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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740, Monthly 
Volume 13 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 98), May 25, 2015
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1305

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Chelating and Antimicrobial Activities of Benzimidazole, 2-Chloromethylbenzimidazole and 4-((2-amino-1h-benzo(d)imidazol-1-yl)methylamino)-2-hydroxylbenzoic acid (2-Amino BISA).

 

1 Durosinmi, L. M., 2Oluduro, A. O. and 1Fasasi, S. A.

 

1 Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

2 Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

lateefahdurosinmi@yahoo.com, ldurosinmi@oauife.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The bioactive agent 4-((2-amino-1h-benzo(d)imidazol-1-yl)methylamino)-2-hydroxylbenzoic acid (2-amino BISA) was synthesized through the mannich reaction between 2-aminobenzimidazole, methanal and 4-aminosalicylic acid. The chelating properties of benzimidazole, 2-chloromethylbenzimidazole and 2-amino BISA were investigated using infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods and conductivity measurements. The antimicrobial activities were determined using agar well diffusion technique. Manganese (11), Copper (11) and Zinc (11) complexes of these ligands were synthesized and characterized by the same methods. The percentage metal composition was determined through complexometric titration. Conductivities of the metal complexes in acetonitrile showed them to be electrolytes. All the metal complexes are high melting solids and stable in air. all the ligands and their transition metal complexes are soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide but insoluble in water.the test fungi and bacteria, pseudomonas fluorescence, altenaria sp, aspergillus flavus, trichophyta tonsuran and candida albicans, were susceptible to all the compounds and their transition metal complexes. Copper complexes had the highest inhibitory activity against the fungi. The antimicrobial activities of biocide increased with increased concentration and cu (11) complex of 2-aminoBISA was found to be more inhibitory against trichophyta tonsuras, aspergillus flavus and candidas albican than ketofung used as reference.

[Durosinmi, L. M., Oluduro, A. O. and Fasasi, S. A. Chelating and Antimicrobial Activities of Benzimidazole, 2-Chloromethylbenzimidazole and 4-((2-amino-1h-benzo(d)imidazol-1-yl)methylamino)-2-hydroxylbenzoic acid (2-Amino BISA). Nat Sci 2015;13(5):1-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.01

 

Keywords: Benzimidazole, 2-Chloromethylbenzimidazole, 4-((2-amino-1h- benzo(d)imidazol-1-yl)methylamino)-2-hydroxylbenzoic acid (2-Amino BISA).

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Fabrication of Homojunction Cuprous Oxide Solar Cell by Electrodeposition Method

 

A. El-Shaer1, M.T.Y. Tadros2, and M.A. Khalifa2

 

1 Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

E-mail: elshaer@sci.kfs.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Thin films of p-Cu2O and n-Cu2O were controllably prepared using electrochemical deposition method by using different conditions for each type with different thickness. Photocurrent measurement show that the Cu2O thin films synthesized in acid and alkaline media present n-Cu2O and p-Cu2O semiconductor character, respectively. The morphology and orientation have been investigated. Thin film of p-Cu2O show pyramid shape with orientation (111) and n-Cu2O show dendritic shape with orientations (111) and (200). Optical characteristics of p-Cu2O and n-Cu2O were slightly affected. Homojunction Cu2O solar cells were successfully prepared by consecutively depositing an n-Cu2O layer on a p-Cu2O layer. Then, evaporate gold on n- Cu2O by thermal evaporator. The best performance of the cell fabricated in this study was short-circuit current density 12.7mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage 31.5mV, fill factor 35%, and conversion efficiency 0.14% under standard test condition for thickness 2m and 0.7m for n-Cu2O and p-Cu2O, respectively. High short-circuit current density due to the pyramid surface structure of p- Cu2O caused the increase of the light path in the solar cell that could facilitate the photons to absorb more effectively. Low open-circuit voltage was due to energy band bending influence by interface states. The main limiting factor for the Cu2O cell efficiency was the high resistivity of both n-Cu2O and p-Cu2O. Doping of Cu2O will be necessary to improve the efficiency of the homojunction Cu2O solar cells further.

[El-Shaer A, Tadros MTY and Khalifa MA. Fabrication of Homojunction Cuprous Oxide Solar Cell by Electrodeposition Method. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):14-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.02

 

Keywords: Solar cell, Cuprous oxide, Electrodeposition, p-Cu2O, n-Cu2O and Homojunction

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The study of Andalusialiterature ‘art in the period of feudal kings

 

Raheleh Najafi 1, Dr. Sohad Jaderi2

 

1.  Department of Arabic Language and literature, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

2. Department of Arabic Language and literature, Assistant Professor, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: One of the literary proses in Arabic literature is art of Epistles. The Epistles have been exchanged between two persons for connection who were friends or enemy together or between official governments. In Arabic literature usually the responsibility of writing these letters has been claimed on the famous and talented writers. Treatises in Arabic literature generally recognized by both the Court and the Brotherhood, that each of which includes a variety of topics. In this article the writer decides to considers some aspects of letters which has been written in the period of Andalusia by studying of treatise ’art in Andalusia literature.

[Raheleh Najafi, Sohad Jaderi. The study of Andalusialiterature ‘art in the period of feudal kings. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):23-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.03

 

Key words: Art of Epistles, Andalusialiterature, feudal kings, brotherhood and divans treatises

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Interrelationship and Path Coefficient Analysis among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

 

Ammara Fazal1, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa2*, Ejaz-ul-Hasan2, Muhammad Anwar2, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir1 and Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat1

 

1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2Oilseeds Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author’s email: saadpbg@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Pakistan is facing severe scarcity of edible oil and spending a huge amount of foreign exchange on its annual import. Sesame is the best option as an edible oilseed crop due to less water requirement. The present study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability and trait association among 13 sesame genotypes in research area of Oilseeds Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad, Pakistan during the crop season 2014. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, correlation and path analysis. Analysis of variance showed that genotypes differed highly significantly from each other for all the characters. Plant height, branches per plant and capsules per plant showed high mean values. Yield per plant had highly significant positive correlation of all other traits both at genotypic and phenotypic level. Path analysis revealed that capsules per plant had highest direct effect on seed yield per plant and Seeds per capsules had highest indirect effect via capsules per plant on seed yield per plant. So the trait capsules per plant may be used as selection criteria for the improvement of seed yield of sesame.

