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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740
Volume 12 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 93), December 25, 2014, Monthly
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1212

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Ridge Least Trimmed Squares Estimators in Presence of Multicollinearity and Outliers

 

Kafi Dano Pati 1, Robiah Adnan 2, Bello Abdulkadir Rasheed 3

 

1,2,3Department of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

kafi_dano@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The multicollinearity and non-normal errors are common problems in multiple regression models, that produce inappropriate effects on the least squares estimators. So, it is important to use methods of estimation designed to tackle these problems. The proposed method in this paper is the Ridge Least Trimmed of Squares (RLTS). The performance of this method is compared with the Ordinary Least Squares (LS); Ridge Regression (RR) and Ridge Least Absolute Value (RLAV). Bias, Standard Error (SE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are obtained for all the methods. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared with the alternatives using Mean Squared Error (MSE) ratios. The experimental evidence displays that RLTS is the best among the three estimators for many combinations of errors distribution and degree of multicollinearity.

[Pati K.D., Adnan R., Rasheed B.A. Ridge Least Trimmed Squares Estimators in Presence of Multicollinearity and Outliers. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.01 

 

Keywords: Multicollinearity; outliers; ridge regression; robust ridge regression estimation

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2

Relation between IL-6 Serum level and stage of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

 

Mohsen Maher1, Tarek Yossef 1, Hesham Darwesh 2, Ahmed El Saady 1 and Antonio Safwat 2

 

1 Internal Medicine Department, Ain Shams University

2Critical Care Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute

Drwesh123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: It was found that there is a statistically significant difference between TNF-a, IL-6 levels in patients suffering cirrhosis with and without HE. In addition, there is a statistically significant difference in the receptor level of these cytokines between healthy subjects and those who suffer HE. Aim of the Work: Relation between IL-6 Serum level and stage of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis. Patients AND Methodology Case – control study comparing IL-6 serum level between group 1(patients with only liver cirrhosis) represents controls and group 2 (patients with liver cirrhosis suffering from different grades hepatic encephalopathy) represents cases. Results: Median IL-6 serum Level was found to have highly significant difference between cases and controls with a median of 123.5(59.375-226.6) (pg/ml) for cases and of 14.7(5.275-44.7) (pg/ml) for controls. It was found also that there is no statistically significant relationship between IL-6 level and neither MELD Score nor Grade of hepatic encephalopathy with (R:0.07, P:0.714) for grade of HE, and (R:0.264, P:0.158) for MELD Score. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that IL-6 is increased significantly in patients with liver cirrhosis suffering from hepatic encephalopathy more than those with only cirrhosis without prescence of significant relation to the grade of hepatic encephalopathy.

[Mohsen Maher, Tarek Yossef, Hesham Darwesh, Ahmed El Saady and Antonio Safwat. Relation between IL-6 Serum level and stage of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):9-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.02

 

Key Words: IL-6, liver cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, cytokines, grades.

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3

Study of the Effect of Hibiscus Esculentus Linn (Okra) Extract on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage and Gastric Secretion in rats

 

Okasha, M.A.M.1, Algendy, A.1, Gabr, N.1 and Saleh, M.I.A.2

 

1Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

gabrnageh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gastric ulcers are occurring due to the imbalances between offensive and defensive factors of the gastric mucosa. The anti-ulcerogenic activity of the many plant products is reported due to an increase in mucosal defensive factors rather than decrease in the offensive factors. Hibiscus esculentus linn is an evergreen shrub which is indigenous to the Nile, Mediterranean, Balkans and India. A total of sixty (60) adult male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into control, indomethacin- (20 mg/kg), extract- (100 and 200 mg/kg) and cimetidine (50 and 100 mg/kg)-treated groups for the study of gastric mucosal integrity and gastric secretion using indomethacin as the necrotizing agent for ulcers induction. Cimetidine was used as a reference drug. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and phenolics. LD50 study of the extract in rats was found to be above 5000 mg/kg. The extract of Hibiscus esculentus linn administered at the two different doses of 100 and 200mg/kg subcutaneously produced appreciable effects on the different parameters of gastric secretion and gastric mucosal damage. Ulcer index showed a dose-dependent significant reduction and consequently a dose-dependent marked increase in the preventive index. The effect on gastric secretion was more prominent with the smaller dose of the extract (100mg/kg). The proposed mechanism of action of the extract of Hibiscus esculentus linn on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion may be explained to be resulting from the different phytochemical constituents found such as flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins.

[Okasha, M.A.M., Algendy, A., Gabr, N. and Saleh, M.I.A. Study of the Effect of Hibiscus Esculentus Linn (Okra) Extract on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage and Gastric Secretion in rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):12-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.03

 

Key words: Hibiscus esculentus linn, gastric mucosal integrity, phytochemicals, anti-ulcerogenic

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4

Effect of Planting Time and Nitrogen Levels on various yield Components of Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

 

1Muhammad Sarfaraz, 1Wasi-Ud-Din, 2Muhammad Sajjad, 4Muhammad Wajid, 2* Saif-ul-Malook,  3Muhammad Khalid Shabaz, 2Hafiz Mahboob Ahamed and 1Hafiz Salman Saeed

 

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

3Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin  Zakariya University, Multan

4Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

Corresponding Author Email. saifulmalookpbg@gmail.com

 

