Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online), Monthly 
Volume 13 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 96), March 25, 2015
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1303; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740


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Titles / Authors





Peripartum Acute Kidney Injury


Said Sayed Ahmed Khamis1, Mahmoud Mohammed Emara1, Mohammed Abdel-Ghani Emara2 and Mona Mohamed El-Yamany El-Naggar1


1Internal Medicine Dep-Faculty of Medicine-Menoufia University-Egypt

2Obstetric and Gynecology Dep- Faculty of Medicine -Menoufia University-Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: This work aimed to study positive cases of peripartum acute kidney injury, how to diagnose, manage each case and identify the factors related to the unfavorable evolution. Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most challenging and serious complications of pregnancy and postpartum period. It reflects the absence of prenatal care and early detection of high-risk pregnancies, the delay in transfer of patients and the paucity of relevant human and material resources. It is certainly a treatable and curable complication, but one that imposes a heavy burden of maternal morbidity and mortality if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The best treatment remains prevention, a goal very difficult to attain in the developing countries. Patients and methods: This study included 120 female patients during the peripartum period, divided into 2 groups; The acute kidney injury group of patients (AKI Group) included 49 patients and the non acute kidney injury (Non AKI Group) group of patients included 71patients. In this study measurement serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, arterial blood gases, serum albumin, prothrombin time, international normalize ratio(INR), Complete blood count, complete urine analysis and urine albumin to creatinine ratio was determined in all participants. Results: There is no specific significant independent risk factor for AKI which means that the prediction of AKI is multi factorial such as hypertension, diabetes, preeclampsia, increased serum creatinine 48 hours postpartum and other factors. This means that the summation of more than one factor together increases the risk of AKI incidence in pregnant female. Also we found that the percentage of preeclampsia among AKI group is highly significant (83.7%) this means that the preeclampsia is one of the most common causes of peripartum AKI. The outcome was favorable, with a complete renal function recovery for (71.4%) of patients. Poor prognosis for mother and fetus and prediction of heamodialysis in AKI patients with DM, hypertension, increased serum creatinine 48 hrs post partum and increased serum uric acid. Fourteen patients who went heamodialysis were followed up after 6 weeks and up to 3 months of delivery which revealed that 6 patients recovered completely while 5 patients completely recovered, 2 patients became chronic kidney diseased patients and 1 patient became End Stage Renal Diseased patient after 3 months of follow up.

Conclusion: AKI complicated 40.8% of total delivery in the peripartum period. Preeclampsia was the most common cause of AKI. Poor prognosis for mother and fetus and prediction of heamodialysis in 28.5% of AKI group of patients.

[Said Sayed Ahmed Khamis, Ahmed Zahran, Mahmoud Mohammed Emara, Mohammed Abdel-Ghani Emara and Mona Mohamed El-Yamany El-Naggar. Peripartum Acute Kidney Injury. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):1-10]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1



Key word: peripartum – AKI; Peripartum; Kidney; Injury

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Accumulation of Cu, Ni and Pb in Selected Native Plants Growing Naturally in Sediments of Water Reservoir Dams, Albaha Region, KSA


Sami A. Zabin 1* and Saad M. Howladar 2


1* Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science- Albaha University, Al-Baha, KSA

2 Biology Department, Faculty of Science- Albaha University, Al-Baha, KSA

samizabin@gmail.com or szabin@bu.edu.sa


Abstract: The main purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the levels of Cu, Ni and Pb in aboveground tissues of selected seven native plants growing naturally in sediments of three water reservoir dams at Albaha province, KSA. The elements level was different among plant species at the same site. Variation in concentration was greater in the leaves compared to the stem tissue. The selected plant species accumulate much higher Cu in their aboveground tissues than Ni and Pb. Biological concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were calculated and results generally indicate that the BCFs <1 for Cu, Ni, and Pb in most plants studied. Only for Pb the BCFs >1 in Pluchea Dioscroides (L.) DC. at Medhas dam location. TF (leaf/stem) values > 1 in most of the plant species studied, indicating the ability to take up and translocate the studied heavy metals from the stem to the leaves with a slight variation in efficiency. The highest TF values found for Lavandula Pubescens Decne. were 3.346 for Pb and 2.069 for Cu. Datura inoxia Mill. (TF=2.066) was efficient in translocation of Cu metal and Pulicaria Crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (TF=2.296) was efficient in translocation of Pb from the stem to leaves.