[Ammara Fazal, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa, Ejaz-ul-Hasan, Muhammad Anwar, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir and Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat. Interrelationship and Path Coefficient Analysis among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Nat Sci 2015;13(5):27-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.04

 

Keywords: Sesamum indicum, correlation, path coefficient analysis, accessions, genotypic, phenotypic

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Geotechnical and Radiometric Studies for Third Manufacturing Area -6th October – Egypt

 

Ahmed, M., Saad1, Osama, M., Draz2 and Mohamed Sakr1

 

1, Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2, Exploration Dept. Nuclear Material Authority, El-Kattamia , Cairo, Egypt

Drsakr_2020@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research involves geotechnical and radiometric studies for third manufacturing area -6th October - Egypt. The studied area is mainly composed of sand enriched soil cover the rock with large thickness. Laboratory tests were performed on representative soil and rock samples to determine their physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics such as: Grain size distribution, specific gravity, free swell and chemical analysis, and uranium and thorium concentration of rocks and soils that increase in localized areas hosting these radionuclides. One hundred and forty-three sediment samples from 18 boreholes (137 samples friable sand, and 6 samples mudstone which passed from sieve No (200) have been taken at a depth from 1 to 15 m. Grain size parameters are Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) and Curvature Coefficient (Cc) used as principles classification of soil. Uniformity coefficient (Cu) is range from (3.7mm) to (6.5mm) with an average (5.1mm) and Curvature Coefficient (Cc) is range from (3.46mm) to (5.86mm) with an average (4.66mm). Grain size parameters indicate well-graded soil, and that from the standpoint of classification engineering geology. While free swell test are range between 30 to 120% with an average (75%), and specific gravity range from 2.46 to 3.70 with an average 3.08. The geotechnical studies include direct shear test for each test, the relationship between the shear stress and horizontal displacement and the relationship between horizontal displacement and vertical displacement are plotted to determine the shear stress(τ), and normal stress(σ) at failure (defined as peak stress). Then, the shear stress and normal stress at failure are plotted for each of the three tests to determine the slope (effective friction angle, Ф) and intercept (effective cohesion, c) from the best linear fit of the data. The effective friction angle (Ф) is range from 21 to 45. Radiometric studies including gamma-ray logging and quantitative uranium and thorium analyses are carried out in order to give an idea about the distribution of uranium and thorium in the drilled rocks. Uranium unlimited detected (ULD), while thorium is range from 2ppm to 7ppm at different depths from 0 to 15m.

[Ahmed, M., Saad, Osama, M., Draz and Mohamed Sakr. Geotechnical and Radiometric Studies for Third Manufacturing Area -6th October – Egypt. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):33-46]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.05

 

Keywords: Soil, shear test, Radiometric, free swell

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Assessment of association among various morphological traits of Euphorbia granulata, Euphorbia hirta, Fumaria indica and Parthenium hysterophorus

 

Sadia Anwer1, Qurban Ali2, Mobeen Ali1, Harrem Khalid1, Ali Ahmad3, Arfan Ali2, Muhammad Shafiq1, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Idrees Ahmad Nasir2 and Tayyab Husnain2

 

1.  Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

2.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

3.  Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

Emails: saim1692@gmail.com, qurban.ali@cemb.edu.pk

Cell No: +92(0)321-9621929

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to access the correlation among various morphological traits of different weeds and their body moisture contents during March 2015. It was found that higher weed plant population was recorded for Fumaria indica and higher moisture percentage was recorded for Fumaria hirta at most of the studied locations. Plant population was significantly correlated with fresh and dry plant weight, inflorescence dry weight and total inflorescence moisture percentage. Total plant moisture percentage and total inflorescence moisture percentage was significantly correlated with each other. The significant correlation of plant population with inflorescence moisture percentage suggested that the weed plants have ability to survive in hot, harsh and dry environmental conditions. It was concluded that the weed plant should be control to minimize the crop plant yield losses due to competition for water, nutrients and light.

[Sadia A, Qurban A, Mobeen A, Harrem K, Ali A, Arfan A, Muhammad S, Muhammad SH, Idrees AN and Tayyab H. Assessment of association among various morphological traits of Euphorbia granulata, Euphorbia hirta, Fumaria indica and Parthenium hysterophorus. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):47-51]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.06

 

Keywords: Euphorbia granulata, Euphorbia hirta, Fumaria indica, Parthenium hysterophorus, assocaiation

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Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin on High Fructose Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

 

Adel Hussein Omar1, Abd El-Rahman Abd EL-fatah Yaseen1, Naglaa Mohamed Ghanayem2, Mahmoud Hamed EL-Odemi1, Mohamed Soliman Rizk2, Mohammed Abdel-Hamid Aleskandarany, Dalia Rifaat AL-Sharaky3 and Safa Reyad EL-Fiky1

 

Clinical Pharmacology Department1, Medical Biochemistry Department2 and Pathology Department3- Faculty of Medicine- Menoufia University.