Abstract A field experiment was planned to check the effect of different planting times and different nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of sunflower hybrid FH-331. The experiment was conducted at Research Area of Agronomy Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad in split plot design having three  replications, keeping different planting times i.e. (15 January, 25 January and 05 February) in the main plots and different nitrogen rates (100 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1 and 200 kg ha-1) in sub plots. The net plot size was 6 m x 3m. The statistical analysis of data revealed that different planting dates and nitrogen rates showed significant response regarding yield. Maximum plant height (198 cm) was recorded where nitrogen was applied at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 at the sowing date (SD2) of 25 January. 1000 achene weight was maximum (66 g) at the nitrogen level of N3 (200 kg ha-1) while number of achenes per head (1417) was at SD2 and N3 (200 kg ha-1). Biological yield was maximum at nitrogen level of 200 kg ha-1 where 2nd sowing date was 25 January. Maximum oil contents was produced at N1 (100 kg ha-1) nitrogen level. While stem diameter was maximum (2.02 cm) at 2nd sowing date (25 January). Head diameter was maximum at nitrogen level of N3 (200 kg h-1). Achene yield was maximum at the 2nd sowing date (25 January) and N3 nitrogen level of (200 kg ha-1). Nitrogen application also showed significantly best response regarding achene yield. The achene yield (3.20 t ha-1) was maximum at N3 (200 kg ha-1) and 2nd sowing date (SD2) of 25 January.

[ Muhammad Sarfaraz,  Wasi-Ud-Din,  Muhammad Sajjad, Muhammad Wajid  Saif-ul-Malook, Muhammad Khalid Shabaz,  Hafiz Mahboob Ahamed and  HafizSalman Saeed. Effect  of Planting Time and Nitrogen Levels on various yield Components of Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Nat Sci 2014;12(12):19-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.04

 

Keywords: Effect; Planting Time; Nitrogen; yield; Sunflower; Helianthus annus L.

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5

Participation Rate and Results of Screening Colonoscopy in Egyptians with Family History of Colorectal Cancer

 

Ahmed Elwassief1, Ali Ibrahim Soliman, Badr El-Deen Hemeda Mostafa2, and Emadeldin R Matar3

 

1Internal medicine Department, Gastroenterology Unit. Alhossien Hospital. Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Tropical Medicine Department. Alhossien Hospital. Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Pathology Department. Alhossien Hospital. Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

ahmedelwassief@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Colorectal cancer “CRC” is a disease with known risk factors. Family history of CRC is one of the well established risk factors for the disease. CRC has a variable incidence worldwide and the presumable low incidence in Egypt did not rationalize for the development of screening program up till now. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to screen for CRC in patients with intermediate risk “those with family history” using colonoscopy. Results: In this study 37.3 % of the interviewed population agreed to participate in the study. Among them CRC was found in 2 out of 547 patients 0.4%. Both patients were males above 60 years old. Abnormalities were mapped in relation to age and showed that age groups [40-50] and above 60 had the highest rate of advanced adenoma 4.6% and 4.5% respectively. No relation was found between the development of adenoma and the number of family members with CRC or history of smoking. Conclusion: Egypt has a low incidence of CRC in individuals with family history of CRC. The percentage of younger population with advanced adenoma should be interpreted cautiously in view of the high participation rate of this age group in the study representing 40% of the total sample.

[Ahmed Elwassief, Ali Ibrahim Soliman, Badr El-Deen Hemeda Mostafa, and Emadeldin R Matar. Participation Rate and Results of Screening Colonoscopy in Egyptians with Family History of Colorectal Cancer. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):29-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.05

 

Key words: Screening Colonoscopy, Colonic polyps, Adenometous polyp, Family history of cancer colon

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6

Review on Medicinal and Nutritional Values of Camel Milk

 

Ayele Gizachew, Jabir Teha and Tadesse Birhanu

 

School of Veterinary Medicine, Collage of Medical and Health Science, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

Corresponding author: Ayele Gizachew, e-mail: equineexpert@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Of 19 million camels in the world, 15 million are found in Africa and 4 million in Asia. The camels produce more milk and for longer period of time than any other milk animal held under the same harsh conditions. It is a multi-purpose animal with huge productive potential and has been utilized by humans for transport, milk, meat and skin. Camel milk is one of the main components of the pastoral community's basic diet, which contributes up to 30% of the annual caloric intake. The main component of milk which has a major impact on its nutritional value and technological suitability is protein. Milk proteins are a heterogeneous group of compounds that differ in composition and properties. Camel milk is a good substitute for human milk as it does not contain β-lacto globulin. Many research findings proved that Camel milk is easily digested by lactose-intolerant individuals. It is rich in healthy vitamins and minerals, especially B vitamins, vitamin C and iron. The lactoferrin in camel milk has also medicinal values: antibacterial, antiviral and anti-tumor properties. It contains disease-fighting immunoglobulin’s which are small in size, allowing penetration of antigens and boosting the effectiveness of the immune system. It is a rich source of insulin and also it containing approximately 52 units of insulin in each liter of camel milk, making it a great treatment option for Type 1 or Type 2 diabetics as well as Gestational Diabetes.

