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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online), ns1304; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740, Monthly
Volume 13 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 97), April 25, 2015
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Vitamin and Mineral content of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed)

 

1Nwankpa, M. E., 1Agbor R.B., 2Amadi B. A and 1Ikpeme E.V

 

1Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, P.M.B 1115 Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

2Department Of Biochemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State.

agborreagan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) was analyzed for its Vitamins and Mineral content. The result revealed that the plant contains the vitamins: ascorbic acid (33.36mg/100g), thiamin (0.22mg/100g), riboflavin (0.16mg/100g), niacin (0.07mg/100g) and tocopherol (0.61mg/100g). The mineral concentrations were measured at 5.75mg/100g Zinc, 2.52mg/100g Iron, 0.51mg/100g Calcium, 0.23mg/100g Phosphorus, and 0.11mg/100g Magnesium. The heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were not detected in the sample. The concentration of these vitamins and minerals in A. conyzoides can be attributed to some of its identified properties such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, and therapeutic activities that supports its use in herbal medicine.

[Nwankpa, M. E., Agbor R.B., Amadi B. A and Ikpeme E.V. Vitamin and Mineral content of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed). Nat Sci 2015;13(4):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.01

 

Keyword: Vitamins, Inerals, Concentrations, Ageratum conyzoides, Herbal Medicine, Therapeutic, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Allergic, Antioxidant

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Natural Polymers 1: Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Using Natural Rubber with Gum Arabic

 

Muyiwa Turoti and Samson Kikiowo

 

Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. myiwaturoti@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract. The deficiency inherent in the mechanical property of pristine natural rubber or gum Arabic polymers has been partly resolved through the study of mechanical properties of films obtained from mutual photografting of their composite using varying Co-60 gamma irradiation doses of 2,4,6,8 and 10KGy. The study entailed determination of tensile strength (TS), initial modulus (YM), elongation at break (EB), FTIR spectroscopy as well as degree of grafting and crystallinity of the photografted composites. The 30% gum Arabic and 70% natural rubber composite sample with the following characteristics; pH=8.10, degree of grafting =16%, and degree of crystallinity=83.4% using 10KGy irradiation dosage at 8.4KGy per hour showed the appropriate mechanical properties of TS=1.7MPa, YM=0.76MPa and EB=115% appropriate for useful products including coatings. Mechanism for production of the grafted composite is proposed and discussed.

[Muyiwa Turoti and Samson Kikiowo. Natural Polymers 1: Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Using Natural Rubber with Gum Arabic. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):6-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.02

 

Key words: Grafting, Crystallinity, Tensile strength, Young’s modulus, Elongation at break, Density and Gamma irradiation

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Role of genetic studies towards solving problems of human society

 

Shumaila Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Nadeem Hafeez2, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal2 and Qurban Ali2

 

1. National Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad Pakistan

2. Centre for Excellence In Molecular Biology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: chnadeemhfz@gmail.com, qurban.ali@cemb.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Genetic science is evolving day by day. This is a powerful motivational approach in understanding various gene(s) association in communicable and non-communicable disease. Society has been willing in the past and continues to be willing to pay significant amounts of money for research in this area. The primary reason behind such studies is the enormous potential to improve human well-being. By the realization of this perception, there is marked increase in the number of people and organizations involved in human genetic studies. Different mechanisms are combined to develop various useful techniques which enable geneticists to find different genetic basis of disorders. Premarital screening, carrier screening, prenatal diagnosis and rehabilitation of at risk individuals are eminent drive of genetic studies. Genetic studies have helped to combat disorder. Personalized medicine can be introduced for prevention of monogenic and polygenic diseases. In a nutshell, genetics has played a vital and splendid role in making human lives easy, glorious and satisfactory.