safariad955@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Studying the effect of resveratrol and quercetin on high fructose induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Background: Resveratrol and quercetin are of natural sources, metabolic syndrome consists of central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia predisposing to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 rats, control group, vehicle treated group, resveratrol treated and quercetin treated groups, each contains 10 rats. For all of them measurement of body weight, Systolic blood pressure, serum TNF-α, leptin, glucose, insulin, Insulin resistance by HOMA-IR calculation, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, catalase, Malondilaldehyde and histopathological assessment by hematoxyline & eosin and NF-κB were done. Results: Quercetin showed better improvement of different measured parameters due to more antioxidant activity, this is revealed by Anova test, paired t-test, Fisher test and Krushkal Wallis test. Conclusion: Quercetin can be a promising treatment than resveratrol for metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

[Adel Hussein Omar, Abd El-Rahman Abd EL-fatah Yaseen, Naglaa Mohamed Ghanayem, Mahmoud Hamed EL-Odemi, Mohamed Soliman Rizk, Mohammed Abdel-Hamid Aleskandarany, Dalia Rifaat AL-Sharaky and Safa Reyad EL-Fiky. Effect Of Resveratrol and Quercetin On High Fructose Induced Metabolic Syndrome In Rats. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):52-63]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.07

 

Key words: Quercetin, resveratrol, Metabolic syndrome.

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Histological Changes in Cornea Following Repeated Exposure to Benzalkonium Chloride and the Possible Protective Effect of Topically Applied Sodium Hyaluronate

 

Maha E. Soliman, Bothina L. Mahmoud, Maisa A. Kafafy, Hala M. El Haroun, Doaa M. Mohamed

 

Department of histology, Faculty of Medicine- Menoufyia University, Egypt

doaamostafa189@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the cornea of adult albino rats and to establish the possible protective effect of Sodium hyaluronate. Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is the most common preservative used in ophthalmic preparations to treat glaucoma and ocular surface disease. However, it has shown to be highly toxic. Material and Method: Forty adult male albino rats weighting 100-150g were divided into five groups: group (1), 5 rats kept without any treatment. Group (2), 10 rats received 10l of 0.02% BAC for 2 weeks. Rats of this group were divided into2 equal subgroups. Subgroup (A) was sacrificed after 2 weeks. Subgroup (B) was left for another 2 weeks without treatment and served as recovery group, Group (3) 10 rats received 10 l of 0.01% BAC for 2 weeks. Rats of this group were divided into2 equal subgroups. Subgroup (A) was sacrificed after 2 weeks. Subgroup (B) was left for another 2 weeks without treatment and served as recovery group, Group (4), 5 rats received 10l of 1% sodium hyaluronate for 2 weeks, Group (5), 10 rats received sodium hyaluronate and BAC. Rats of this group were divided into 2equal subgroups. Subgroup (A) received sodium hyaluronate and 0.02% BAC for 2 weeks. Subgroup (B) received sodium hyaluronate and 0.01% BAC for 2 weeks. At the end of the study, samples were dissected, processed for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies. Results: Rats treated with 0.02% BAC showed degeneration of corneal epithelial cells which appeared vacuolated giving bubble like appearance with exfoliation of the upper surface cells together with distortion of Bowman's layer and stroma giving a strong positive immunoreactivity for caspase-3. These degenerative changes were less after treatment with 0.01% of BAC. Mild amelioration of these changes was detected after 2 weeks from stopping treatment especially in low dose of BAC. Concomitant administration of sodium hyaluronate and BAC makes improvement and unremarkable changes in the histological pictures of cornea especially in low dose. Conclusion: Exposure to BAC led to pronounced corneal damage in adult albino rats. These changes can be improved by concomitant administration of Sodium hyaluronate and BAC, which had antioxidant properties and could decrease cell apoptosis and corneal damage induced by BAC.

[Maha E. Soliman, Bothina L. Mahmoud, Maisa A. Kafafy, Hala M. El Haroun, Doaa M. Mohamed. Histological Changes in Cornea Following Repeated Exposure to Benzalkonium Chloride and the Possible Protective Effect of Topically Applied Sodium Hyaluronate. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):64-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.08

 

Keywords: Cornea, Benzalkonium chloride, Sodium hyaluronate

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Management of Secondary Schools in Southern Senatorial District of Taraba State, Nigeria

 

Oluwole Margaret Uga 1, Iroegbu Abigail Ifeoma 2

 

1. Department of Education Foundations, Benue State University, Makurdi

2. Federal University, Wukari Taraba State

livingemerald@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study investigated information and communication technology and its impact on the management of secondary schools in Southern Senatorial District of Taraba State, Nigeria. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of information and communication technology particularly; the use of internet and telecommunication (radio) on the management of secondary schools in Southern Senatorial District of Taraba State. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A review of related literature was carried out in the area of information and communication technology as it relates to the management of secondary schools. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The study was targeted at all teachers and students of secondary schools in Southern Senatorial District of Taraba State of Nigeria. A sample of two hundred and forty (240) teachers in secondary schools in the senatorial district was drawn from fifteen (15) secondary schools in the senatorial district. An instrument titled Impact of ICT on Secondary School Management Questionnaire (ICTSSMQ) was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and the chi–square and single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the research hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that the use of internet and telecommunication (radio) has significant impact on management of secondary schools particularly in Southern Senatorial District of Taraba State. The researcher therefore recommended that the government should make sure ICT centres are established in all secondary schools to improve learning and effective management of these schools. Internet services should be made available in all secondary schools in the state. The government and the general public should engage in the training of teachers in the area of information and communication especially the use of computer and internet system to ease the teaching and learning process in schools and their management. Periodic workshop/seminars should be organized for the purpose of facilitating teachers’ literacy, awareness and skills in using ICT in schools.

