms, Fish, Pollution

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Structural and Electrical Properties of Some Sodium Phosphate Glasses Containing up to 35 mol% By-Pass Cement Dust


A.M. Abdel-Ghany 1, A.A. Bendary 2, T.Z. Abou-Elnasr 2, M.Y. Hassaan 2 and A.G. Mostafa 2*


1. Basic Science Department., Faculty of Engineering Science, Sinai University, El-Arish, Egypt

2. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: By-pass cement dust (BCD) accumulates in huge amounts and attacks directly the human respiratory system.  Thus, it has to be recycled in order to feel save environment. However BCD was used to prepare the following glasses, (70-x) mol% P2O5 -x mol% BCD -30 mol% Na2O, [where 15≤ x ≤ 35].  It was found that it is possible to prepare pure transparent glasses containing up to 35 mol% BCD. The obtained glasses were investigated from the structural and electrical points of view.  It can be stated that the gradual increase of BCD in the glass batches act to increase the Q2 and Q1 speeches in the glass networks.  It was found also that all glasses behave like semiconductor exhibiting Debye type relaxation.  The anomaly observed in the conductivity dependence BCD content can be interpreted on the basis of mixed alkali and mixed alkali-alkaline earth effects and the change in Qn speeches.

[Abdel-Ghany AM, Bendary AA, Abou-Elnasr TZ, Hassaan MY and Mostafa AG. Structural and Electrical Properties of Some Sodium Phosphate Glasses Containing up to 35 mol% By-Pass Cement Dust. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):146-153]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.20


 Keywords: Phosphate Glasses; By-pass Cement Dust; Infrared Analysis; Electrical Transport Properties

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Effect of compression on the electrical resistivity of EPDM/NBR rubber blends filled with different types of carbon black


H.N.M. Alsuhaiqi*, A.A. El-Gamel, S.A. Khairy and H.H. Hassan


Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Blends of ethylene-propylene diene monomer/acrylonitrile butadiene (EPDM/NBR) loaded with different ratios of N-326(HAF):N-774(SRF) carbon black fillers were prepared. The mechanical properties of pure rubber blends and those loaded with different ratios of carbon black were investigated. The 75EPDM:25NBR blend was found to exhibit the highest values of tensile strength and elongation at break. The observed changes in the mechanical properties of blends were correlated to the morphology as observed by SEM. The changes of the electrical resistivity of the rubber blends during compression were investigated. Based on the shell structure theory, the experimental results were explained from the view that external pressure induces the creation and annihilation of effective conductive paths, leading to the changes in the resistivity of blends.

[Alsuhaiqi HNM, El-Gamel AA, Khairy SA and Hassan HH. Effect of compression on the electrical resistivity of EPDM/NBR rubber blends filled with different types of carbon black. Nat Sci 2014;12(8):154-161]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120814.21


Keywords: EPDM; NBR; tensile strength; elongation; SEM

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 18, 2014.

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