[Zulfiqar, S., N. Hafeez, S. Iqbal and Q. Ali. Role of genetic studies towards solving problems of human society.. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):15-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.03

 

Key Words: Premarital screening, Carrier screening, Prenatal diagnosis, Personalized medicine, Monogenic disorder, Polygenic disorder

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Evaluation of Serum High Sensitive Cardiac Troponin-T as a Significant Biomarker of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Subjects with Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Said S. Khamis1, Waled M. Fathy 2, Naglaa F. Ahmed QUOTE  2 and Mohamed A. Mohamed1

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine- Menoufia University, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine - Menoufia University, Egypt

3-Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine - Menoufia University, Egypt

dr.mohamedanwer83@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate possible correlation between serum high sensitive cardiac troponin-T and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in subjects with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (non-dialysis patients). Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of several chronic diseases affecting mostly older people and leading to a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease. since individuals with CKD are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than to develop kidney failure, indeed, the term cardiorenal syndrome has been increasingly used. Even in the absence of clinical heart failure, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is associated with increased rates of future hospitalizations, development of heart failure, and all-cause mortality. Worsening stages of LVDD with advanced CKD stages are associated with an increase risk of development of clinical heart failure. In patients with renal failure, conventionally assessed cTnT levels may be elevated simply owing to delayed cTnT clearance. A highly sensitive (hs) assay for cardiac troponin T (cTnT) has recently been developed, which determines concentrations that are lower by a factor of 10 than those measurable with conventional assays and higher levels correlate strongly with increased cardiovascular mortality. Methods: Samples were obtained from 80 persons who were classified into 2 groups 60 patients as case group (CKD stages II, III and IV) and 20 healthy individuals will serve as the control group. The level of serum high sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), complete blood count, complete urine analysis, kidney function tests (urea & Creatinine), estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) using Cockcroft-Gault, lipid profile (including total cholesterol and triglycerides), erthrocyte sedimentation rate & C-reactive protein, fasting and 2h-post prandial blood were obtained. Echocardiography was done to all subject Results: Subjects were categorized into two groups, 60 CKD patients on conservative therapy serve as case group and 20 age-sex matched healthy individuals will serve as the control group. Case group further divided into stages (II, III and IV) CKD depending on their estimated GFR using Cockcroft-Gault formula, and divided into grades (I, II, III, IV) LVDD depending on echocardiography finding. There was a significant statistical positive correlation between the hs-cTnT and LVDD grade in patients group also there is a significant statistical positive correlation between the hs-cTnT and CKD grade in patients group. Conclusion: from this study we concluded that there is a possible significant statistical positive correlation between high sensitive cardiac troponin-T and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grade in CKD patients group (Non –Heamodialysis patients).

[Said S. Khamis, Waled M. Fathy, Naglaa F. Ahmed, Mohamed A. Mohamed. Evaluation of Serum High Sensitive Cardiac Troponin-T as a Significant Biomarker of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Subjects with Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):20-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.04

 

Key words: hs-cTnT; LVDD; CKD.

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An overview of genetic variability and gene action to improve yield of Brassica napus

 

Hafiz Ghazanfar Abbas1, Abid Mahmood1 and Qurban Ali2

 

1. Cotton Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad. Pakistan

2. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

saim1692@gmail.com, hafizcri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Edible oil is an important constituent of our daily diet. Brassica seed oil has been important source of edible oil in Indo-Pak subcontinent especially Pakistan. The demand for oil seed is increasing due to the alarming increase in population, changing food habit and increase in per capita consumption of edible oil due to changing food habits of peoples. There is need to increase edible oil production through improving the crop plant potential. The present review will provide it reader the information about the use of conventional breeding for improving the yield of canola. It was concluded that broad sense heritability, heterosis, SCA, dominant gene action and heterobeltiosis may be used to develop potential hybrids. While GCA, genetic advance, narrow sense heritability and additive gene action may be used for developing synthetic varieties of canola.