[Oluwole Margaret Uga, Iroegbu Abigail Ifeoma. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Management of Secondary Schools in Southern Senatorial District of Taraba State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):77-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.09

 

Key words: Information and Communication Technology; Management; Internet; Telecommunication

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Forest Transition: Towards Modulating Climate Change

 

OLAGUNJU, Temidayo Ebenezer

 

Ecology and Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Email: olagunjutemidayo@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Forest provides crucial and beneficial services to man. Transformation of forest areas to non-forest ones has occurred throughout human history, with its notable far-reaching consequences, which has propelled the need to increase forest area in many parts of the world. This gradual recovery from forest decline; forest transition, is a realistic phenomenon in some countries of the world rather than a theory. Reduction in forest loss does not automatically induce forest transition but rather by conscious efforts at increasing forest cover, driven by sustainability of forest products and services, economic development and globalization, increased environmental literacy, improved agricultural practices, forest policies and programs as well as population decline. Climate change is unarguably a global threat and how to manage it has been the greatest environmental challenge confronting the world. Forests play key roles in altering climate elements which determine the general climate condition. Forest transition is a major way of modulating the climate change phenomenon and its effects. Forest recovery has provided a means of modulating climate change through increase possibility of atmospheric carbon sequestration and moderation of rainfall pattern; major determinants of climate change.

[OLAGUNJU, Temidayo Ebenezer. Forest Transition: Towards Modulating Climate Change. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):86-91]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.10

 

Keywords: forest cover, forest transition, modulating, climate change

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Arthritis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Reda M Badr, Ahmed A Shoaib, Khaled M El-zorkany and Eman E Hassan

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine-Menoufia University, Egypt

Ahmed1shoaib@yahoo.com, dr_emanelsayed1982@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Estimating the possible causes of arthropathies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending outpatient clinics of internal medicine department at Menoufia university hospital. Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease and has become one of the main threats to human health in recent decades. Diabetes worldwide was estimated at between 151 million and 171 million in the year 2000 and, it is estimated that this number will triple by 2050. Uncontrolled diabetes with increased blood glucose is strongly correlated to causing long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, muscular dystrophy and atherosclerosis. Rheumatological diseases are now common, which have an increased prevalence in diabetic population. Patients &Methods: The study include 90 patients,Patients divided into 3 groups group 1:30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without arthropathy, group 2: 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with arthropathy and group 3: 30 patients not diabetics with arthropathy. All the patients were subjected to the following: History taking with general, rheumatological and neurological clinical examinations, The following laboratory tests were done for all the patient: Randum blood sugar, Glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Rheumatoid factor (RF) in the serum, using the latex fixation test, Serum uric acid and Anti-nuclear antibody(ANA), also plain x-ray of affected joint were done for patients with arthropathy. Results: BMI was significantly higher among diabetic patients with arthropathy (33.64 2.26Regarding RBS, it was significantly higher among diabetic patients with arthropathy (288.10 83.64). and diabetic patients without arthropathy (240.53 51.37), Regarding HbA1C, it was significantly higher among diabetic patients with arthropathy (8.72 1.09) and diabetic patients without arthropathy (7.39 0.47) Regarding ESR, it was significantly higher among non diabetic patients (58.60 27.29) Regarding serum uric acid, it was significantly higher among non diabetic patients (5.11 1.18), no significant difference between the studied groups regarding CRP (P>0.05), Regarding RF, it was significantly lower among diabetic patients with arthropathy Regarding ANA, it was significantly lower among patients with arthropathy. Conclusion and Recommendations: Musculoskeletal complications are most commonly seen in patients with a long standing history of type 2diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is associated with several musculoskeletal disorders. The incidence of diabetes mellitus and the life expectancy of the diabetic patient have both increased, resulting in increased prevalence and clinical importance of musculoskeletal alterations in diabetic subjects. The development of musculoskeletal disorders is dependent on age and the duration of diabetes mellitus. It has been difficult to show a direct correlation with the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus. Most of these disorders can be diagnosed clinically but some radiological examination may help, especially in differential diagnosis.

[Reda M Badr, Ahmed A Shoaib, Khaled M El-zorkany and Eman E Hassan. Arthritis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):92-98]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.11

 

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Arthropathies, Musculoskeletal disorders.

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Analysis of the relationship between automation systems and decision of managers of Iran National Steel Industrial Group

 

Shahram kardani 1, Dr. Milad Jasemi zargani 2

 

1. Department of productivity system engineering, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, Iran

2. Assistant Professor, Masjed Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad university, Masjed Soleiman, Iran

 

Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between automation system and managers decision making of Iran National Steel Industrial Group. The used method in this research was descriptive. The statistical sample was consisted of 52 directors and deputies of Iran National Steel Industrial Group who were selected by census method. The data in the two descriptive and inferential sectors were analyzed by using one-sample t-test. And the results of this study in a significant level 05/0 showed that office automation system has a positive impact on manager’s decision of Iran National Steel Industrial Group. Also office automation system has a positive impact on the correctness of managers’ decisions, office automation system on the accuracy of manager’s decision, office automation system on timely manager’s decision making and office automation system on economic decisions of managers Iran National Steel Industrial Group.

[Shahram kardani, Milad Jasemi zargani. Analysis of the relationship between automation systems and decision of managers of Iran National Steel Industrial Group. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):99-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.12

 

Keywords: system, office automation systems, decision-making, Iran National Steel Industrial Group.

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Termites’ resistance of wood treated with Lagenaria breviflora B. Robert fruit pulp extract

 

1Emerhi, E. A., 2Adedeji, G. A. and 3Ogunsanwo, O. Y.