[Ayele Gizachew, Jabir Teha and Tadesse Birhanu. Ayele Gizachew, Jabir Teha and Tadesse Birhanu. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):35-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.06

 

Keywords: Camel Milk, Medicinal, Nutritional Value

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7

Using of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biocontrol agent for root-knot nematode under greenhouse

 

1ElSayed I. A. and 2Nada. O. Edrees

 

1Microbiology Dept., Soil, Water and Environmental Inst., Agriculture Research Centre. Giza- Egypt

2 Department of Biology – Zoology- Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University – Jeddah- Saudi

Email: Dr.Ahmedie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Biological control tactics have become an important approach to facilitating sustainable agriculture. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere and plant roots resulting in enhancement of plant growth or protection against certain plant pathogens. Studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that induction of soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne incognita using rhizobacterial inoculants is related to soil microbial activity and rhizosphere bacterial populations. The potential of bacterial antagonists to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. In the present investigation bacterial strains were screened for its chitinolytic activity. Within this study seven antagonistic bacteria with known antagonism towards fungal pathogens were selected and tested for their potential to control M. incognita on tomato. Serratia marcescens and B-762 strains showed high preference for chitinase activity on media supplemented with colloidal chitin than all other strains on agar plates. On the other hand the other strains (PF- 23932, PF- 348, 4Q1and 4Q2) expressed low chitinase activity. Our results appeared significantly differed in their effect on plant growth during nematode exposure, in the length and weight of root and shoot, the number of leaves and number of flowers 60 days after nematode inoculation). All bacterial strains appeared significant increase in root length, shoot fresh and dry weight per plant above control plants infected with Meloidogyne incognita. No significant effect of the bacteria on the length of shoot, root fresh weight, number of leaves and number of flowers. Different bacterial strains affected to reduce the number of females per root and per soil, number of galls and number of egg masses formed by nematodes. This leading to increase biomasses production by nematodes plant treated with different bacterial strains. This was due to the decrease a number of larva in plants treated by bacterial strains in soil rhizosphere and plant roots. The results revealed appeared significant increase in total protein content at 60 days plant-old above uninoculated plants and plants infected by nematodes among the season. Other results appeared higher accumulation of phenolics in bacterized tomato challenge inoculated with nematodes. The highest accumulation was observed in plants treated by SM and PF- 23932 respectively.

[ElSayed I. A. and Nada.O. Edrees. Using of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biocontrol agent for root-knot nematode under greenhouse. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):41-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.07

 

Keyword: Biological control - Chitinaes production- Lycoperiscum esculentum - rhizobacteria -Root-knot nematode.

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8

Genetic correlation and hybrid vigor for physiological traits of Zea mays

 

*Qurban Ali1,2, Muhammad Ahsan1, Fawad Ali1, Arfan Ali1, Naila Kanwal1, Zain Naseem1, Kashif Rafiq Zahid3, Idrees Ahmad Nasir2 and Tayyab Husnain2

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

3. National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China

Corresponding author: saim1692@gmail.com, qurban.ali@cemb.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Present study was conducted in the glasshouse of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2012. The experimental material was comprises of 10 inbred lines, 2 varieties and 36 F1 hybrids of maize. It was concluded that higher heritability and genetic advance was found for photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll contents, water use efficiency and sub-stomata CO2 concentration. Significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found for photosynthetic rate with water use efficiency, transpiration rate and stomata conductance while negatively and significantly correlated with leaf temperature and sub-stomata CO2 concentration. It was concluded that B-336 B-316, EV-1097Q EV-340, EV-1097Q E-322, B-336 Pop/209, B-336 F-96, B-327 F-96, B-327 EV-340, B-327 Pop/209, B-327 E-322 showed higher heterosis and heterobeltiosis for all traits. Higher values of heritability, genetic advance, heterosis and heterobeltiosis indicated that selection of higher grain yielding maize genotypes of batter photosynthetic rate may be made on the basis of physiological traits of maize.

[Ali Q, M Ahsan, F Ali, A Arfan, N Kanwal, Z Naseem, KR Zahid, IA Nasir and T Husnain. Genetic correlation and hybrid vigor for physiological traits of Zea maysx. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):50-59]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.08

 

Keywords: Zea mays, heritability, genetic advance, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, physiological, genotypic, phenotypic, correlation

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9

The prognostic value of Helicobacter Pylori infection in HCV cirrhotic patients

 

Khaled Zakaria El-Karmouty (MD), Inas El-Khedr Mohamed (MD)

 

Department of gastroenterology, Ain Shams University

inas_elkhedr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of more than half of the world's population and the infection continues to play a key role in the pathogenesis of a number of gastroduodenal diseases. Chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus is the principal cause of end stage liver disease worldwide. Bacterial co-infection with H.pylori in hepatitis C is another important factor in the development of cirrhosis and its decompensation. Aim of work: Is to study the sero-prevalence of H.pylori in HCV cirrhotic patients, and the role of H.pylori infection and its role of deterioration of the liver functions in such patients. Patients and Methods: Forty patients had been enrolled in the study, patients divided into four groups: ten patients with liver cirrhosis without ascites (group A), ten patients with liver cirrhosis with ascites (group B), ten patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (group C), ten healthy volunteers (group D), all groups are subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, Laboratory investigation, Abdominal ultrasonography, Viral markers (HCV Ab, HBs Ag) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Detection of H. pylori serum IgM antibodies (One step H.pylori test device). Results: patients with HCV antibodies have higher percentage of positive cases of serum H.pylori IgM antibodies than in HCV antibodies negative control, patients with Child-pugh C have higher number of positive cases of serum H.pylori IgM antibodies than patients with Child-pugh A and B. Higher percentage of positive cases of seum H.pylori IgM antibodies in ascitic cases than non ascitic cases. higher percentage of positive cases of H.pylori IgM antibodies among patients with hepatic encephalopathy than patients without hepatic encephalopathy. Higher number and percentage of positive cases of serum H.pylori IgM antibodies in group C in comparison to in group A and B and also in all cirrhotic patients in comparison to control group. In conclusion: our study presented that H.pylori infection is considered as a negative predictive factor for HCV cirrhotic patients, further work is needed on a larger scale of patients for more confirmation of these results.