[Abbas HG and Q. Ali. An overview of genetic variability and gene action to improve yield of Brassica napus.. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):28-36]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.05

 

Keywords: Brassica napus, SCA, GCA, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, additive, dominant

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The Incidence and Histopathological Patterns of Ovarian Tumours in Bab Alshaaria University Hospital: Retrospective Study

 

Tarek Ramadan Abbas1 and Emadeldin R. Matar2

 

1Obstetric& Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Email: tariqramadan1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: of our study is to retrospectively determine the nature of various ovarian tumours and to ascertain the frequency and distribution of the various neoplastic lesions. Patients &Methods: Out of 8691 gynaecology cases seen in the outpatient clinic in Bab Alshaaria University Hospital (Cairo) [from January 2010 to January 2014], 201 ovarian tumours were retrospectively collected to find out frequency of different histological patterns of ovarian tumors in our hospital. Results: Among 201 ovarian tumor cases, majority 159(79.1%) were benign, but an alarming number of 40 (19.9%) were malignant, remaining 2 cases were borderline. The commonest histological pattern observed in the study was epithelial tumors (69.8%). The commonest benign tumours were serous cyst adenoma and teratoma, while; the commonest malignant tumors were serous cystadenocarcinoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Conclusion: The commonest ovarian tumours in our study are the epithelial tumours. Germ cell tumours were next to epithelial ovarian tumours which are more common in adult and adolescent age group. Late reporting is common among malignant ovarian tumours and patients usually present in advanced stages of the disease.

[Tarek Ramadan Abbas and Emadeldin R. Matar. The Incidence and Histopathological Patterns of Ovarian Tumours in Bab Alshaaria University Hospital: Retrospective Study. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):37-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.06

 

Key words: Ovarian tumor, epithelial tumor, germ cell tumor

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Assessing damage in the International Convention

 

Ghasem Fayazi 1, Saadyeh Rashidi Bachay 2

 

1.  Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, Iran

2.  Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, Iran

 

Abstract: International sale convention of the Goods 1980 of Vienna can be the product of theoretical and practical strive and wise persons of different nations for achieving maximum of understanding, harmony and unity in the international trade law. Trade is one of the most important forms of communication with other states and nations, in mean time it occurs the cultural, social and political trade Therefore, it is not useless that the international community has started one of its first efforts towards the legal integration and unity of this field. So far, many states have joined the Convention, a new international economic order with the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and membership of many countries in it, has found a firm organization. Iran has no choice but it accepts the new economic order. Because, it accounts as a result of intellectual, rational, fair, reasonable and advanced effort, and aside from that it is a fact that no recognition of it cannot play the worthy role in the global scene. Therefore, Iran has done considerable efforts for joining to the international conventions and membership in the WTO. Undoubtedly, the International Sale Convention of Goods 1980 Vienna, is as one of the most important international conventions that related to trade, and it should be considered and provided the necessary preparations for accession to it.

[Ghasem Fayazi, Saadyeh Rashidi Bachay. Assessing damage in the International Convention. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):42-46]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.07

 

Keywords: International sale; Goods; Vienna; person; nation; World Trade Organization (WTO)

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Criminal liability arising from the simulation

 

Ghasem Fayazi

 

Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, Iran

 

Abstract: Criminal responsibility creates the effect of the criminalization and the legal principle of penalties. In other words, violating against the law and not according to the dictates of the law creates criminal liability. In simulation of human since the two sets of character) legal or entities) may have committed this crime, and in the internal and international system has done the criminalization to these actions as we can say that in addition to internal system, the international systems, also reacts to the actions and punishes offenders. Finally, we should say that the base of the criminalization arisen fromthe simulation of human and respecting and preserving human values.

[Ghasem Fayazi. Criminal liability arising from the simulation. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):47-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.08

 

Keywords: simulation, criminal liability, material element, moral element, crime.

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Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from various samples obtained from three different areas of Rivers State, Nigeria

 

1Odu NN, 2Akujobi CO and 1Iwuji CO

 

1Microbiology Department, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

E-mail: ngozi.odu@uniport.edu.ng; odungozi@yahoo.com; Tel: +2348064341944; 07069177380

2Microbiology Department, Federal University of Technology, PM 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