 

1Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Delta State University, Asaba, Nigeria

2Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

gabriel.adedeji@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Synthetic chemicals have been the standards to extend the service life of wood for many years across the globe. But with the passage of time, many problems associated with their habitual uses became conspicuous with a ban on their usage in many countries. In recent times, exploring biocides of plants origin has been intensified with a view to replacing these chemicals. Lagenaria breviflora fruit pulp extract has broad spectrums of antimicrobial property. However its wood protection potential has not been reported. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the termites’ resistance of Lagenaria breviflora fruit pulp extract in Triplochiton scleroxylon wood under field test. Fruit’s pulp extract of L. breviflora was extracted using juice extractor. The wood blocks’ samples (8 replicates) of T. scleroxylon were treated with 5 mL, 10 mL, 15 mL, and 20 mL of the juice extract in 0.75 L of distilled water for 24 hours. The treated wood samples were exposed to termites using soil contact exposure method at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Development Conservation Plot (IARDCP), University of Port Harcourt for three months. Absorption of extractives at the tested concentrations showed no significant difference but was highest at 15 mL, followed by 10 mL, 20 mL, and 5 mL. In vitro studies revealed 20 mL treatment showing strongest resistance by reducing 70.18% weight loss of control to 24.31%, followed by 15 mL to 45.28%, 10 mL to 48.59%, and 5 mL to 65.24%. The results of this study showed the efficacy of the extract to control termites using higher quantity of the fruit juice extractive. Lagenaria breviflora fruit can be a very promising biocide for wood protection because of its better resistance performance at 20 mL concentration, abundance and renewability.

[Emerhi, E. A., Adedeji, G. A. and Ogunsanwo, O. Y. Termites’ resistance of wood treated with Lagenaria breviflora B. Robert fruit pulp extract. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):105-109]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.13

 

Keywords: Degradation agent; ground contact exposure method; treatability; weight loss; wood

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The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) for evaluating cationic micronutrients of mulberry (Morus sp.) growing under Darjeeling hills

 

R. Kar1, S. Chatterjee2, M. K. Ghosh1, S. K. Dutta1 and S. Nirmal Kumar1

 

1Soil Science and Chemistry Section, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Berhampore-742101, West Bengal, India

ranjitkr4@gmail.com

2Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Kalimpong, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India

 

Abstract: A regional survey was carried out in 78 selected gardens of mulberry (Morus sp.) growing under Darjeeling hills of West Bengal. The diagnostic norms developed using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) was employed to ascertain optimum foliar concentration of cationic micronutrients for mulberry under the study. Foliar concentrations of cationic micronutrients from the said mulberry gardens were analyzed to compute DRIS indices. Regression analysis was used to fit a model relating DRIS indices to foliar concentrations of the micronutrients. There was a positive and significant relationship between foliar micronutrient concentrations of mulberry and DRIS indices. The optimum foliar concentrations of cationic micronutrients for mulberry growing under hills of Darjeeling are 10.55 mg kg-1 for Zn, 2.85 mg kg-1 for Cu, 68.97 mg kg-1 for Fe and 40.73 mg kg-1 for Mn, respectively. DRIS norms evaluated are useful to correct nutritional imbalances and to increase mulberry yield.

[R. Kar, S. Chatterjee, M. K. Ghosh, S. K. Dutta and S. Nirmal Kumar. The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) for evaluating cationic micronutrients of mulberry (Morus sp.) growing under Darjeeling hills. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.14

 

Key words: Cationic micronutrients, DRIS indices, foliar concentration, mulberry

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Condition and it's implication in Nahje al-Balagha

 

Somayeh Ghasemi 1, Dr. Sohad Jaderi 2

 

1. Department of Arabic Language and literature, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

2. Department of Arabic Language and literature, Assistant Professor, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: Condition is the state on which falls in the structure of the statement that contain a conditional sentence in one of its parts and restricted to its special forms. The usage of such forms are in common within writers and literary, so, Imam Ali also had such structures through its precious book under the title of Nahje al-Balagha that collected by seyed Razi. The present study aims to fixate the attention on the meaning then following to that highlighting the implication of conditional structures in Nahje al-Balagha.

[Somayeh Ghasemi, Sohad Jaderi. Condition and it's implication in Nahje al-Balagha. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):115-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.15

 

Keywords: style, condition, Nahje al-balagha, Seyed Razi.

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Effect of transition metals dopants on the Thermoluminescence Properties of Lithium Borate Glass System

 

H. S. Hafez 1, H.M. Essa 1, M.M. Alokr 2 and A.M. Moanes 2*

 

1. Rad. Protection Dept., NRC, AEA, Cairo, Egypt

2. Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*drmoneep@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The influence of dopants Ti and V on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of lithium borate glass (LB) is reported in the present article. Glassy system of composition 70 H3BO3 – (30-x) Li2CO3: x ( TiO2 or V2O5 ) with x ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 (in mol%) for TiO2 and from 0.1 to 0.5 (in mol%) for V2O5 was prepared by convention melt quenching method. The samples were exposed to different γ-ray doses in the range of 1–10 Gy and their thermoluminescence signals (TL) were recorded in the temperature range from 50 to 400 C. It was observed that the optimum concentration which enhanced the (LB) were 0.6 mol and 0.2 mol of TiO2 and V2O5 respectively. The glow curves of the two series LB:Ti and LB:V have two overlapped peaks at 373, 377 and 375, 377C respectively.  The TL response of the principal peak exhibited linear increase with the dose. The comparison of TL response of the studied glasses with that of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) indicates an improvement in the dose response in terms of linearity and low sensitivity for measurement of doses.

[Hafez HS, Essa HM, Alokr MM aand Moanes AM. Effect of transition metals dopants on the Thermoluminescence Properties of Lithium Borate Glass System. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):119-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.16

 

Keywords: Thermoluminescence; LB glasses; Sensitization

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Optical and Upconversion properties of Nd+3 doped lead borate barium glass system

 

M. A. Farag 1*, K. Abd-Allah 1, G. Turky 2 and M.M. Alokr 1

 

1. Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Microwave Physics Department, National research center, Cairo, Egypt

*Mohafar2010@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Borate glassy system of the composition 30B2O3 - 30Bi2O3 -20Li2O-10BaO - 10PbO - x Nd2O3 mole %, where x = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4, has been prepared by conventional melting quenching method. The non- crystalline nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by X-ray. Density and molar volume of the prepared samples had been measured. Optical parameters, optical band gap, absorption coefficient, refractive index, and upconversion, had been obtained. The prepared blank sample show high transmittance in the range (2500-450 nm), high density (6.3 g/cm3), wide band gap (2.43 eV) and high refractive index (2.70). The spectra show seven absorption bands located at  872, 806, 750, 684, 586, 528 and 516 nm which is originates from the transition from the ground to the exited states 4F3/2, 4F5/2, 7F7/2, 4F9/2, 2H11/2, 4G7/2 and 4G9/2 respectively.  Using 800 nm as excitation wavelength; four upconversion bands centered at 730, 716, 700 and 540 nm were observed.  The bands  corresponding to the transitions 4F 7/2 + 4S 3/2  4 I 9/2 ,4F 7/2 + 4S 3/2  4 I 9/2 ,  4F 9/2   4 I 9/2 and  4G 7/2     4I9/2 , respectively.