[Khaled Zakaria El-Karmouty, Inas El-Khedr Mohamed. The prognostic value of Helicobacter Pylori infection in HCV cirrhotic patients. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):60-64]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.09

 

Keywords: Helicobacter, HCV, cirrhosis.

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10

Protection of Natural Children and Iranian Religious Jurisprudence (Fiqh-e Imamiah) and Law Approach to It

 

Ehsan Nazari (M.A) (Corresponding author) 1, Mohammad Reza Ghaleghi (M.A) 2 Afra validi (M.A) 3

 

1. 2. Department law, college of private law, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

E-mail: nazari2320@yahoo.com

3. Department of law, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In Iranian Religious Jurisprudence and Law, there is serious doubt on acceptance of natural children rights and parents obligations to take care of and protect them. On this basis, it seems necessary to pay profound attention to these innocent children's problems as society members. using jurisprudent and legal works, it is found that these children are also subject to generalities of canonical and legal proofs and their parents, like other legal parents, are required to fulfill such legal and canonical duties as guardianship and custody in relation to their normal children. Although inheritance between them is ruled out due to traditions and legal explicit orders, judicial procedures believe in it. In assumption of acceptance of canonical lineage negation, secondary rules removing legitimacy condition order are weak and unable to give effect to the lineage (natural and canonical) of such children. Adoption by government of Islamic Republic of Iran of Child Rights Convention and its required implementation by observing indiscrimination principle allows for natural children's entitlement of the same rights as legitimate ones contained in Convention.

[Ehsan Nazari, Mohammad Reza Ghaleghi, Afra validi. Protection of Natural Children and Iranian Religious Jurisprudence (Fiqh-e Imamiah) and Law Approach to It. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):65-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.10

 

Keywords: Lineage, Natural child, Adultery- born child, Guardianship, Custody, Alimony.

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Mechanical properties of SBR and IIR blends loaded with Nano structure fillers at percolation

 

A. Samir, G. Ramzy, M.H.  Osman, H.H. Hassan

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

asmaphysics@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The mechanical properties of SBR and IIR blends loaded with different types of carbon black at percolation were investigated. Young's modulus was found to be maximum for ISAF and HAF carbon blacks. Moony-Riviln equation was used to calculate C1 and C2. The parameters σo and G and the average molecular weight between cross links and the number of effective molecular chain per unit volume were calculated.

[H.H. Hassan, G. Ramzy, M.H.  Osman, A. Samir. Mechanical properties of SBR and IIR blends loaded with Nano structure fillers at percolation. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):75-80]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.11

 

Key words: Percolation, mechanical properties, molecular weight, cross links

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Wool Characterization of Sheep Breeds in different ecological zones

 

1*Dilshad Gouri, 1Muhammad Lateef, 1Muhammad Iqbal Mustafa, 2Ghulam Muhammad and 3 Muhammad Khalid Bashir

 

1Department of Livestock Management, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

3Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Sub-Campus Toba Take Sing, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

*Corresponding E-Mail ID: saifulmalookpbg@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Wool characteristics of Lohi, Kajli, Sipli, Thalli, Kachi and Pak karakul sheep breeds were evaluated in different ecological zones of Pakistan. Fifty wool samples of sixty gram each from adult and yearling sheep were randomly collected and transferred to wool laboratory of Small Ruminants Research Program, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad for analysis. Significant effect on wool bulk and staple length were observed for breed, fiber crimp/cm and age of sheep. The breed and age of sheep had significant effect on fiber crimp/cm, fiber diameter, Fiber diameter, Staple length and Clean wool yield %. Results indicated the breed and age of sheep had significant effect on clean wool yield % and Fiber diameter. Clean wool yield % of adult Lohi, Sipli, Kajli, Thalli, Kachi and Pak-Karakul was 66.175 10.937, 61.188 7.517, 70.079 12.266, 71.182 8.025, 65.802 3.314 and 63.822 5.492, respectively . Staple length of Lohi, Sipli, Kajli, Thalli, Kachi and Pak-Karakul yearling was 7.070 0.909, 6.862 1.201, 6.994 1.124, 5.904 1.141, 4.370 0.523 and 5.738 0.670 cm, respectively. Fiber diameter of Lohi, Sipli, Kajli, Thalli, Kachi and Pak-Karakul adult was 38.672 7.636, 37.238 3.149, 41.544 8.061, 45.335 3.126, 35.005 3.003 and 30.310 4.745 , respectively. Fiber diameter of Lohi, Sipli, Kajli, Thalli, Kachi and Pak-Karakul yearling was 29.166 4.815, 33.34 3.746, 34.885 3.079, 33.156 4.056, 28.322 1.660 and 22.307 2.298 , respectively.

[Dilshad Gouri, Muhammad Lateef, Muhammad Iqbal Mustafa, Ghulam Muhammad and Muhammad Khalid Bashir. Wool Characterization of Sheep Breeds in different ecological zones. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):81-88]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.12

 

Key words: Wool, Breeds, Fiber Crimp, Quality traits, Sheep, Interactions

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Relationship between Thyroid hormone levels and severity of HBV and HCV related liver cirrhosis

 

Tarek E korah1, khaled M El-zorkany2, Rania M El-shazly1 and Ahmed R El-ashmawy2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine-Menoufia University, Egypt

2Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine-Menoufia University, Egypt

gadayman93@yahoo.com, ahmedahmed405@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the levels of thyroid hormones and TSH in HBV and HCV related liver cirrhosis and their relation to the severity of cirrhosis. Background: Liver cirrhosis is a multisystem disease due to its several complications and Numerous clinicians have reported a subclinical hypothyroidism in patients of chronic liver diseases. Patients and Methods: sixty patients and twenty healthy subject as control group. Patients divided in to two groups group 1: thirty patients with chronic HCV related liver cirrhosis in different stages and group II: thirty patients with HBV related liver cirrhosis in different stages. All groups subjected to history taking, clinical examination, biochemical tests and thyroid hormones level. Results: free T3 lower than normal range significantly increased along with child score A,B,C. A negative correlation was found between child score and free T3 (P value< 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion serum free T3 is a good indicator of hepatic function, decreasing by severity of liver damage.

