Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740; Monthly 
Volume 13 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 100), July 25, 2015
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1307


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Titles / Authors





Evaluation innovation prioritizing to use new technology in urban management (Case study: water and wastewater organization)


Hosein Esmaeili Niasan


Postgraduate degree in Information Technology Management, Islamic Azad University, E campus


Abstract: This paper is concerned with the ability of water and wastewater organization to innovate and successfully achieve technological and organizational change. Interaction between institutional change and technological change poses important constraints on transitions of urban water systems to a state that can meet future needs. It recognizes the complexity of the issues that contribute to the management of such change and the role of the learning organization. Research on urban water and other technology-dependent systems provides insights that are valuable to technology researchers interested in assuring that their efforts will have an impact. In the context of research on institutional change, innovation is the development, application, diffusion, and utilization of new knowledge and technology. To solve current urban water infrastructure challenges, technology-focused researchers need to recognize the intertwined nature of technologies and institutions and the social systems that control change. Given the technical and institutional challenges facing urban water, design of future urban water institutions needs to consider innovation. Doing so is nontrivial because of the nature of innovation, which is by definition impossible to predict. While institutional reforms will be critical to fostering future innovation in urban water, a successful, generalizable model has yet to emerge.

[Hosein Esmaeili Niasan. Evaluation innovation prioritizing to use new technology in urban management Case study: water and wastewater organization). Nat Sci 2015;13(7):1-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1



Keywords: urban management, Innovation, technology systems

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Pentraxin 3 in Hemodialysis Patients: Relationship to Co-morbidities


Aziza Ahmed El Sebai, Eman Saleh El Hadidi, Hala Abdel Al *and Engy Yousry El Sayed **


*Departments of Clinical and Chemical Pathology and **Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ain Shams University


Abstract: Hemodialysis (HD), despite being the most common treatment modality for end stage renal disease (ESRD); the mortality rate in HD patients from co-morbidities still remains higher than 20-50 % per year. The aim of this study was to measure the plasma level of pentraxin 3 (PXT3) in patients on maintenance HD and to assess its relationships to co-morbidities such as malnutrition and associated co-morbid diseases. This case-control study included 50 HD patients, 30 ESRD patients and 30 healthy controls. HD patients were classified into different subgroups according to the Davies co-morbidity index and malnutrition score. Plasma pentraxin3 (PTX3) was analyzed by a sandwich ELISA technique. Plasma level of PTX3 reached its highest levels in HD patients followed by ESRD patients as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, within the different subgroups, the highest levels and the highest odd ratio of PTX3 were detected in the subgroups having the highest Davies co-morbidity index, or the highest malnutrition score as compared to the other subgroups. At a cutoff 0.6 ng/mL, PTX3 was able to discriminate HD patients with low Davies co-morbidity index from those with both medium and high Davies co-morbidity index with a diagnostic sensitivity of 92.5% and a diagnostic specificity of 70.0%. Meanwhile, the best cutoff of plasma PTX3 for discriminating patients with mild malnutrition from severe and moderate malnutrition was 0.6 ng/mL with a diagnostic sensitivity 90.9% and a diagnostic specificity 41.2%. In conclusion: Pentraxin 3 appears to be a clinically useful marker for early identification of patients with renal failure on maintenance HD who are at substantially increased risk of morbidity. These patients may require care and aggressive follow-up in more specialized units. Such patients would also probably benefit from early referral to a renal transplant center for consideration of candidacy for transplantation and expedited evaluation

[Aziza Ahmed El Sebai, EmanSaleh El Hadidi, Hala Abdel Al and Engy Yousry El Sayed. Pentraxin 3 in Hemodialysis Patients: Relationship to Co-morbidities. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):12-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2



Key Words: Renal failure, end stage renal disease, malnutrition, pentarexin 3

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Biotechnology: A tool for the improvement of human life


Abdul Hannan1, Muhammad Qasim1, Atif Bashir1, Ejaz-ul-Hasan2, Qurban Ali3 and Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa2*


1.  Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, UAF, Pakistan.