[Farag MA, Abd-Allah K, Turky G and Alokr MM. Optical and Upconversion properties of Er+3 doped lead borate barium glass system. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):123-129]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.17

 

Keywords: Borate glass; Upconversion; Rare earth ions

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Estimation of  235U Mass in Natural and Depleted Uranium Samples With Different Matrix Materials Using the Active-Well Neutron Coincidence Counter

 

M. H. Hazzaa 1, W. I. Zidan 1, N. M. Ibrahiem 1, M. Y. Hassaan 2 and A. G. Mostafa 2*

 

1. Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA), Department of Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection,  Nasr City, P.O. Code 11762, Cairo, Egypt

2. ME Lab., Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An active-well neutron coincidence counter (AWCC) was applied to estimate 235U mass by measuring the real coincidence count rate. Samples of different configurations and various chemical compositions were measured. This estimation was carried out via two main steps. Firstly, different experimental setup configurations (for the detector and samples) were modeled by Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP-5) to calculate, numerically, the fission rates from nuclear material samples for each configuration.  Secondly, the absolute efficiency of the detector was calculated using a standard sample of 1.068 kg natural uranium metal (of a cylindrical shape) to measure the neutron coincidence efficiency of the AWCC.  Also other samples of 285.4 and 181.5 g of UF4 and (NH4)U2O7 respectively of natural uranium were also investigated. A semi-empirical calibration curve relates 235U mass content in each modeled setup configuration with its corresponding measured real coincidence count rate was constructed. 235U masses estimated from the calibration curve were found in agreement with the measured values within the limits of error. An accuracy better than 4.9% was achieved with an average precision of about 4%.

[Hazzaa MH, Zidan WI, Ibrahiem NM, Hassaan MY and Mostafa AG. Estimation of  235U Mass in Natural and Depleted Uranium Samples With Different Matrix Materials Using the Active-Well Neutron Coincidence Counter. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):130-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.18

 

Keywords: Nucelar safeguards; Uranium mass content; Monte Carlo; Calibration of detector; AWCC

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Pattern of Paediatric Neurological Disorders in Paediatric Neurology Unit of AL-Azhar University Hospitals in Egypt

 

Shora Y. Darwish, Morsy A. Ammar, Hassan K. Gad, Hussein A. El-Gharieb, Mohie El –Din T. Mohamed, Ahmed M. El-metwaly

 

Departments of Neurology, Community Medicine and Public Health, AL-Azhar University, Cairo; Egypt

Mohey.tharwat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Paediatric neurological disorders in developing countries are important causes of mortality and morbidity and are therefore sources of major concern to parents and health workers worldwide. Studies on the pattern of neurological disorders in children are valuable in understanding trends and characteristics of these conditions and also for preventive health purposes. There are limited data on the pattern and prevalence of paediatric neurologic conditions in Egypt. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the patterns of neurological disorders in a sample of Egyptian children at the Paediatric Neurology Unit of AL-Azhar University Hospitals. Subjects and methods: The present study included all children attended to Paediatric Neurology Unit (outpatient and inpatient) of Al-Azhar University Hospitals in the period between the beginnings of October, 2013 to the end of March 2014. All children below 18 years were included. Complete clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation was done according to each case. Descriptive statistics was used to present the results. Results: During this period a total of 536 patients presented with different neurological disorders were seen. There were 299 males (55.78 %) and 237 females (44.22 %). Epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders were the commonest neurological disorders accounted for about 172 cases (32.08%), epilepsy cases were 162 cases (30.22 %) and breath-holding spells cases were 10 cases (1.86 %). Out of all epileptic cases, grand mal seizure was the predominant type occurred in 65 (40.12%). The second common neurological disorder was cerebral palsy which was found in 104 cases (19.40%). Spastic quadriplegic type was the commonest type (53.85%). There was a significant relation between cerebral palsy and epilepsy, which was found in 63 cases (60.58 %) of CP children. The most common etiology of CP was neonatal asphyxia which was found in 76 cases (73.08%).Headaches accounted for 40 cases (7.46 %) of neurological disorders. Conclusion: Wide spectrums of neurological disorders occur in our country and constitute a huge burden for children in Egypt. The higher frequency of epilepsy and cerebral palsy suggests that priority should be given to research, education and preventive measures with early diagnosis and proper management.