[Sami A. Zabin and Saad M. Howladar. Accumulation of Cu, Ni and Pb in Selected Native Plants Growing Naturally in Sediments of Water Reservoir Dams, Albaha Region, KSA. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):11-17]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2



Keywords: Heavy metals, sediments, accumulation, plant species.

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On the significance of Dyar’s rule to different hopper instars of Acrida exaltata Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae)


S. Tariq Ahmad


Entomology Research Division, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in


Abstract: Present study was carried out to find out the role of Dyar’s rule in various hopper instars of A. exaltata. Dyar (1890) used this law in lepidopterous insects and was also applied in various other insects by many workers. This law can also be applied in case of acridoids where successive formation of instars is a progressive development. The measurements of head width of the successive instars were made separately in both the sexes and within the same sex. The head width in successive instars increases in a geometrical progression. The average ratio of increase in each instar for males was 1.213 (minimum) under crowded conditions and goes up to 1.220 (maximum) at 370C under isolated conditions while in female hoppers, the average increase was 1.178 (minimum) at 370C under crowded conditions and reaches up to 1.281(maximum) at the same temperature under isolated conditions, before they reach the adult stage. The calculated head width was found close to the observed head width. The Dyar’s rule has been mainly applied in Lepidopterous insects and the present study reveals its significance in Orthopteriod insects as well.

[S. Tariq Ahmad. On the significance of Dyar’s rule to different hopper instars of Acrida exaltata Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Nat Sci 2015;13(3):18-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3



Keywords: Dyar’s rule, hopper instars, Morphometrics, Acrida exaltata

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The In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hibiscus Anthocyanins Rich Extract (HAE)


Owoade, A.O*1 , Lowe, G.M2 and Khalid, R.2


1Department of Biochemistry, LadokeAkintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria

2School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK



Abstract: This study investigate the antioxidant properties of Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract (HAE) prepared from Hibiscus sabdariffa. The extract significantly inhibited superoxide production by xanthine – xanthine oxidase by 41.18% at 5% (v/v) of the reaction volume. In addition, the antioxidant investigation showed that HAE has potent scavenging ability against DPPH and ABTS radicals and these radicals scavenging abilities were found to be dose dependent. HAE was found to contain high level of total phenolic content (56.6 ± 3.7 mg/g in GAE/g dried weight).The anthocyanins components of HAE were identified through several chromatographic analyses. The results indicate that delphinidin-3-sambubioside, delphnidin-3-monoglucoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-monoglucoside as the major anthocyanins and delphinidin and cyanidin as major anthocyanindin. These studies demonstrated that Hibiscus sabdariffa is an efficient antioxidant plant in vitro and may prevent or reduce the development and progression of free radical mediated diseases. Antioxidant ability displayed by Hibiscus sabdariffa may in part be due to the presence of different phenolic compounds in the plant.

[Owoade, A.O , Lowe, G.M and Khalid, R. The In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hibiscus Anthocyanins Rich Extract (HAE). Nat Sci 2015;13(3):22-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4



Key Words: Hibiscus sabdariffa, Antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, free radical-mediated damage.

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Bacterial Cellulose Production as Affected by Bacterial Strains and Some Fermentation Conditions


Abdelhady, Hemmat M1, Enas A. Hassan1, Sohir S. Abd El-Salam2 and Sara M. Abdullah2


1Department of Agriculture Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt



Abstract: Thirty nine of cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from some rotten fruits and tested for cellulose production. One isolate was selected as high effect cellulose producing bacteria and completely identified as Komagataeibacter saccharivorans PE 5 through 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and morphological, culture and biological characteristics. This isolate in addition to Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245(as a reference strain) were tested for cellulose production using static culture technique. In a series of experiments, two modifications in GAM medium were recommended to obtain the maximum growth and cellulose production by Komagataeibacter saccharivorans PE 5 and Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 on the first and second modification media, respectively. Modified GAM medium No.1 contains mannitol, 15; trypton,6; ethanol 0.7% (v/v); acetic acid 0.2% (v/v); nicotinic acid, 0.0002 and CaCl2.2H2O, 0.1gl-1.Whereas the contains of modified GAM medium No.2 was glucose, 15; yeast extract, 3;peptone,3; ethanol 0.5%(v/v); acetic acid 0.3% (v/v); folic acid, 0.0004 and Nacl, 0.1gl-1. After optimization of culture conditions including pH (3.5) and incubated temperature (30 ºC), the cell growth and cellulose yield of Komagataeibacter saccharivorans PE 5 and Acetobacter Xylinum ATCC 10245 on modified GMA media increased about 4.08 & 4.86 fold and 1.75 &1.39 fold, respectively than that recorded on GAM medium after 7 days, under static culture. Using agitated culture at 150 rpm led to decrease of cellulose production by these strains about 64% and 53% respectively. Modified GAM media supplemented with molasses as sole carbon source enhanced the cellulose yield which increased about 76.94% for Komagataeibacters accharovorans PE 5 and about 28.41 for Acetobacter Xylinum ATCC 10245 as compared to control treatment (modified GAM medium).