2.  Oilseeds Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad, Pakistan.

3.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author’s email: saadpbg@gmail.com


Abstract: Increase in human population has given a big challenge to science to combat with food and health enhancement. With the initiation of biotechnological science a new world of science has opened the doors to overcome these challenges. Utilization of biological systems to design beneficial technologies for human welfare comes under the umbrella of biotechnology. The discipline of biotechnology has now many allied fields. New inventions in the life sciences in past few years have come through biotechnology. That is the reason biotechnology is the today’s science in which happenings are occurring. Whether there is new invention of vaccine, whether we have to make new crop varieties, improve livestock, poultry meat and feed and milk quality and even in war industry biotechnology is playing its important role. It is well proofed that biotechnology has no limits. If it comes to GM crops, biotech crops are unstoppable in yield outcome. The basic aim of this review paper is to through light on latest happenings in biotechnology and to aware the research scientists about its significance in every field of science. All the biotechnology industry with its allied applications is considered in this review paper.

[Hannan A, Qasim M, Bashir A, Hasan EU. Ali Q, Mustafa HSB. Biotechnology: A tool for the improvement of human life. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):19-33]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3



Keywords: Agriculture, Biotechnology, GM crops, human health, livestock, vaccine, war industry

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Renewable Energy Development in Tehran Municipality; Case Study Comparison with IEA Report


Zohreh Hesami1, Ali Mohamad Shaeri2, Farshad Kordani3


1. Ph.D., Head of air pollution and energy committee, Environment and sustainable development Staff, Tehran municipality

2. Ph.D., Head of Environment and sustainable development Staff, Tehran municipality

3. M.S, Energy Engineer of Environment and sustainable development Staff, Tehran Municipality



Abstract: In recent years, most of the municipalities have focused on renewable energy as a straight way toward sustainability, lowering energy demand, protecting environment and society. Policies to promote renewable energy have become increasingly popular among municipalities in different parts of the world, especially somewhere role of municipalities is integrated city management. In this way, there are certain strategies to meet the targets which have been already set. Specifying certain green building standards for new construction and major renovation for any projects using public funds, creating inspiring demonstration projects that meet high green building standards, developing systems where certified green buildings can cut through the red tape in the approval process, tax credits which offset some of the cost for energy conserving projects, are some of proceeds of municipalities to develop renewable energies in action. Tehran municipality has tried a lot to set goals and action plans to promote renewable energy in the city in spite of lack of integrated management in Tehran. According to the guidance of the International Energy Agency report two municipalities with most similarity to Tehran were selected from the report to identify and compare some concepts and policies in this paper. The main goal in this article is arguing Tehran municipality targets and proceeds, compared to Tokyo and Cape Town in order to find out the feasibility and effectiveness. As the result, in comparison with Japan and South Africa, Iran is at the first steps to expand renewable energy and beside infrastructure problems by depending on high levels of renewable sources, it has planned to promote renewable energy at cities and rural. In this regard, according to action plans, Tehran municipality has done projects to increase citizens and authorities awareness about different ways to use renewable energy.

[Zohreh Hesami, Ali Mohamad Shaeri, Farshad Kordani. Renewable Energy Development in Tehran Municipality; Case Study Comparison with IEA Report. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):34-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4



Keywords: Renewable energy, Tehran Municipality, IEA report

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Innovations of Biotechnology to diagnose and Cure Various Human Diseases


Yumna Zaheer1, Arooj Fatima1, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa2 *, Ejaz-ul-Hasan2 and Tariq Mahmood2


1.  Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2. Oilseeds Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding Author’s email: saadpbg@gmail.com