[Shora Y. Darwish, Morsy A. Ammar, Hassan K. Gad, Hussein A. El-Gharieb, Mohie El –Din T. Mohamed, Ahmed M. El-metwaly Pattern of Paediatric Neurological Disorders in Paediatric Neurology Unit of AL-Azhar University Hospitals in Egypt. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):139-144]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.19

 

Key words: neurological disorders; children; cerebral palsy; epilepsy; Egypt

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Candiduria in Intensive Care Unit Patients

 

Almahdy Mohamed Alatrouny1, Mohamed Abdel-Hameed Amin1, Fareid Fareid Attia2, Mostafa A. Hawary2, Heba Fadl A. Hamid3

 

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology

2Tropical Medicine. Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3Department of Tropical Medicine National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Egypt

almahdym@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common health care associated infections. Candiduria is often observed in hospitalized patients. It represents a therapeutic challenge for the physicians as it is often asymptomatic. In the present study, 300 ICU patient urine specimens were investigated for presence of Candida Spp. Candiduria was found in urine samples of 22.3% of patients. The predominant species was C. albicans (83.58 %), followed by C. tropicalis (8.96%), C. glabrata (5.97 %), and C. parapsilosis (1. 49 %). Antibiotic therapy, urinary catheterization and Prolonged hospital stay, were found as a significant risk factors.The high frequency of candiduria and the possible predisposing factors in the ICU patients showing that candiduria surveillance should be performed to help in reducing nosocomial infections.

[Almahdy Mohamed Alatrouny, Mohamed Abdel-Hameed Amin, Fareid Fareid Attia, Mostafa A. Hawary, HebaFadl A. Hamid. Candiduria In Intensive Care Unit Patients. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):145-148]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.20

 

Key words: Candiduria, Intensive Care

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Histological Study on the Effect of Iron-Deficient Diet on Adult Male Albino Rat Tongue

 

Gamal M Hagras, Ahmed A Ali, Magda A Mansour, Amira F Ali and Haitham M Sewilam

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.

elkashefdalia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. The oral cavity is one of the first sites where iron deficiency can be clinically noted. Objective: This study was aimed to clarify the histological changes in tongue of albino rats due to intake of iron deficient-diet and to study the role of balanced diet, either alone or with therapeutic iron supplement. Materials and methods: 30 adult male rats were divided into control group I (N:12), was fed a balanced diet for 8 weeks and experimental group II (N:18), was fed iron-deficient diet for 8 weeks, then was further divided into 3 subgroups (6 rats/each); II A group was sacrificed after 8 weeks, II B was fed a balanced diet for further 2 weeks and II C was fed a balanced diet with daily oral iron supplement for further 2 weeks. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and at the end of the study. At sacrifice, blood samples were collected for estimation of serum iron and haemoglobin. Tongue samples (anterior 2/3) were fixed and then processed for both L/M and Scanning E/M studies. Results revealed that iron-deficient group IIA revealed histological changes on both L/M and E/M levels and significant decrease in body weight, serum iron and haemoglobin levels. Administration of a balanced diet (G IIB) resulted in little improvement. However, concomitant intake of balanced diet with iron supplement (G IIC) revealed good improvement of the previous parameters. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that iron deficiency induced structural alteration in rat tongue. However, after 2 weeks of iron supplementation with balanced diet revealed good amelioration of tongue structure. So, iron supplement is recommended for subjects who need iron as children and women of reproductive age.

[Gamal M Hagras, Ahmed A Ali, Magda A Mansour, Amira F Ali and Haitham M Sewilam. Histological Study on the Effect of Iron-Deficient Diet on Adult Male Albino Rat Tongue. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):149-160]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.21

 

Key words: Iron deficiency, Tongue, Histology and SEM.

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Histological Changes in Cornea Following Repeated Exposure to Benzalkonium Chloride and the Possible Protective Effect of Topically Applied Sodium Hyaluronate

 

Maha E. Soliman, Bothina L. Mahmoud, Maisa A. Kafafy, Hala M. El Haroun, Doaa M. Mohamed

 

Department of histology, Faculty of Medicine- Menoufyia University, Egypt

doaamostafa189@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the cornea of adult albino rats and to establish the possible protective effect of Sodium hyaluronate. Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is the most common preservative used in ophthalmic preparations to treat glaucoma and ocular surface disease. However, it has shown to be highly toxic. Material and Method: Forty adult male albino rats weighting 100-150g were divided into five groups: group (1), 5 rats kept without any treatment. Group (2), 10 rats received 10l of 0.02% BAC for 2 weeks. Rats of this group were divided into2 equal subgroups. Subgroup (A) was sacrificed after 2 weeks. Subgroup (B) was left for another 2 weeks without treatment and served as recovery group, Group (3) 10 rats received 10 l of 0.01% BAC for 2 weeks. Rats of this group were divided into2 equal subgroups. Subgroup (A) was sacrificed after 2 weeks. Subgroup (B) was left for another 2 weeks without treatment and served as recovery group, Group (4), 5 rats received 10l of 1% sodium hyaluronate for 2 weeks, Group (5), 10 rats received sodium hyaluronate and BAC. Rats of this group were divided into 2equal subgroups. Subgroup (A) received sodium hyaluronate and 0.02% BAC for 2 weeks. Subgroup (B) received sodium hyaluronate and 0.01% BAC for 2 weeks. At the end of the study, samples were dissected, processed for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies. Results: Rats treated with 0.02% BAC showed degeneration of corneal epithelial cells which appeared vacuolated giving bubble like appearance with exfoliation of the upper surface cells together with distortion of Bowman's layer and stroma giving a strong positive immunoreactivity for caspase-3. These degenerative changes were less after treatment with 0.01% of BAC. Mild amelioration of these changes was detected after 2 weeks from stopping treatment especially in low dose of BAC. Concomitant administration of sodium hyaluronate and BAC makes improvement and unremarkable changes in the histological pictures of cornea especially in low dose. Conclusion: Exposure to BAC led to pronounced corneal damage in adult albino rats. These changes can be improved by concomitant administration of Sodium hyaluronate and BAC, which had antioxidant properties and could decrease cell apoptosis and corneal damage induced by BAC.