[Abdelhady, Hemmat M, Enas A. Hassan, Sohir S. Abd El-Salam and Sara M. Abdullah. Bacterial Cellulose Production as Affected by Bacterial Strains and Some Fermentation Conditions. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):30-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5



Keywords; Bacterial cellulose, A.xylinum, K.Saccharivorans, molasses, Process optimization.

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Biological Aquatic Weeds Control, Watercourse, Egypt's


Mona S. Zaki1, Mustafa F. Abd EL Zaher1,Nagwa S. Ata2 and Refat A. Yaussef3


1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

3Department of Soils and Water Uses, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt



Abstract: A concerted effort has been undertaken by various agencies within many of the industrialized countries of the world to manage aquatic macrophytes. Most of these efforts have been directed toward the control of adventive species in situations where they grow to nuisance proportions A variety of control techniques is available, and these include: herbicide treatment, biomass harvesting, nutrient diversion and chemical precipitation, dredging, drawdown, bottom sealing, use of biological control agents, and physical and chemical reductions in under water irradiance. Aquatic macrophytes play a key role in maintaining fish productivity, both by stimulating invertebrate production and by providing habitat diversity.

[Mona S. Zaki, Mustafa F. Abd EL Zaher Nagwa S. Ata and Refat A. Yaussef. Biological Aquatic Weeds Control, Watercourse, Egypt's. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):41-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6



Keywords: Biological; Aquatic; Weeds; Watercourse; Egypt

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The Comparative Study of Liability in the proved law 1311 With the reformed Bill 1390


Dr Hassan hiydari1, Mozafar Mombeni2


1.  Assistant professor, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, Iran

2.  Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, Iran


Abstract: Curiosity for achieving to the new legal issues that need of them is felt further is a reason for the lawyers made them think to new laws. In today's society, Due to the complexity of trade relations Especially at the international level, Creditors for maintaining their own request against bad risks don’t hesitate of obtaining any warranty (whether personal or objective such as mortgage guaranty contract) a point that should be noticed is often the guarantees cause that the parties venture to participate into the big deals, And develop the prosperity and business. One thing that has always been disputed by jurists and lawyers, It is the nature of the contract of guarantee. Determining liability for quoting the obligation to obligation or obligation attached to the obligation, relations between them will be different.

[Hassan hiydari, Mozafar Mombeni. The Comparative Study of Liability in the proved law 1311 With the reformed Bill 1390. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):43-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7



Keywords: liability, warranty, guarantee, new legislation, independent warranty

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Effect of pH on Conductivity of Electrodeposited Cuprous Oxide Thin Films


Abdelhamid El-Shaer1, Abeer Ramadan Abdelwahed1, M. M.  Mosaad1 AbdElraouf Tawfik2, and Dalal  Hemada2


1Physics Department, Faculty of Science, KafrelSheikh University, 33516 KafrelSheikh, Egypt

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University

E-mail: elshaer@sci.kfs.edu.eg


Abstract: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates via potentiostatic deposition using cupric acetate bath. The pH of the electrolyte was varied from 5.2 to 6.4 by carefully addition of 0.08M acetic acid. The effect of pH on the morphologies, crystalline, optical quality and conductivity of Cu2O thin films was investigated. Uniform and adherent films of thickness of 0.7μm could be deposited potentiostatically. The dendritic morphology was observed for electrodeposited n-Cu2O and by increasing the pH this morphology disappear. Small grains appeared at pH 5.2 and pH 5.4 and by increasing the pH (5.7-6.4) these grains disappeared. At low pH (5.2-5.4), the composition of the electrodeposited Cu2O films were found to be a mixture of metallic Cu and Cu2O, while by increasing the pH to 5.7 pure Cu2O films were obtained. From both SEM and XRD we found that these spherical grains are metallic Cu. Photocurrent measurements indicated that Cu2O films deposited at pH lower than 6.2 has n-type conductivity where films deposited at higher pH had p-type conductivity.