Abstract: Modern world is on the edge of threat of pandemic infectious diseases which are likely to emerged after a period of several events occur inside human system and subsequently spread rapidly within human throughout the world. Today, although despite of extraordinary advances in the development of curative measures; increased global interrelationship yet Laxity of sewage systems enhance the chances of diseases. The frequency of cancer is on the rise in Pakistan; about 300,000 individuals were affected by cancer every year. Non-availability of good quality drinking water leads to the consumption of heavy metals that may contains lead, copper, Nickel, Molybdenum and Chromium responsible for major persistent diseases such as cholera, cancer, diarrhoea, hair loss, typhoid and anemia that affect not only the health but also has adverse outcomes on the economic stability of societies. Modern Biotechnology is an emerging booming field, involving approaches by which human beings modify living organisms or use them as tools to combat against various human diseases. The advent of Nanotechnology and its advantages in the biotechnology has transmogrified human healthcare. Recombinant DNA technology has improved the celerity, specificity and susceptivity of various diagnostic assays. It is also worth notable that the occurrence of cancer is on the peak in Pakistan but the government authorities have not been providing adequate facilities for sedative care. In this scenario, Biotechnology plays a major role by developing anticancer drugs such as cannabinoids and nanoparticle encapsulation materials such as curcumin extracted from cannabis sativa and Rhizome of turmeric respectively and by introducing RNAi pathway to eradicte cancer from living world effectively.

[Zaheer Y, Fatima A, Mustafa HSB, Hasan EU and Mahmood T. Innovations of Biotechnology to diagnose and Cure Various Human Diseases. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):41-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5



Keywords: Innovation; Biotechnology; diagnose; Cure; Human; Disease

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Effect of timely and reliability of financial reports on irrational pricingandprofit and its components


Mohammad saadatniya 1, Dr. Mohammad Tamimi 2


1.  Department of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

2.  Assistant Professor, Department of Accounting, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad university, Dezful, Iran


Abstract: Misunderstanding of investors of the stability rate of accounting profit and the components of cash and itscommitments was led to the phenomenon of incorrect stock prices by investors and ultimately it will cause to allocatenon-optimal resources in the capital market. In this study, the timely effectiveness and reliability of information on pricing irrational stock were reviewed by using the profits and its components in listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange in the period from 1381 to 1391. For this purpose, it is used the assessment system of simultaneous equations and rational pricing Myshkyn test (1983). The results show that the use of accounting profit and its components causes incorrect price of stocks, when the reliability of financial reports increases, the degree of irrational pricing of stocks (using the commitmentand operating cash flow) reduces.

[Mohammad saadatniya, Mohammad Tamimi. Effect of timely and reliability of financial reports on irrational pricingandprofit and its components. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):62-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6



Keywords: profit, operating cash flow, commitment, rational pricing.

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The effect of corporate social responsibility on customers s loyalty with regard to the role of trust, identification and satisfaction of customer


Dr. Ali Kazemi *, Fereydoun Omidi**


* Assistant Professor Department of Management, Isfahan University, Iran

** PhD student in the Faculty of Business Management, Isfahan University, Iran


Abstract: Today, organizations can be more successful in the competition part that they can needs and wants of their customers further identify. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of social responsibility, on customers loyalty. The nature and purpose of this study is descriptive and a practical purpose. The population is the bank's customers of Bushehr city. The sample size in this study is based on Mvrgan- krejcie table with 384 people, these individuals were selected by simple random. Data was collected in the study by questionnaire. Validity of data was confirmed by professors and marketing experts. reliability were approved by Cronbach's alpha. The researchers analyzed data collected from SPSS, Smartpls. The result of this study was that observing social responsibility increases customer loyalty. Finally, it is suggested to managers of Melat bank that on their responsibilities in the field of the environment, people and social institutions and their employees act carefully and in an appropriate way.

[Ali Kazemi, Fereydoun Omidi. The effect of corporate social responsibility on customers s loyalty with regard to the role of trust, identification and satisfaction of customer. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):68-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7



Keywords: corporate social responsibility, customer sloyalty, identification, trust and customer s satisfaction.

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Study of Vitamin D deficiency and CD4+CD28null Tcells and their relation to atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease patients


Ahmed R. Al Arbagy1, Mahmoud A. Kora1, Hany S. Elbarbary1, Gehan Abd-Elfatah2 and Eman H. MetwallyHassanin1