E-mail: campbell205@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli 0157:H7 isolated from various samples obtained from three different areas of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria were investigated.Two hundred and forty (240) samples of fresh beef, dung, cabbages and carrots were obtained from three different areas of Port Hartcourt viz: Rumuokoro, Rumuji and Oginigba. Isolates were obtained on Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar (SMAC) supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite following pre-enrichment on Triptycase Soy Broth supplemented with novobiocin and cefixime and incubated at 37˚C for 24h. Following routine biochemical tests, confirmation was carried out with the Wellcotex E. coli 0157:H7 specific antiserum (Oxoid, Uk). Both E.coli 0157 and E.coli 0157:H7 strains were isolated depending on the sample and sample site. Determination of beta lactamase enzyme production ability of the isolates revealed that most isolates produced Metallo β-lactamase enzyme while none of them produced Extended Spectrum β-lactamase enzyme (ESBL). The antibiotic susceptibility screening revealed that Nitrofurantoin, Ceftazidime, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin were effective against the isolates obtained with the isolates being most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Due to its public health importance, although the prevalence level was very low, only the presence of one positive sample can serve as a source of a major chain of events. It is therefore very important to develop proper sanitary hygiene within and outside the home, vegetable farms and slaughter houses. The need for proper education of farm workers by the relevant government agencies cannot be overemphasized.

[Odu NN, Akujobi CO, Iwuji CO. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from various samples obtained from three different areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):50-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.09

 

Keywords: Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Prevalence, Nigeria

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Petroleum evaluation through subsurface and petrophysical studies of Hammam Faraun Member of Belayim Formation, Bakr Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

 

Abd Elhady, M. A.1, Fathy, M.1, Hamed, T. 2 and Reda, M.1

 

1Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2General Petroleum Company, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Bakr Oil Field is located at the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The Middle Miocene Hammam Faraun Member of Belayim Formation is considered to be a good reservoir in the study area. The present work mainly deals with the interpretation of geological and geophysical data to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials of Belayim reefal limestone reservoir in Bakr Oil Field. Isopach, lithofacies and structural maps are constructed to study the subsurface configuration of the study area based on the well-log correlations and seismic interpretation. Wire-line logs, from four drilled wells in the study area are interpreted for petrophysical evaluation. Analytical reservoir rock analysis includes achieving the shale content (Vsh), effective porosity (eff), water and hydrocarbon saturation (Shr & Sw), and net-pay thickness variation. Also, the vertical and horizontal variations of reservoir parameters are studied through constructing the litho-saturation cross plots and iso-parametric maps of the study area. As a result of the present study, using the subsurface and petrophysical evaluation, the hydrocarbon potentials of the Middle Miocene Belayim Formation in Bakr Oil Fields is determined. A new locations is recommended to be a prospect in the study area.

[Abd Elhady, M. A., Fathy, M., Hamed, T. and Reda, M. Petroleum evaluation through subsurface and petrophysical studies of Hammam Faraun Member of Belayim Formation, Bakr Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):59-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.10

 

Keyword: subsurface structure, petrophysical studies and Hammam Faraun Member.

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Synthesis And Characterization Of Mixed Sulphadiazine - Ampicillin Complexes

 

Bamigboye M.O*1 and Isaac Y. A2

 

1. Department of Industrial Chemistry, P.M.B 1515, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

2. Department of Chemistry, P.M.B 1515, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

seymercyx@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three metal complexes of [Cu(Su)(Amp)Cl2], [Co(Su)(Amp)Cl2], and [Cd(Su)(Amp)Cl2] were synthesized using concentrating and mixing methods. The complexes formed were characterized by melting point, conductivity and infrared spectroscopy. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the synthesized complexes. The ligands used were found to be bidentate. In sulphadiazine, coordination occurs through the nitrogen of the pyrimidine group and Sulphone group while in Ampicillin, coordination occurs through oxygen of the carbonyl group shown on the Infrared spectra. Investigation of the antimicrobial study was also carried out which indicates that the synthesized complexes exhibits higher activities than their parent ligands. The aim of the research work is to synthesized new alternative drugs which will be more effective than their parent ligands.