[Abdelhamid El-Shaer, Abeer Ramadan Abdelwahed, M. M.  Mosaad  AbdElraouf Tawfik, and Dalal Hemada . Effect of pH on Conductivity of Electrodeposited Cuprous Oxide Thin Films. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):49-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.  1



Keywords: Thin film, cuprous oxide, electrodeposition, anodic current.

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Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Cycas revoluta and Azolla pinnata Association


Anita Sharma1, Pankaj K. Mishra2*, Ashok Kumar3


1Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Science & Humanities, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture& technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India

2 Crop Production Division, I.C.A.R. - Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture, Almora-263601, Uttarakhand, India

3School of Biotechnology, B. H. U., Banaras, Uttar Pradesh, India



Abstract: Freshly collected water fern Azolla and coralloid roots of Cycas exhibited very high nitrogenase activity under aerobic conditions, yet no nitrate reductase activity. The nitrogenase activity of the Cycas coralloid roots and Azolla fronds was linear for 2 to 3h in both light and dark. However the activity was lost when the coralloid roots were suspended in water or a nitrogen free Allen & Arnnon. In contrast, the Azolla fronds exhibited a stimulated nitrogenase activity when kept in water or in nitrogen free Allen & Arnnon. NO3 (5mM) or NH4+ (5mM) had a negligible effect on the nitrogenase activity in the Azolla plants for up to 18h of incubation. It was interesting to note that the isolated phycobiont of Azolla showed a significant level of nitrate reductase under free-living conditions. Comparative studies of nitrogenase activity in free living isolate(s) of Azolla and coralloid roots of Cycas showed that laboratory grown Anabaena azollae was 100 times more efficient in terms of nitrogen fixation than Anabaena cycadeae. From the current results it was evident that nitrate reductase activity was absent in natural nitrogen fixing plants, whereas isolated symbiotic nitrogen fixing algae exhibited a differential efficiency in nitrogen fixation capacity.

[Sharma A, Mishra PK, Kumar A. Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Cycas revoluta and Azolla pinnata Association. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):54-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9



Key Words: Nitrogen fixation; Regulation; Cycas revoluta; Azolla pinnata; Nitrate reductase

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Bioefficacy of Bacillus sphaericus R3 Against Spilarctia obliqua wlk (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)


Sanjay Kumar Singh1; Pankaj K. Mishra1,2*; S. M. Tandon1


1Department of Microbiology, C. B. S. & H., G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, U. S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, INDIA

2Crop Production Division,Vekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture, (I.C.A.R.), Almora-263601, Uttarakhand, India

2Corresponding author: misrapank12@gmail.com


Abstract: Bihar hairy caterpillar Spilarctia (Spilosoma) obliqua wlk (syn., Diacrisia obliqua walker), is a polyphagous insect pest of several crops causing economic losses by means of defoliation. Bacillus sphaericus R3 showed considerably high larvicidal activity (81.75% mortality) after treatment (1-7 days) over control (7.0%) against Spilarctia obliqua wlk. Dose mortality suggested that feeding of Spilarctia obliqua wlk on treated leaves with variable spore population (1011 – 106 CFU ml-1) of Bacillus sphaericus R3 was more effective after 7 days. The toxicity in terms of lethal spore population per ml (LC50) of Bacillus sphaericus R3 was found to be 5.72 x 104 & 3.10 x 106 spores ml-1, respectively after 3 and 7 days of feeding. Based on the LC50 (spores ml-1) values for the strain it is concluded that Bacillus sphaericus R3 has potential to be used as an effective biocontrol agent (biological component of IPM) against Spilarctia obliqua wlk.

[Singh SK, Mishra PK, Tandon SM. Bioefficacy of Bacillus sphaericus R3 Against Spilarctia obliqua wlk (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Nat Sci 2015;13(3):58-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10



Key Words: Bacillus sphaericus R3, Spilarctia obliqua wlk, Bioefficacy, LC50.

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Effect of Five Plant Extracts on Damping off Disease Control of Causuarina Equisetifolia L. in the Nursery


Omokhua, Godwin E. and  Kalagbor, S.


Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Abstract: Damping off of forest seedlings is a common fungal disease causing severe mortality in the nursery in Nigeria. The effect of five plant extracts, i.e. leaf of Azadirachta Indica, seed of A. indica, bulb of Allium sativum, root of Zingiber officinale and leaf of Vernonia amygdalina was tested as organic fungicides on seedlings of Casuarina equisetifolia in the green house. Results showed A indica, Z, officinale, A. sativum and V. amygdalina significantly reduced damping off disease incidence of C. equisetifolia. The plant extracts significantly reduced the incidence of damping off disease where the percentage incidences were in the range of 21.11-24% compared to 77.50% in control seedlings. The treatments also gave the highest shoot growth in the range of 41.67 – 47.00cm compared to the 32cm-33cm in control seedlings. This result has revealed that the five organic fungicides used in the study gave the highest survival percentage and improved growth of C. equisetifolia. Therefore, there is need to focus a great interest on biofugicides that are relatively cost effective and have minimal toxicity to mammal and the environment.

[Omokhua Godwin E and  Kalagbor S. Effect of Five Plant Extracts on Damping off Disease Control of Causuarina Equisetifolia L. in the Nursery. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):63-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11



Keywords: Plant extracts, damping off, Casuarina equisetifolia, extraction, disease

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Improvement on Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn F.) Germination for Large Scale Afforestation in Nigeria


Omokhua, Godwin E and Alex, A.


Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Abstract: The experiment assessed the effects of 5 main treatments and their respective 4 sub treatments each. The treatments were: Biological scarification plus soaking in water for 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours; cold water for 0 5, 15 and 20 mines; hot water 100oC for 5,10,15 and 20 mines; textraoxosulphate (vi) Acid for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins; and alternate wetting and drying for 1,2, 3 and 4 days. Germination percentage varied among pretreatment in response to seed storage duration. Biological scarification plus soaking of seed for 24h at 6 months of seed storage gave the highest germination percent of 98.61%. The overall mean germination percentage for the treatments under the 4 storage durations showed significant differences. The highest overall mean germination percent was 78.42% ±7.14 at 6 months of seed storage, while the lowest was 51.80% ± 5.28 for seeds stored for 12 months;Biological scarification has significant implication as the best method to be used in improving seed germination of teak because it is simple, economical and environmentally friendly.

[Omokhua, Godwin E and Alex, A. Improvement on Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn F.) Germination for Large Scale Afforestation in Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):68-73]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12



Key words: Teak, improvement, cold water, hot water, alternate wetting and drying, biological scarification, tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid, germination percentage.

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A first record of extant silicoflagellates in coastal waters of Nigeria


Cyril C. Ajuzie*1 and Guy T. Houvenaghel**


Laboratoire d’Océanographie Biologique et Aquacultures, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium


* Present address: Aquaculture, Freshwater and Marine Ecology Research Lab, Fisheries & Aquaculture Unit, Department of Animal Production, University of Jos, Nigeria

** Present Address: 11 Avenue des Rossignols, 1310 La Hulpe, Belgium


Abstract: Silicoflagellates are photosynthetic microalgae with a multi-stage life-cycle. They live in the upper part of the water column and are adapted for life in both warm and cold waters. They have been associated with fish kills in many places, e.g. Europe and Australia. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature on the occurrence of extant silicoflagellates in the coastal waters of Nigeria. Water samples were collected at Bar Beach (a marine habitat) and in the Lagos Lagoon, all in Lagos State, Nigeria in December 1999 and analyzed for the presence of extant silicoflagellates. Four species of silicoflagellates were recorded for the first time in these coastal waters. The species included Dictyocha crux, Dictyocha fibula, Distephanus octonarius var. polyactis and Octactis octonaria var. pulchra. Salinity, and not temperature, was a major environmental variable that influenced the distribution of the silicoflagellates in Nigeria’s coastal waters.

[Ajuzie CC, Houvenaghel GT. A first record of extant silicoflagellates in coastal waters of Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):74-79]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13



Keywords: silicoflagellates, Nigeria, salinity, Bar Beach, Lagos Lagoon

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An overview of genetic transformation of glyphosate resistant gene in Zea mays


Zahida Qamar, Khadija Aaliya, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Abdul Munim Farooq, Bushra Tabassum, Qurban Ali, Arfan Ali, Mudassar Fareed Awan, Muhammad Tariq and Tayyab Husnain


Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: florilab5@gmail.com, saim1692@gmail.com


Abstract: Zea mays is an important cereal crop through out the world used as food for human and feed for livestock. The crop yield is highly affected by biotic and abiotic stresses that include insects, pests, pathogens, weeds, drought, salinity, alkalinity, heat, cold etc. Among the biotic factors weeds caused major yield losses and affect plant growth due to nutrient, light, water, etc. competition with crop plants. The use of non-selective herbicides is highly un-safe because of the susceptibility of the corn plant to glyphosate herbicide. Therefore, there is need to develop such maize varieties and hybrids that have tolerance against glyphosate. The present review paper will contribute to understand the method of transformation of glyphosate gene in maize to develop glyphosate tolerant crop plants.