1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt



Abstract: Aim: Our study aimed to detect a link between 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency, inflammation and CD4+CD28null T-cell expansion, which might contribute to atherosclerosis in CKD subjects. Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of mortality in CKD patients. Atherosclerosis is highly prevalent in advanced renal failure and progresses faster in patients with renal dysfunction than in the general population. Methods: This study was conducted on newly diagnosed 40 chronic kidney disease patients and 30 normal individuals who served as control. Common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) was measured with an ultrasound system. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. The frequency of circulating CD4+CD28null T cells was evaluated by flowcytometry.25(OH) vitamin D was measured in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: CKD subjects exhibited higher CCA-IMT (0.970.21 vs 0.560.10mm, P <0.001), hs-CRP (48.725.8vs 6.81.7mg/mL, P <0.001), CD4+CD28null cell frequency (5.71.5 vs 1.50.49%, P <0.001) and lower 25(OH) vitamin D levels 14.99.05vs 47.27.9ng/mL, P < 0.001). In CKD subjects, serum 25 (OH) vitamin D level showed a strong inverse correlation with CCA-IMT (r = -0.699, P < 0.001), with CD4+CD28null cell frequency (r = -0.966, P< 0.001) and with hs-CRP (r = -0.742, P < 0.001). Conclusion: 25 (OH) vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory activation, increased CD4+CD28null T-cell expansion and increased CCA-IMT, a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis in CKD subjects.

[Ahmed R. Al Arbagy, Mahmoud A. Kora, Hany S. Elbarbary, Gehan Abd-Elfatah and Eman H. Metwally Hassanin. Study of Vitamin D deficiency and CD4+CD28null Tcells and their relation to atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease patients. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):75-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8



Key Words: atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, intima-media thickness, CD4+CD28null T-cell, vitamin D

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Correlation between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in children with congenital glaucoma


Hoda M. K.El-Sobky1, Hatem M. Marey1 and Dalia A. A. Nagy1


1Ophthalmology Department-Faculty of Medicine-Menoufia University-Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: This work aimed to study correlation between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in children with congenital glaucoma requiring surgery. Background: Central corneal thickness (CCT) has recently been shown to be important risk factor for development and severity of glaucoma. The clinical use of CCT measurement has become so important that it directly affects glaucoma management strategy in 15% of patients. Patients and methods: Thirty individuals were enrolled in this study, 18 males and 12 females. All children were diagnosed to have primary congenital glaucoma and underwent combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy operation. All patients underwent full history taking, thorough clinical examination and ocular examination was doneunder oral sedation and local anaesthetic eye drops with emphasis on IOP and CCT measurements. The central corneal thickness was measured using (PacScan 300 AP ultrasonic pachymetry, Sonomed, USA). IOP was measured by Perkins hand-held applanation tonometer. Results: The mean CCT was 547 μm before operation and decreased to 533.9 μm after operation with P-value (< 0.01). Mean IOP was30.7 mmHg before and decreased to 11.8 mmHg after operation with P-value (< 0.01). There was no significant dependence of CCT on IOP values measured with local anaesthesia and oral sedation before and after operation with p-value (> 0.05). There wasno significant correlation between the decrease of CCT and the decrease of IOP after operation (p-value>0.05, r= -0.139) regarding IOP data obtained with local anaesthesia and oral sedation. Conclusion: Regarding IOP data obtained with local anaesthesia and oral sedation we cannot depend on central corneal thickness as an independent parameter to monitor the follow up of childhood glaucoma cases after surgery.

[Hoda M. K.El-Sobky, Hatem M. Marey and Dalia A. A. Nagy. Correlation between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in children with congenital glaucoma. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):83-87]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9



Keywords: Congenital glaucoma. Central corneal thickness.Intraocular pressure.Ultrasonic pachymetry.Perkins hand-held applanation tonometry.

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Chemometric studies of water-quality parameters of drinking water-“A case study of Narwana City, Haryana(India)”


J.P. Saharan1, J.P. Deshwal2 & B.R. Deshwal3


1Department of Chemistry, S.D. College (Lahore) Ambala Cantt (Haryana), India

2Department of Chemistry, K.M. Government College (Narwana) Jind (Haryana), India

3Department of Chemistry All India “Jat Heroes” Memorial College, Rohtak (Haryana), India



Abstract: Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life and environment but over the last few decades the water quality has been deteriorated due to its over exploitation. Water quality is essential parameter to be studied when the overall focus is sustainable development keeping mankind at focal point. The present study was conducted to analyze the various parameters of under-ground water in Narwana City, Haryana, India and to check its fitness for drinking. Fourteen Water samples were collected from different localities in cleaned polythene bottles and analyzed for the different parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity (TA), carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, iron, sodium, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate. The parameters were compared with the standard desirable limits prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO), Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) standards of drinking water quality parameters. It is concluded that the water quality of water supply systems in different locations of Narwana is of medium quality and can be used for domestic use after suitable treatment. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of water.