[Tarek E korah, khaled M El-zorkany, Rania M El-shazly and Ahmed R El-ashmawy. Relationship between Thyroid hormone levels and severity of HBV and HCV related liver cirrhosis. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):89-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.13

 

Key words: Cirrhosis, thyroid hormones, thyroid dysfunction

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Influence of blanched mung bean seeds on controlling blood glucose of diabetic male rats

 

Ghada M. Youssef

 

Food Tech. Res. Inst. Agricultural Research Center Giza - Egypt.

y-mriyad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:    Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) is a leguminous SP. grown principally for its protein rich edible seeds. The seeds are prepared by cooking, fermenting, milling or sprouting. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of mung bean seeds, (raw), (raw and blanched) and (sprouted and blanched) on controlling blood glucose of diabetic animals. Chemical composition, minerals, phenolic compounds of the aforementioned materials were determined. To induce hyperglycemia, 50 rats   (weighed 100 5g ) were treated subcutaneous injection with alloxan ( 150 mg/kg body weight), then divided into ten groups (n= 5). The diabetic rats fed raw, raw and blanched and sprouted and blanched mung bean at the levels of 20, 30 and 40% of the diet , respectively ,meanwhile the negative control (n= 5) and positive ones fed basal diet. At the end of the experiment (60 days), serum glucose, ALT, AST, ALP, LH, FSH and testosterone were determined. The data revealed that the sprouted and blanched mung bean seeds were the superior for controlling blood glucose (251, 246.7 and 249 vs. 118, 110 and 110 mg/dl under 20%, 30% and 40%, respectively) followed by blanched seeds (251.3, 240, and 242 vs. 124.7, 121.9 and 121.5 mg/dl under feeding of 20, 30 and 40%, respectively) and raw seeds which was slightly high. An improving in AST, ALT and ALP were found in parallel with that of blood glucose. Feeding mung bean resulted in significant decrease in FSH and LH and increase in testosterone compared with diabetic control.

[Ghada M. Youssef. Influence of blanched mung bean seeds on controlling blood glucose of diabetic experimental animals. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):95-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.14

 

Keyword: Influence; blanched mung bean seeds; controlling blood glucose;diabetic male rats.

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Using Fusion for solving heterogeneity and incompleteness of information in Big Data

 

Ehsan Azizi Khadem1, Emad Fereshteh Nezhad2

 

1. MSc of Computer Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering, Lorestan University, Iran

2. MSc of Computer Engineering, Communications Regulatory Authority of I.R of Iran

 

Abstract: The Big Data term is used for describe large scale data that is stored and analyzed in an organization or company. The amount of data in this kind of information is often more than trabyte. Big Data is a new and very attractive field of database science that many engineers studying and mine about it in all of world. But this field has some challenges like heterogeneity and incompleteness. In this paper, we use fusion to preprocess data to solve two challenges mentioned above.

[Ehsan Azizi Khadem, Emad Fereshteh Nezhad. Using Fusion for solving heterogeneity and incompleteness of information in Big Data. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):100-103]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.15

 

Keywords: Big Data, Data Base, Fusion, Heterogeneity, Incompleteness.

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Utilization of Swiss chard as functional food

 

Azza A. Bakry, Mona E. Youssef And Asma A.  El Gindy

 

Special foods & Nutrition Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural  Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Mona.youssef90@Yahoo.Com

 

Abstract: Swiss chard(Beta Vulgaris L. Var. cicla )is one of the healthy vegetables. This food is very low in saturated  fat and cholesterol. It is a good source of many vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and phenolic compounds. In recent years, Swiss chard has been claimed to be useful for the therapy of diabetic hyperglycemia and have been widely investigated . Using Swiss chard in diet was decreased blood cholesterol and body weight. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of Swiss chard leaves on tammia (Egyptian  food), pan bread and pizza characteristics . Swiss chard leaves  (Beta Vulgaris), and coriander leaves used  fresh  to prepared   tammia, coriander leaves, replaced  with  Swiss chard leaves with  different levels  replacements  ( 25,50,75 and 100%) .  Dried Swiss chard leaves was used to make pitzza and  pan bread. Dried  Swiss chard leaves(DSCL) was used  in ratio at 1%,3% and 5% for making pizza and  Pan bread. Experiments were planned so that the quantity of  the applied Swiss chard in the blends with different levels controlling characteristics of the product were: proximate composition ,minerals content, phenolic   compounds content, Ratio of vit. A, sensory evaluation and specific volume of  pan bread. The  results indicated  that the replacement of Swiss chard until 50% in tammia was good  of sensory properties, while  the replacement of Swiss chard until 100%  in, tammia was  acceptable sensory properties, but adding dried Swiss chard until 3% in producing  pitzza and  pan bread with acceptable sensory properties. Also it was found that the most effective replacement and adding  percent of Swiss chard in all products improved proximate composition, minerals content, phenolic  compounds content and  Ratio of vit. A.