[Qamar, Z, Aaliya K, Nasir IA, Farooq AM, Tabassum B, Ali Q, Awan MF, Ali A, Tariq M and Husnain T. An overview of genetic transformation of glyphosate resistant gene in Zea mays. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):80-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14



Keywords: Glyphosate, Zea mays, molecular, gene transfer technique, biotic, abiotic

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Effect of Diatomaceous Earth (Silicosec®) in Different Temperatures on Mortality and Progeny Production of Adult Toothed Beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. in Laboratory Condition


Hojjat Zarei1, Reza Vafaei Shoushtari2 and Zahra Rafiei2


1 M. Sc Graduated in Agricultural Entomology at Islamic Azad University of Arak

2 Assistant Professor of Plant Protection Group of Islamic Azad University of Arak


Abstract: Food grains are the key foods to human and domestic animals in the world. The quantity and quality of these products are reduced by insects during storage. Toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. is economically considered as one of the most important stored product pests. Nowadays, the use of contact synthetic insecticides such as diatoms earth (DE) is one of the common strategies to prevent pest damage to stored products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DE mortality of adult toothed weevils at different temperatures as well progeny production. The results showed that mortality of this pest was affected by temperature, concentrations and time exposure as increasing in temperature resulted in significant higher mortality. In addition, the result obtained from progeny production showed that DE could significantly reduce progeny production of this pest. In general, SilicoSec formulation of DE can preserve stored products from damaging of the pests.

[Hojjat Zarei, Reza Vafaei Shoushtari and Zahra Rafiei. Effect of Diatomaceous Earth (Silicosec®) in Different Temperatures on Mortality and Progeny Production of Adult Toothed Beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. in Laboratory Condition. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):91-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15



Key words: Diatom earth, toothed weevil, Mortality, Progeny production

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Phenotypic Variability Revealed Discriminate Pectoral Spine Variants in Small Population of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) of Hydrodynamic Environment


Oyebola, O.O.


Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: Phenotypic variability and discriminate factors were assessed to determine trend of adaptation of a declining population of Clarias gariepinus in a hydrodynamic freshwater Lake. Morphometric and meristic values (MoV and MeV) of fins and some other adaptive traits of C. gariepinus catches (38) from fishermen’s landings during 24months bimonthly sampling of Asejire Lake were characterized. Phenotypic heterogeneity (Coefficient of Variability > 10%) and multiple modes in MeV were assessed to imply plasticity and taxonomic complications respectively. To identify responsible discriminate factor(s), phenotypes of subgroups of sex, size, and grades of variation in Possession of Anteriorly Serrated Pectoral Spine (PASPS, observed during sampling) were assessed for significant differences (P<0.05) followed by Discriminate Factor Analysis (DFA). Heterogeneity occurred in 75 % MoV including Pectoral Spine Length of left and right sides (PECSL- L&R) and MeV (Dorsal Ray count (DR), Possession of Anteriorly Serrated Pectoral Spine on Left (PESES- L) and on the right sides (PESES- R). PECSL-R and PESES-R had highest CV among MoV and MeV respectively. DR had multiple modes and were significantly different (p<0.05) between the four size subgroups (ranged from 63 to 71). Anal fin lengths were significantly different between the three PASPS subgroups (ranged from 39.0 and 44.0% of standard lengths). DFA revealed size and PASPS sub-grouping were 46.3% and 50.8% correct as canonical classification units; after data were corrected for size effect, PASPS sub-grouping was 93.8 % correct. Clarias gariepinus population reflected pectoral spine morphological types resulting from plasticity of fins as coping mechanism in hydrodynamic environment.