[J.P. Saharan, J.P. Deshwal & B.R. Deshwal. Chemometric studies of water-quality parameters of drinking water-“A case study of Narwana City, Haryana (India)”. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):88-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10



Keywords: Ground water, water quality parameter, physiochemical parameter, pollution, chemometric studies and statically analysis

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Effect of Magnetic Water and Different Levels of NPK on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Williams Banana Plant


El-Kholy M. F., Samia, S. Hosny and A. A. Farag


Tropical fruits Res. Dep. Hort. Res. Inst. Agric. Res. Cent. Giza, Egypt

Center Laboratory for Agriculture Climate. Agric.Res. Cent. Giza, Egypt


Abstract: A field study was carried out during two successive seasons to study the effect of irrigated banana plant with or without magnetic water of different levels of NPK (100 and 80 % from recommended dose) under salinity condition on growth parameters of Williams banana plants. The comparison between actual irrigation water by farmer and calculate Irrigation water was studied in this experiment. The experimental design was complete randomized block with three replications. Results show that: Irrigation with magnetic water significantly increased the growth parameters, yield, fruit quality of Williams banana plant. Also, the rate of NPK (80 % from recommended dose) had a positive increment on all studied parameters and give the similar trend with the recommended dose compared with untreated plants. Growth parameters of plant i.e. pseudostem height, circumference, number of green leaves and leaf area at bunch shooting stage significantly increased by irrigated with magnetic salty water. Time of flowering, harvesting and life cycle of plants tended to decrease with magnetic water. Drip system shortened the life cycle duration of Williams banana. Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), was affected with the rate of 100 NPK of fertilizer under magnetic saline water conditions. The highest irrigation water use efficiency (1.87 and 1.83 kg/m3) was obtained with Magnetic+100% NPK.This result was due to improve yield by using the magnetic water not due to save irrigation. The different between actual irrigation water by farmer in the field and calculation irrigation water need was about 1910 and 1960 cubic meter per fad for first and second season respectively.

[El-Kholy M.F., Samia, S. Hosny and A.A. Farag. Effect of Magnetic Water and Different Levels of NPK on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Williams Banana Plant. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):94-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11



Key words: banana, Magnetic water technique, yield, fruit quality

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GPetrology, Geochemistry and Fractional Modelling Of El-Gidami Neoproterozoic Granitic Rocks, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt.


El Mezayen A.M1., Heikal M.A1., Omar, S. A2,. El-Feky M.G2., Lasheen S.R1.


1Geologogy Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azher University, Egypt.

2Nuclear Material Authority, Egypt.



Abstract: El-Gidami area lies in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. This area is composedofamphibolite, oldergranites (OG) and younger granites (YG). The OG is of tonalitic to granodioritic composition with peraluminous nature whereas the Y Ggranitevaries in composition from monzogranite to syenogranite with calc alkaline nature. The OG are enriched in both Sr and Ba but depleted in Rb, whereas the Y Ghave lower Sr and Ba and higher Rb. Both OG and YG are poor in REE. Fractional crystallization and mass balance modeling are used to calculate the amount of sum square of the residuals (∑R2). The calculation has been performed for granodiorite and the younger granite (monzogranite) of Gabal El-Gidami as one separate system, then granodiorite and the younger granite (syenogranite) of Gabal El-Gidami as another separate system that gives a small value of the residuals which indicates a best fit ∑R2 (0.006 &0.007 respectively).

[El Mezayen A.M., Heikal M.A., Omar, S. A. El-Feky M.G., Lasheen S.R. Petrology, Geochemistry and Fractional Modelling Of El-Gidami Neoproterozoic Granitic Rocks, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Nat Sci 2015;13(7):102-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12



Key words: El-Gidami, Geochemistry, Fractional modelling and mass balance.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 30, 2015. 

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