[Azza A. Bakry, Mona E. Youssef And Asma A.  El Gindy. Utilization of Swiss chard as functional food. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):104-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.16

 

Key words: Swiss chard, proximate composition, phenolic compounds, diabetic.

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Preliminary Soil Resistivity Survey to Evaluate Physical Properties of Soils in the Southern Suburb of Kumasi, Ghana

 

Kingsley Kodom*1,2, Sylvester Kojo Danuor2 and Kwasi Preko2

 

1. Department 1Department of Applied Science, Radford University College, 83A Lagos Avenue East-Legon, Box CT 2837, Accra, Ghana.

2Department of Physics, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

*E-mail : kwakingko@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: A surface geophysical survey was carried out to determine the variations of measured soil resistivity and some basic soil physical properties with particular reference to porosity, bulk density (BD) and moisture content (MC). Using ex-situ DC soil electrical resistivity method, the effect of the apparent soil resistivity on the physical properties was effectively determined. In all, sixty (60) soil samples were collected from six (6) different sites, with ten samples collected from each through six different profiles. Results obtained for the maximum and minimum mean soil resistivities were respectively 92.86 Ωm (profile 6) and 43.53 Ωm (profile 4). The mean minimum and maximum BD values were 2.138 gcm-3 and 2.368 gcm-3 from profiles 2 and 1 respectively. The mean porosity values were also between 49.88 % (profile 3) and 66.27 % (profile 4), and the mean MC values recorded were between 12.01 % (profile 1) and 39.72 % (profile 5). The apparent resistivity was highly correlated to BD with maximum and minimum positive correlation coefficients (R2) of   0.9467 and 0.7009 respectively.  Both the MC and porosity showed negative correlation with the measured soil resistivity. The R2 value of 0.954 (maximum) and 0.3358 (minimum) were determined for the resistivity – MC relationship whereas, the resistivity – porosity relationship recorded 0.9399 (maximum) and 0.8334 (minimum). These results showed significant relationship developed between the soil electrical resistivity and the physical properties. In addition, locations that recorded high resistivity also produced high BD values as compared with the porosity and MC values. These results may be used to improve the soil characterization for soil genesis studies in Ghana, and map soils for precise agricultural practices, road construction and other foundation studies. Moreover, it can be used to evaluate surface and subsurface profile assessment with much emphasis on environmental and engineering applications.

[Kodom K, Danuor SK, Preko K. Preliminary Soil Resistivity Survey to Evaluate Physical Properties of Soils in the Southern Suburb of Kumasi, Ghana. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):112-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.17

 

Keywords: Geophysical survey; Soil resistivity; Bulk density; Porosity; Moisture content.

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Effect of Commercial Charcoal Production on the Availability of Wood Cavity and Survival of Genetic Honeybee’s Resource in Imeko, Nigeria

 

Adedeji, G. A. and Aiyeloja, A. A.

 

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

gabriel.adedeji@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Little information is known about the responses of honeybees to loss of cavity providers through charcoal production as a stressor. The native honeybees are special social insects and very selective in their choice of wood species cavities’ nests. However, the charcoal burners are not selective; felling nearly all tree species including shrubs. Therefore, effect of charcoal production on the availability of wood cavity and survival of genetic honeybee’s resource was investigated in Imeko/Afon Local Government Area (ILGA) for 4 years using combined on-site survey, field interviews and direct observations. The result indicated a larger negative impact of charcoal production on the survival of the honeybees’ colonies and population. The study revealed Blighia sapida, Lophira lanceolata and Vitex doniana as the key cavities flora resources used for charcoal production. The fleeting nature of charcoal production stood in sharp contrast with the conservation of cavities providers and species conservation. These cavity providing species are never allowed to reach hollowness girths for nesting. Consequently, honeybees become guests to homes and schools, hanging on low branching woods hence making people more vulnerable to honeybees’ stings risk and death. Habitat loss through charcoal production was recognized as a principal contributing factor to this insecurity phenomenon. The result suggested that charcoal production negatively affected the availability of suitable cavities (nests) and honeybees are more exposed to fire and chemical dangers. These observed ugly consequences heavily outweighed its immediate charcoal economic gain. It is concluded that commercial charcoal burners are avowed enemy of nature. Conserving trees for sustainable ecological benefits and beekeeping as a plausible alternative to charcoal business are highly recommended.

[Adedeji, G. A. and Aiyeloja, A. A. Effect of Commercial Charcoal Production on the Availability of Wood Cavity and Survival of Genetic Honeybee’s Resource in Imeko, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):123-132]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.18

 

Keywords: awareness; degradation; conservation; ecological changes; environmental education.

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Study the Effect of Emitted Gases from the Used Fertilizers on Some Meteorological Elements in Egypt

 

M.M. Eid1*, Amgad Saber1, Fathy M. El-Hussainy1 and Mosaad Kotb Hassanein2

 