[Oyebola O.O. Phenotypic Variability Revealed Discriminate Pectoral Spine Variants in Small Population of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) of Hydrodynamic Environment. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):96-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16



Key words: Morphotypes; Clarias gariepinus; Asejire Lake; Adaptation to water pull

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Effect of Marine Algae on Bio-accumulation of Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil by some Leafy Vegetables


El-Zabalawy, Kh. M.1, S. M. Abou-Shleel*1 and M. S. Abdel-Kareem2


1 Environment and Bio-Agriculture Dept., Fac. of Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt



Abstract: A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of two marine algae (Ulva lactuca L. and Pterocladia capillacea (G.) B. et T.) on bio-accumulation of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Mn) from polluted soil by some leafy vegetables (Crisp head lettuce, Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. and Red cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata Form rubra L.). Surface soil samples (0-30cm) were collected from El-Gable El-Asfer farm located 25km northeast Cairo, Egypt. For both crops the experiment involved 48 pots comprised 8 treatments with 3 replicates in a completely randomized design. The two types of marine algae were mixed with (1:1, w/w) then added to soil at different rates 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0 g/ pot (5.0 kg) before planting. In this study, a program of observations and measurements was developed to evaluate the growth and head characteristics for both crops. The head characteristics of each crop were increased with marine algae treatment application to clean and polluted soils. Also, the available amounts of Pb, Zn and Mn were reduced in polluted soil with increasing addition rates of mixed marine algae to soil compared to control. In general the bioaccumulation of heavy metals was decreased in the following order Mn> Zn> Pb. Moreover, highest bio-accumulation of Mn was found in lettuce tissues compared to red cabbage tissues, while the highest bio-accumulation of Zn was recorded in red cabbage tissues compared to lettuce tissues.

[El-Zabalawy, Kh. M., S. M. Abou-Shleel and M. S. Abdel-Kareem. Effect of Marine Algae on Bio-accumulation of Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil by some Leafy Vegetables. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):109-116]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17



Keywords: Bio-accumulation, Plant Uptake, Polluted Soil, Heavy Metals, Marine Algae, Lettuce, Red Cabbage.

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Protective Effect of Curcumin on Hepatocarcinoma induced byN-Nitrosodiethylamine in Male Rats


Jamilah M Hashemi


Food and Nutrition Dept., Faculty of Home Economic, Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University


Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major worldwide health concern, ranking among the top five most prevalent malignancies. Curcumin (Cur)is known to exert an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of Cur on NDEA induced HCC in male rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats (180-190 g) randomly distributed into 5 groups (8 each). Group 1 control negative group, while the other groups were intoxicated by a single intraperitoneal dose (100 mg/kg) of NDEA injected to rats in the 3rd week, followed by weekly subcutaneous injections of CCl4 from the 4th week till the end of the experiment (6 weeks) for induction of HCC, group 2 (positive) and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally given Cur in a dose of 20, 40 or 60 mg/kg/day, respectively for 6 weeks. The results revealed that NDEA induced liver damage as evidence by significantly increases in serum indices of liver function enzymes, increase serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κβ), as well as induced significantly high content of hepatic MDA, and low hepatic content of GSH, GPx, SOD and CAT when compared with the normal control group. On the other hand, Cur displayed improvement in a dose dependent manner in all treated parameters. The histopathological examination of the liver of rats received NDEA showed trabecular hepatocellular carcinoma with fat droplets in tumor cells, while liver sections of rats treated with Cur displayed amelioration of hepatocellular architecture in a dose dependent. Given these promising findings, the present study suggests that Cur, which is a potentially safe and inexpensive for clinical use, may be considered as an effective chemopreventive agent against HCC.

[Jamilah M Hashemi. Protective Effect of Curcumin on Hepatocarcinoma induced byN-Nitrosodiethylamine in Male Rats. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):117-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18



Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma- Rats- Curcumin- Antioxidant.

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Ionized Serum Calcium and Serum Total Magnesium, Predicts Outcome in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy


Lila A, Abdrabuo1, Ahmed M. Ismail, Ahmed H. Elsayed, Gamal A. Alkheshen2, and Mohamed A. Ibrahim1


Pediatrics1 and clinical pathology2, Faculty of Medicen, Al-azhar University, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: Perinatal asphyxia, more appropriately known as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), is characterized by clinical and laboratory evidence of acute or subacute brain injury due to asphyxia. The primary causes of this condition are systemic hypoxemia and/or reduced cerebral blood flow. Birth asphyxia causes twenty three percent of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury is a recognized cause of permanent long-term neurologic disability in children. Data about changes of serum ionized calcium and total serum magnesium concentrations described in asphyxiated infants were controversial. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of total serum magnesium (Mg+2) and ionized calcium (Ca+2) levels in newborn infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in the first two days of life and it is relation to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the disease outcome. Our study was case–control study conducted on 25 term newborn infants in their first two days of life and born in Bab-Elsheria University Hospital and referred to the neonatology unit of pediatric department within the first 24 hours of life with the diagnosis of HIE. A control group of 25 matched (weight and gestational age) full-term newborns with no history of perinatal asphyxia. Exclusion criteria included newborns with neonatal sepsis confirmed by laboratory studies, congenital anomalies, intrauterine growth retarded newborns, and prematurity. All studied newborns were subjected to thorough history, full clinical examination, and clinical staging according to Sarnat and Sarnat’s criteria into 3 groups: group I (mild HIE; 8), group II (moderate HIE; 8), group III (severe HIE; 9). Serum levels of total magnesium and ionized calcium were estimated via sampling during the 1st 48 hr of life (median age of sampling was 30 hr). Babies were managed according to unit’s management protocol. From our study we concluded that significant correlation between severity of HIE and decreased serum levels of total magnesium and ionized calcium, significant relation between decreased serum levels of total magnesium and ionized calcium decreased survival rate.