[Bamigboye M.O and Isaac Y. A. Synthesis And Characterization Of Mixed Sulphadiazine - Ampicillin Complexes. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):79-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.11

 

Keywords: Sulphadiazine, Ampicillin, Synthesis, Antimicrobial studies

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Application of Taguchi Experimental Design Method for Optimization the COD Removal Process in Upflow Anaerobic Filter

 

Ahmed M. Osman Khairalla1,2 and Lu- Xiwu1*

 

1. Environmental science and Engineering Department, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China

2. Civil Engineering Department, Karary University, Khartoum 12304, Sudan

Ahmedosm77@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, two stages of upflow anaerobic filters (UAF) were used to investigate their performance based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the rural domestic wastewater. Several factors were considered during the design and operation of an anaerobic process for successful treatment of the wastewater. Furthermore, Taguchi method was applied to investigate and evaluate the effect of selected factors on the performance efficiency of the UAF reactor. The experimental factors were optimized by L9 (34) orthogonal array design, which includes four factors with three levels using statistical analysis. The four factors involve the water acidity (pH), temperature (T), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The results revealed that all factors had a significant influence on the COD removal efficiency. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for achieving maximum COD removal efficiency were: initial pH of 7, temperature of 25 C, HRT of 1.5 day and OLR of 0.166 Kg. COD/m3.day. Moreover, the results showed that the HRT had highest percentage contribution in the COD removal process with 39.92 %, followed by temperature of 33.78%, OLR of 13.75% and the pH of 9.18%. Confirmatory experiments conducted at the optimized conditions and compared with the predicted result show a good agreement.

[Ahmed M. Osman Khairalla and Lu- Xiwu. Application of Taguchi Experimental Design Method for Optimization the COD Removal Process in Upflow Anaerobic Filter. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):83-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.12

 

Keywords: upflow anaerobic filter (UAF); chemical oxygen demand (COD); Taguchi orthogonal array; hydraulic retention time (HRT); analysis of variance (ANOVA).

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The relationship between flow of free cash and mechanisms of corporate governance in listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Abdollah Kaabi 1, Mohammad Ramazan Ahmadi 2

 

1.  Department of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

2.  Assistant Professor in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between flow of free cash and mechanisms of corporate governance in listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this study, statistical population consisted of all companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. After the elimination, the 97 companies were selected as the sample for this study, In this regard, three hypotheses were developed. To test these hypotheses, data of companies were collected during the period 1386-1390. Moreover, data of every year of companies were analyzed by computer in spreadsheets (Excel) and statistical software (SPSS). To test the hypotheses was used Pearson correlation, simple and multiple linear regression model. The results of the research showed that there is no significant relationship between the flow of free cash and the percentage of institutional investors, The second hypothesis, there was observed negative significant correlation between the flow of free cash and other members of the Board, and there was the positive significant relationship between the flow of free cash and the influence of ownership of the state.

[Abdollah Kaabi, Mohammad Ramazan Ahmadi. The relationship between flow of free cash and mechanisms of corporate governance in listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):90-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.13

 

Key words: (flow of free cash, the percentage of institutional ownership, the percentage of non-duty members of the Board, the influence of government ownership)

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Calcium Intake and Its Associated Factors among Female Population in Saudi Arabia

 

Samaa S. Elsoadaa

 

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Holly Makkah, KSA

dr.samaaelsoadaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Calcium (Ca) is the most plentiful mineral found in the human body. The teeth and bones contain the most calcium. Nerve cells, body tissues, blood, and other body fluids contain the rest of the calcium. Ca intake during early life can affect the bone health later in life. Objectives: to Estimate the amount of calcium intake among Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) female students, and identify factors those were associated with the consumption of calcium among the study group. Methods: Cross-sectional study design was carried among 267 female students, of age ≥18 years in Umm al-Qura University in Makkah. Students completed a questionnaire include questions about their socioeconomic characteristics, physical activity practices, dietary habits and 24 hours dietary recall. Nutrisurvey software 2007 used to analyze dietary intake and estimate calcium intake. Participants were stratified into two groups according to their mean usual dietary calcium intake, low calcium intake group (<550 mg/day) and high calcium intake group (≥550 mg/day). Results: It was found that 96.25% of studied sample consumed Ca below DRI (1000 mg/day). Also, about 54.7% of sample consumed <550 mg/day. About 13.1% doesn't expose to sun light with calcium intake < 550 mg/day. All the factors studied in this research were not statistically significant between the low and high Ca intake groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion: This study reported a low habitual dietary calcium intake among female students at Umm Al-Qura University. And emphasize the community role in improving the nutritious food.