1. Astronomy and Meteorology Dept., Fac. of Sci., Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

2. Central Laboratory of Agricultural Climate (CLAL), Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture

*mm_eid2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O) play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry. The agricultural sector is the second largest sector's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, as contributes to global emissions by about 14%.Agricultural sector contributes about 16% from emissions of GHGs in Egypt. Agricultural soils are considered sources of carbon dioxide emissions and nitrous oxide. The nitrogen fertilizer is the most important sources of nitrous oxide emissions. This study aims to: 1) Measure the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxides resulting from the addition of both urea and ammonia nitrate into the clay soil and sandy soil; 2) Study the impact of these emissions on both the temperature and humidity. This study was conducted four experiments are as follows: 1) Clay soil fertilized with urea; 2) Sandy soil fertilized with urea; 3) Clay soil fertilized with ammonium nitrate; 4) Sandy soil fertilized with ammonium nitrate. Each experiment was a three replicates the soil fertilized and three replicates the soil non-fertilized, to take the average of each group and the comparison between them. The most important results as follows: 1) Clay soil fertilized with urea gave the highest emissions of carbon dioxide (15607 ppm), followed by the sandy soil fertilized with urea (1204 ppm). Then clay soil fertilized with ammonium nitrate (11281 ppm). Sandy soil fertilized with ammonia nitrate gave lower emissions of carbon dioxide (3568 ppm). Sandy soil fertilized with urea gave the highest emissions of nitrous oxide (6.07 ppm), followed by both the sandy soil fertilized ammonium nitrate (5.49 ppm), clay soil fertilized ammonium nitrate (4.32 ppm) and clay soil fertilized with urea (3.57 ppm), respectively. Largest difference in temperature between repeaters fertilized and non-fertilized was 1.7 oC in the second experiment and 1.5 oC in the first experiment which coincided with the occurrence the great value of emissions value occurrence. Has always been the relative humidity in the fertilized repeaters (in all experiments) is higher than in non-fertilized repeaters. Where the differences in the average moisture during the probationary period as follows: 3.7%, 5.4%, 7.5% and 6.9% in four experiments, respectively.

[Eid MM, Saber A, El-Hussainy FM and Hassanein MK. Study the Effect of Emitted Gases from the Used Fertilizers on Some Meteorological Elements in Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):133-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.19

 

Keywords: Climate change; Air pollution; Greenhouse Gases; Fertilizers; Emitted Gases and Egypt

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Composting of Fertilizers from Threshed Palm Fruit Bunch (TPFB) With Poultry Droppings as Activator and Its Agronomic Evaluation

 

*T.O. Chukwudi, M.K. Bakare and O. Odeyemi

 

Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria

*Corresponding author, e-mail: timmy4good@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Production of compost fertilizer from threshed palm fruit bunches (TPFB) using poultry droppings as activator was investigated. Two composting piles of TPFB mixed with poultry droppings (ratio 1:1 and 2:1) and TPFB without activator (control) were formulated. Parameters such as bacterial and fungal counts, temperature, pH, C/N ratio and elemental contents were determined. The poultry treated composting piles recorded between 7.0 x 104 cfu/g to 2.0 x 108 cfu/g and 1.0 x 104 cfu/g to 6.0 x 106 cfu/g for bacterial and fungal counts respectively while the control pile recorded 6.0 x104 cfu/g to 2 x 107 cfu/g for bacterial count and 5 x 105 cfu/g to 4.0 x 107 cfu/g for fungal count. The bacterial and fungal species isolated and identified include Corynebacterium sp., Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., Serratia sp., Kurthia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Escherichia sp., Bacillus sp., Actinomyces, Aeromonas sp., Chromobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Edwarsiella sp., Rhizopus sp., Alterneria sp., Aspergillus niger., Mucor sp., Ulocladium, sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus. and yeast. The maximum temperature of the treated piles was 39oC while the control pile was 35oC. The poultry treated piles had C/N ratio of 11.1 and 14.6 while the control pile had 28.9. The end products contained appreciable amount of N, P, K but very low levels of heavy metals were detected in the final compost. The agronomic evaluation of the composts showed that all the composts especially the poultry treated piles had positive effect on maize growth.

[T.O. Chukwudi, M.K. Bakare and O. Odeyemi. Composting of Fertilizers from Threshed Palm Fruit Bunch (TPFB) With Poultry Droppings as Activator and Its Agronomic Evaluation. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):148-155]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.20

 

Key words: Threshed palm fruit bunches, composting, poultry droppings, C/N ratio, Microbial population

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Effect of salt stress on growth, proline, glycinebetaine and photosynthetic pigment concentrations on cowpea plant

 

Olusola J. OYETUNJI1 and IMADE Francis1,2

 

1Plant Physiology Unit, Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Department of Botany, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.

imadefrancis@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Soil salinity has existed long before human and agriculture but the problem has been aggravated by agricultural practices such as irrigation. In this study, effect of applied NaCl and Na2SO4 on growth, proline, glycinebetaine and photosynthetic pigment concentrations of cowpea plant (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) was investigated. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications under greenhouse condition. The soil used was irrigated with NaCl and Na2SO4 at the rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 respectively. Growth of the cowpea plants was inhibited by salinity. Application of NaCl and Na2SO4 significantly decreased photosynthetic pigment (such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid). However, it could stimulate traits that could lead to the survival of cowpea plant in saline environment due to proline and glycinebetaine accumulations that increased as a result of salt stress.

[Oyetunji O.J. and Imade F.N. Effect of salt stress on growth, proline, glycinebetaine and photosynthetic pigment concentrations on cowpea plant. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):156-161]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.21

 

Key words: Salinity, concentrations, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., salt, stress, applications.