[Lila A, Abdrabuo, Ahmed M. Ismail, Ahmed H. Elsayed, Gamal A. Alkheshen and Mohamed A. Ibrahim. Ionized Serum Calcium and Serum Total Magnesium, Predicts Outcome in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):127-131]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19



Key words: Ionized Serum Calcium; Magnesium, Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

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Symbols of political awakening in the poetry of Hafez Ibrahim


Dr.Abdol Reza Atash 1, Seyyed Mohammad Molavi 2


1.  Assistant Professor, Abadan Branch , Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

2.  Abadan Branch , Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran


Abstract: This paper examines the symbols of political awakening in poetry of Hafez Ibrahim as an Arabic poet. Thought heterogeneity of thoughts in Egypt as a country in East Asia and other countries put him on a path that In addition to paying to the old themes of poetry due to the poet's sense of duty, he had effective step against community and events of society on and attitude of public opinions and increasing and awakening of Eastern societies. Hafez Ibrahim extended his own idea to all Eastern countries. And he would them that not be disappointed with the confidence to follow the Glorious and generosity. Oppression, anti-colonialism, political awakening, homeland friendship, heroic, political foresight, training of young people, regarding to the Education of Women in Society and modeling of Eastern women are as symbols that Hafez Ibrahim paid to attention to themin his poetry. countries.

[Abdol Reza Atash, Seyyed Mohammad Molavi. Symbols of political awakening in the poetry of Hafez Ibrahim. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):132-135]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20



Keywords: symbol / wake / political / poetry / Hafez Ibrahim

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The Possible Therapeutic Effects of Propolis on Osteoporosis in Diabetic Male Rats


Hanan Fathy Al-Saeed1 and Nareman Yonis Mohamed2


1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.



Abstract: Objectives: the objectives of the present study were to confirm the anti-osteopathic effects of propolis as well as to clarify the possible mechanisms of these effects. Methods: Thirty six adult male albino rats, weighing 180–200 gm, were used for this study. Ten rats were served as healthy control group (group I), while diabetes mellitus was induced in the rest of the rats by intravenous injection of a single dose of alloxan (40 mg/kg). Rats with blood glucose level less than 300 mg/dL were excluded. The diabetic rats were divided into two equal groups; group II: diabetic non- treated group and group III: diabetic rats treated with a single daily dose of propolis (0.3g/kg) that was supplemented orally in aqueous solution for six weeks. At the end of experimental period, blood samples were obtained and sera were separated for estimation of a bone formation marker (osteocalcin) and urine samples were collected for estimation of a bone resorption marker (hydroxyproline). Bone samples were also collected and osteoprotegerin gene expression was determined with real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: In the present study alloxan-induced diabetes was characterized by significant decrease in serum levels of osteocalcin (OC) and bone minerals (calcium and phosphorus) concentration in ash of right femurs as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression in left femurs. Treatment of diabetic rats with propolis induced significant decrease of fasting blood glucose levels. On the other hand rats treated with propolis showed significant increase in serum levels of OC; together with increased calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) bone concentration as well as OPG gene expression; however, all these results were significantly lower than the control group. The hydroxyproline (HYP) levels in urine, showed non-significant changes between different groups. Conclusion, propolis may have therapeutic value for osteoporotic bone diseases as it improves bone mineralization and potentiates bone formation. However further researches are needed before its clinical application in humans.

[Hanan Fathy Al-Saeed and Nareman Yonis Mohamed. The possible Therapeutic Effects of Propolis on Osteoporosis in Diabetic Male Rats. Nat Sci 2015;13(3):136-140]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21



Key words: Osteoporosis, diabetes, propolis, osteocalcin, hydroxyproline and osteoprotegerin

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from February 22, 2015. 

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