[Maha E. Soliman, Bothina L. Mahmoud, Maisa A. Kafafy, Hala M. El Haroun, Doaa M. Mohamed. Histological Changes in Cornea Following Repeated Exposure to Benzalkonium Chloride and the Possible Protective Effect of Topically Applied Sodium Hyaluronate. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):161-171]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.22

 

Keywords: Cornea, Benzalkonium chloride, Sodium hyaluronate

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Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration (EVO) versus Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation (EVL) in Patients with Acute Gastro Osophageal Varices-1 (GOV-1) Bleeding

 

Mohamed Abd El-Rasheed1 and Mohamed Salah2

 

1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

m-allam74@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Gastric variceal bleeding is an important cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Gastric variceal bleeding is less common than esophageal variceal bleeding, but bleeding from gastric varices is more severe and more difficult to treat. Aim: To compare endoscopic band ligation versus tissue adhesive glue for treatment of gastro-osophageal varices-1 (GOV-1) bleeding, as regard the success of haemostasis and rate of rebleeding. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2014 at Al-Hussien University Hospital, a total of 35 patients with acute gastric varices (GOV-1) bleeding were endoscopically treated (23 patients received Histoacryl injections and 12 patients underwent endoscopic band ligation). Results:- Patients of the two groups had no significant differences as regard, age and sex variation, clinical presentation, laboratory images findings, Child classification or endoscopic morphological grades of GV. Five patients were complicated; 3 cases of post-procedure fever (2 of EVO-group and 1 of EVL-group) as well as 1 case of chest infection (EVO-group) and 1 patient with tearing retrosternal pain with free ECG (EVL-group), with no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Rebleeding rates of 13% (3/23) in EVO-group versus 16.6% (2/12) in EVL-group, with no significant differences. Conclusion: Endoscopic variceal ligation could be used in treatment of gastro-esophageal varices-1 bleeding with the same results of Histoacryl injections as regard the success of haemostasis and rate of rebleeding.

[Mohamed Abd El-Rasheed  and Mohamed Salah. Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration (EVO) versus Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation (EVL) in Patients with Acute Gastro Osophageal Varices-1 (GOV-1) Bleeding. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):172-174]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.23

 

Keywords: Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration (EVO), Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation (EVL) and Acute Gastro Osophageal Varices-1 (GOV-1)

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Early changes in the normal appearing white matter by diffusion tractography in patients with acute demyelinating optic neuritis

 

FathiAfify1, Nabil Hussein1, Sayed El-Zayat1, Mohammed Fouad2, SabryFathy1, Hassan Gad1, Wael Osman1, AymanNasef, 3Ahmad Esmat1

 

1Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, AlAzhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, AlAzhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

waelnada72@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Acute optic neuritis is the initial presentation in approximately 20% of cases of multiple sclerosis. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive for detecting brain lesions in most, but not all patients. Diffusion tractography provides information about the diffusion properties of water molecules and microstructural tissue changes not visible on conventional MRI. The aim of the study was to assess the early diffusion changes of the normal appearing white matter in patients with optic neuritis. Methods: The present study included 26 patients with acute demyelinating optic neuritis and 10 age and sex matched healthy controls. All patients had normal conventional MRI brain. Diffusion MRI tractography was done to all patients within the first 3 days of onset. Diffusion parameters including apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy were measured in different regions of white matter. Results: Compared with controls all patients showed significant decreased mean fractional anisotropy in the normal appearing white matter (P<0.05). We found no significant difference in the ADC values in patients when compared with the control group (P >0.05). The study showed that FA is sensitive than ADC for detection of white matter abnormalities in demyelinating optic neuritis patients. Corpus callosum is an early site for development of white matter anisotropy changes in patients with optic neuritis. Conclusion: DTI tractography seems to provide available means of indirectly detecting subtle changes in the normal appearing white matter not visible on the conventional brain MRI.  FA is more sensitive than ADC to detect white matter damage in demyelinating optic neuritis patients.

[Fathi Afify, Nabil Hussein, Sayed El-Zayat, Mohammed Fouad, Sabry Fathy, Hassan Gad, Wael Osman, Ayman Nasef, and Ahmad Esmat. Early changes in the normal appearing white matterby diffusion tractography in patients with acute demyelinating optic neuritis. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):175-180]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.24

 

Key words: white matter, Optic neuritis, diffusion tractography

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Distribution of blaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like genes among Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. Isolates inAin Shams University Hospitals

 

Soha A. El-Hady and Makram F. Attalah

 

Microbiology& Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine-Ain Shams University, Egypt

f_makram@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacterspp.has emerged globally. Theobjective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of antibiotics resistance and the distribution of blaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like genes in Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates. Subjects and methods:A total of 50 independent clinical Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from Central laboratories of Ain Shams University Hospitals (ASUHs) during the period from February to October 2014 to determine the distribution of blaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like genes in Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp.All isolates were cultured, subjected to biochemical testing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The distribution of blaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like genes were investigated in the Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.Results: Resistance pattern of clinical isolates were 74% to ampicillin /sulbactam, 62% to levofloxacin, 56% to imipenem, 48% to meropenem, 39% to cefepime, 38% to gentamicin, 28% to ceftazidime, and 13% cefoperazone. Overall, 38% (19/50) of the isolates were characterized as Carbapenem-resistant. The study of distribution of carbapenemase blaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like genes in the Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates, revealed that all Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (n=19) tested were negative for blaOXA-40-like, on the contrary, alleles encoding OXA-58-like enzymes (blaOXA58-like) were detected in three isolates (3/19). It could be concluded thatthe prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. was high in Ain ShamsUniversity hospital. And the distribution ofblaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like among Carbapenem-resistantAcinetobacter species was low and there was no association between antibiotic resistance and the presence of these genes inCarbapenem-resistantAcinetobacter spp.

[Soha A. El-Hady and Makram F. Attalah. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Distribution of blaOXA-58-like and blaOXA-40-like genes among Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in Ain Shams University Hospitals. Nat Sci 2015;13(5):181-186]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 25

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130515.25

 

Keywords: Acinetobacter,Carbapenem-resistant, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multiplex PCR, bla OXA genes.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 14, 2015.

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