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Studies on Some Inorganic Oxide Glasses Used as Gamma-Ray Shields and for Radio-Active Waste Encapsulation

 

A.M. Abdel-Ghany 1, M.S.S. Saad 1, I.I. Bashter 2, T.Z. Amer 3, S.M. Salem 4 and A.G. Mostafa 4*

 

1. Basic Science Dept., Faculty of Engineering Science, Sinai Univ., El-Arish, Egypt

2. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig Univ., Zagazig, Egypt

3. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Women Branch, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

4. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tungsten-doped sodium-phosphate glasses with varying tungsten contents [0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol %] have been prepared, where all samples appeared transparent.  Infrared absorption measurements were carried out to identify the structural building groups in their networks where it showed approximate stability of the glass network former to glass network modifier ratio. It was found that, as WO3 was gradually increased, the density increased while the molar volume decreased.  These samples showed also shielding behavior towards the effects of gamma ray radiation, and the total gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficient increased and the half value layer decreased, with the increase of WO3. The sample containing 20 mol% WO3 represents the suitable one for low energy gamma-ray (especially for 332 keV). The temperature dependence of both conductivity and exponent factor (s) are well interpreted applying the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The obtained conductivity data showed that all samples behave like semi-conductors. The conductivity as well as the dielectric constant and loss factor showed an increase, at low WO3 content, while they showed a gradual decrease at high WO3 content.

[Abdel-Ghany AM, Saad MMS, Bashter II, Amer TZ, Salem SM and Mostafa AG. Studies on Some Inorganic Oxide Glasses Used as Gamma-Ray Shields and for Radio-Active Waste Encapsulation. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):162-170]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.22

 

Keywords: Oxide Glasses; Infrared Spectroscopy; Gamma Ray Shielding; Density and Molar Volume; Conductivity and Dielectric Constant

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Synthesis, docking and anticancer activity of some new thienopyrimidine and thienooxazine derivatives

 

Eman Abd EL-maboud Fayed 1*, Taghreed Zakaria Shawer2

 

1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*alfayed_e@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Synthesis of certain new fused 1,3-pyrimidine, 1,3-oxazine and 1,4-oxazepine derivatives, to produce new compounds of possible anticancer activity. Various series of 2-aryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thieno[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one 5 a-g and 2-aryl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thieno[3,2-e][1,3]oxazin-4(H)-one 8 a-d were synthesized. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited antitumor activity against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and against human liver carcinoma (HepG-2) in vitro. All tested compound showed the anticancer activity against HepG-2 cells with IC50 ranging from 6.04 to 43.5 μg.

[Fayed EA, Shawer TZ. Synthesis, docking and anticancer activity of some new thienopyrimidine and thienooxazine derivatives. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):171-181]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.23

 

Keywords: 1,3-pyrimidine; 1,3-oxazine and 1,4-oxazepine derivatives; anticancer activity

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Statistical analysis of academic level of student in quantitative methods Courses by Using Chi-Square Test and Markov Chains - Case Study of Faculty of Sciences and Humanities (Thadq)

 

Dr. Mohamed Hassan Mahmoud Farg 1,  Dr. Faiza Mohamed Hassan Khalil 2

 

1 Associate Professor, (Statistics), Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences-Omdurman Islamic University (Sudan) – Shaqra University- KSA (Secondment), mhmfaraj@gmail.com

2 Associate Professor (Economics), Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences-Omdurman Islamic University (Sudan) – Shaqra University- KSA (Secondment), fayza09227@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims at predicting the direction of the student academic status, and to make improvements in the educational process, that can be obtained through the transition probabilities from one academic status to another. The paper also aims at determining whether actual frequency distribution is appropriate theoretical frequency distribution. The study applied on population of size 98 student in faculty of science and humanities, at Shaqraa University, KSA. A Markov chain and chi- square were used for data analysis, the first was used to determine Stability of Markov matrix, and the second was used to test the association between actual and theoretical distributions. The most important results that, the actual frequency distribution of transmission of student is significantly differ of the theoretical one. The academic level of the student settles in semester V, and the probability for improvement in the academic level of the student is a 64% probability of the decline in the level of courses is a 27, % finally; probability of stable level of courses is 9%.

[Mohamed Hassan Mahmoud Farg, Faiza Mohamed Hassan Khalil. Statistical analysis of academic level of student in quantitative methods Courses by Using Chi-Square Test and Markov Chains - Case Study of Faculty of Sciences and Humanities (Thadq). Nat Sci 2014;12(12):182-186]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.24

 

Keywords: Quantitative Methods, Chi-Square, Markov Chains, Shaqra University, KSA.

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Effect of Some Construction Factors on the Efficiency of Compression Sportswear Fabrics

 

Ibrahim, G. E. and Mahmoud, E. R.

 

Spinning, Weaving & Knitting Dept., Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt.

dremanramadan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In recent years, development in next to skin compression active sportswear fabrics has been progressing to perform high functions and achieve comfort. The main purpose of this study was to produce adequate fabric to be used in compression sport fabrics. Woven technique was applied to produce fabrics under study using different constructions (regular hopsack 2/2, twill 1/3 , satin 4 and double weave) with warp sets of 80,100 and 120 ends/cm and weft sets of 75,100 and 125 picks/cm. Two textile materials were also employed; Lycra covered with polyester of 50 and 70 denier for warp yarns and textured polyester of 60 detex for weft yarns. Different parameters were studied including fabric structure, warp and weft set and yarn count and their influence on the performance of the end-use fabrics were also studied. On the other hand physical properties including; air permeability, water permeability tensile strength and elongation, abrasion resistance, thickness and weight, were evaluated according to the final product needs. The results demonstrated that some properties such as air and water vapor permeability, abrasion resistance, thickness and weight are influenced by both material type and structure parameters.

[Ibrahim, G. E. and Mahmoud, E. R. Effect of Some Construction Factors on the Efficiency of Compression Sportswear Fabrics. Nat Sci 2014;12(12):187-198]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 25. doi:10.7537/marsnsj121214.25

 

Keywords: Technical textiles, sports textiles, next to skin sport textiles, compression sport garments, comfort properties of sport fabrics.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from October 17, 2014.

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