[Samaa S. Elsoadaa. Calcium Intake and Its Associated Factors among Female Population in Saudi Arabia. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):95-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.14

 

Keywords: calcium, dietary; adolescent; diet; Saudi Arabia.

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Factors enhancing the survival and activities of the Simulium damnosum

 

Anong C.I.N1, Akinboade O.A1, Abiola J.O2, Uwalaka E.C1

 

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan

2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan.

emmauwalaka@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Certain studies have rendered useful information concerning those climatic conditions supporting the mass reproduction of S. damnosum vector. This information has further helped us to discover some existential secret about this deadly arthropod. For further exposition however, it is worthwhile to study its survival needs; in terms of what supports its growth and development from the period of hatching to adulthood. This study was therefore carried out to find those factors which naturally support the survival i.e. growth and development of the dreaded S. damnosum, the insect which carries that parasite causing the disease known as onchocerciasis. The study site for this research was villages around the bank of Osun River, very close to Asejire village along Ibadan-Ife axis of S.W. Nigeria. Some of these insects were observed and captured in their natural breeding sites. They were kept alive on artificial diets, under atmospheric conditions close to what naturally obtains around their natural habitat in the forest. Three (3) different artificial diets were formulated for their feeding i.e. Eagle’s minimal essential medium, human whole blood and thirdly, sugar solution (Sucrose & Glucose). The Eagle minimal was prepared according to the original specifications and given to the flies. At the end of the laboratory diet experiments, the human blood meal and the sugar solution provided the best diet for their survival, while the vector also appeared very active in behaviour while under some illuminations. Brightness or illuminations appeared to support its increased behavioral activities. These findings will help us to deliberately seek ways of stopping the growth and development of the vector by negating the survival needs and supports.

[Anong C.I.N, Akinboade O.A, Abiola J.O, Uwalaka E.C. Factors enhancing the survival and activities of the Simulium damnosum. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):102-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.15

 

Keywords: Simulum Damnosum, Onchocerciasis, Survival, Vector, Development

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Thymol blue as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions

 

Ameena Mohsen Al-Bonayan

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science Girls, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, email: benayana@hotmail.com, Tel: 00966125606179

 

Abstract: Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 1 M HCl by thymol blue was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. The results indicate that this compound inhibited the corrosion process in the medium by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with increasing its concentration. Inhibition mechanism was deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from activation parameters that govern the process. Polarization results revealed that thymol blue acts as mixed type inhibitor. Adsorption of thymol blue on the carbon steel was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the obtained thermodynamic parameters. The surface of C-steel was examined by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX).

[Ameena Mohsen Al-Bonayan. Thymol blue as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):106-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.16

 

Key words: Carbon steel, polarization, EIS, EFM, acid inhibition, Thymol blue

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Criminal liability arising from the simulation

 

Ghasem Fayazi 1, Dr. Faysal Saeidi 2

 

1.Department of Law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, Khorramshahr, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: Criminal responsibility creates the effect of the criminalization and the legal principle of penalties. In other words, violating against the law and not according to the dictates of the law creates criminal liability. In simulation of human since the two sets of character (legal or entities) may have committed this crime, and in the internal and international system has done the criminalization to these actions as we can say that in addition to internal system, the international systems, also reacts to the actions and punishes offenders.. Finally, we should say that the base of the criminalization arisen from the simulation of human and respecting and preserving human values.

[Ghasem Fayazi, Faysal Saeidi. Criminal liability arising from the simulation. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):116-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.17

 

Keywords: simulation, criminal liability, material element, moral element, crime

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Effects of Momordica charantia on the serum chemistry and some reproductive parameters in the Female Wistar Rats

 

Oyeyemi M.O1, Esan O.O2, Esan O.O2, Oyerinde C.M1, Uwalaka E.C3

 

1. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan

2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan

3 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan

oiuseunsol@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Momordica charantia (Bitter melon) has been used in African and Asian herbal medicine for a long time. This work is however designed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia leaf extract on the reproductive parameters of the female Wistar Rats. The fifteen female wistar rats used in this study were divided into 3 groups of five rats each. The rats in groups A and B were treated with a daily dose of 300mg and 600mg per-os of the leaf extract for seven (7) days respectively while control group C received distilled water. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) between the mean packed cell volume, White blood cell Values, Mean corpuscular volume, Mean heamatocrit concentration and Mean corpuscular heamatocrit concentration of the different groups. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) in the valves of Protein, Albumin, Globulin, Sodium, Blood urea nitrogen and AST between the groups. The reproductive indices, showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) in the mean value of the length of the uterine horn and diameter of the right ovary whereas; there is no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the mean length values for the other parts of the reproductive tract across the groups. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) in the mean values of the weight of the left ovary across the groups but between the groups in the right ovary. However, there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the mean values of the weight of the left and right kidneys, spleen and the weight of reproductive tract. It is concluded that the leaf extract of Momordica charantia probably induce follicular growth which may be responsible for the heavier ovaries in the test groups.

[Oyeyemi M.O, Esan O.O, Esan O.O, Oyerinde C.M, Uwalaka E.C. Effects of Momordica charantia on the serum

chemistry and some reproductive parameters in the Female Wistar Rats. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):119-123]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.18

 

Keywords: Momordica charantia, Female Wistar Rat, Reproductive parameters, Serum Chemisty, Ovary

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Measurement of some heterogeneous samples’ characteristics using gamma scanning technique

 

Z. Ahmed 1, W.I. Zidan 1, M.S. EL-Tahawy 1 and A.G. Mostafa 2*

 

1. Egyptian Nuclear & Radiological Regulatory Authority,P.O. Box: 7551, Nasr City, 11762 Cairo, Egypt

2. Physics Dept. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The performance characteristics of an available and applicable assay system are discussed briefly. The operation of the system is described to measure heterogeneous NM samples in order to determine some characteristics for these samples (length, width, thickness and the targets distribution in the container). The possibility of moving the system to the inspection location should be taken into consideration, the system in the present work is relatively easily transportable and make from this segmented gamma scanner a valid alternative from opening the container of the sample for item verification. The used technique could minimize labor time for verification of such samples, protects them from damage and minimizes radiation exposure during inspection activities. The challenge of assaying NMs does not end with the design of the assay system, much effort has been made to the development of efficient and reliable method of the analysis of the resulting measurements.

[Ahmed Z, Zidan WI, EL-Tahawy MS and Mostafa AG. Measurement of some heterogeneous samples’ characteristics using gamma scanning technique. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):124-131]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.19

 

Keywords: Nuclear safeguards, Uranium mass content, Monte Carlo, Calibration of detector, AWCC.

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Al-5 wt% Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying: Effect of Milling Time and Sintering Temperature

 

M.F. Zawrah 1,  Mohammed A. Taha 2, F.A. Saadallah 2,  A.G. Mostafa 3*, M.Y. Hassaan 3 and Mahmoud Nasr 2

 

1. Ceramics Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo,  Egypt

2. Solid State Physics Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

3. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Al-5 wt% Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC) was synthesized by mechanical alloying technique. The effect of milling time (1, 3, 5 and 7 h) and consequently the distribution of Al2O3 through the Al matrix, on the properties of the obtained powder composites were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate their phase composition and morphology.  The powders were cold pressed under 10 MPa and sintered in argon atmosphere at different temperatures (300, 370 and 470 oC) for 1 h. The relative density and apparent porosity of the sintered samples were determined by Archimedes method, their  microstructure was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached with energy dispersive spectrometer unit (EDS) and their micro-hardness was conducted by Vickers indentor. The results showed that no notification of phase changes during milling, and as the milling time was gradually increased the crystallite size decreased, while the internal micro-strain increased. It was found also that the relative density increased with increasing milling time and sintering temperature, while the apparent porosity decreased. The micro-hardness of the sintered composites increased with increasing milling time.

[Zawrah MF, Taha MA, Saadallah FA, Mostafa AG, Hassaan MY and Nasr M. Al-5 wt% Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying: Effect of Milling Time and Sintering Temperature. Nat Sci 2015;13(4):132-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130415.20

 

Keywords: Mechanical alloying; Metal matrix composite; Metals; Ceramics; XRD; Mechanical properties; Microstructure

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 8, 2015.

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