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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740, Monthly
Volume 13 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 101), August 25, 2015
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1308

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Comparison and assessment of monthly drought determined by two drought indices: CZI, SPI

 

Seyed Vahid Shahoei1, Jahangir Porhemmat2

 

1. PhD candidate in Water Resources Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Tehran, Iran

2. Associate Professor of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Center, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Drought index by using rainfall data, discharge, snow and etc give an understandable picture of the phenomenon of the drought. The drought index expresses in a number, which this number is the basis of the decision. In this study assesses and compares drought indices in three stations Tehran and Qazvin and Khoramabad. To this end from two drought indices SPI and CZI is used. The data used is monthly rainfall data of selected synoptic stations during the period of 51 years (1960-2010). Determining threshold of start, the continuation and the end of the drought specify by using the Run theory. To evaluate drought indices in order to monitoring the drought from regression analysis is used. Following the number and monthly drought periods have been determined by each index. Finally, with determining distribution of drought (according to the number and Period of time drought) this subject was studied that whether according to previous studies carried out existence of a high correlation between the two drought indices can be indicates this subject that the results of the two indices in calculating drought are the same or not.

[Seyed Vahid Shahoei, Jahangir Porhemmat. Comparison and assessment of monthly drought determined by two drought indices: CZI, SPI. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.01

 

Keywords: drought; drought indices; Run theory; regression analysis

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2

Assessment of Poisonous Plants to Livestock In and Around Nekemte Area, East Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

 

Abriham Kebede, Tilahun Zenebe, Dereje Abera and Girma Kebede

 

Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

Email- tilahun.zenebe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted from November 2014 to May 2015 in and around Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone of Oromia regional state, Western Ethiopia with the objective of assessment and identification of the potential toxic plants to livestock. Two types of structured questionnaires were developed and 140 individuals (121 livestock owners (farmers and traditional healers) and 19 animal health practitioners) were interviewed on Voluntary basis from Guto Gida and Wayu Tuka districts. The result of this assessment indicated that 120 respondents were complained the presence of plant poisoning to livestock in the study area. From total interviewee, 88.4% of the people were from Wayu Tuka and 83.09% of people were from Guto Gida. In this study 34 toxic plant species were identified and documented during the study period. These plants were common in both districts of the study area. The major problems that expose the livestock to the toxic plants as complained by study participants were predisposing factors like shortage of feed, water shortage, nutritional deficiency and others factors like sudden graze. The animals were usually poisoned at the start and end of rainy season and during the dry season. The most common plant parts that cause toxicosis to the livestock were whole and leaf. Among the toxic plants Sorgum vulgarae, Medicago burweed, snowdenia polystachia, grass species, Brakenfren (Pteridium aquilinum) and Amaranthus species were the most frequently complained toxic plants in the study areas. The majority of the toxic plants that cause toxicosis to the livestock were by ingestion with single exposure and bovine species were found to be susceptible poisoned animals. The present assessment study indicates the existence of high toxic plants in the area that needs interventions to reduce livestock exposure and further research to determine the toxicogenic ingredients of the plants.

[Abriham Kebede, Tilahun Zenebe, Dereje Abera and Girma Kebede. Assessment of Poisonous Plants to Livestock In and Around Nekemte Area, East Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):8-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.02

 

Keywords: Eastern Wollega, Livestock, Livestock Owners, Toxicosis, Toxic Plant

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3

The relationship between staff empowerment and intellectual capital The Mega Motor Saipa

 

Reza Gholamian

 

Payam-e-Noor University of Damavand, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Both variables in this study are very important for organizations because to empower of employees causes strengthens the foundations of the success of organizations and can strengthen the intellectual capital so organizations with this knowledge in a very high level is thriving. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between employee empowerment and intellectual capital in mega motor of Saipa Tehran. Methods: This research is a survey research based on correlation by use the sampling and can be regarded as objective groups applied research. Population of this research is all the staff Mega Saipa and due to the large sample size was used cluster sampling method. Therefore sample size of 240 employees was selected. That we analyze it with the Spss software . Results: The results of the relationship between intellectual capital and empowerment staff and sub assumptions related to the feeling of being affective at work and a sense of trust to colleagues did not confirmed.

[Reza Gholamian. The relationship between staff empowerment and intellectual capital The Mega Motor Saipa. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):14-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.03

 

Keywords: empowerment, intellectual capital, empowerment, Mega Saipa

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Prevalence, Risk Factors and Major Bacterial Causes of Bovine Mastitis in West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, Southern Ethiopia

 

Umer Seid1, Tilahun Zenebe1, Gizat Almaw2, Abdela Edao3, Haimanot Disassa1, Tadele Kabeta1, Firmaye Gerbi1 and Girma Kebede1

 

1Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

3Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia

Email: tilahun.zenebe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to April 2015 in Shashemene and Kofale, West Arsi zone of Oromia regional state with the objectives of determination of the prevalence of bovine mastitis, isolate the predominant bacterial agents involved in causing mastitis and identify associated risk factors. A total of 358 lactating cows (169 local and 189 cross) were examined for mastitis using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). An overall prevalence of mastitis was recorded in the area 38% (136/358), of which 7.3% (26/358) were clinical and 30.7% (110/358) subclinical cases. Total animal examined in Shashamane was 165, out of these 35.8% (59/165) animals were positive for mastitis, from these animals, 8.5% (14/165) clinical and 27.3% (45/165) subclinical mastitis while 193 animals were examined from Kofale, out of these 39.9%(77/193) animals were positive for mastitis, from these animals, 6.2% (12/193) clinical and 33.7%(65/193) subclinical mastitis. Bacteriological methods were also employed to isolate the causative bacteria. About 83 bacterial isolates belonging to 7 species were identified from mastitic milk samples. The predominant isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (44.6%) followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (18.1%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia were the least isolate which accounts 3.6% for each. There was no statically significant variation (P>0.05) between breeds, parity, age, but the prevalence of mastitis was found to be statistically significant among different hygiene of milking groups and lactation stages (p<0.05). The study also shows that mastitis is significant problem of dairy cows in the study area and the major isolated bacteria were contagious pathogens. The farmers should also be aware of the impact of the disease and practice hygienic milking, culling of chronic mastitis carriers and treating of clinically infected cows.

[Umer Seid, Tilahun Zenebe, Gizat Almaw, Abdela Edao, Haimanot Disassa, Tadele Kabeta, Firmaye Gerbi, Girma Kebede. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Major Bacterial Causes of Bovine Mastitis in West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, Southern Ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):19-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.04

 

Key words: Bovine, Mastitis, Major Pathogens, Prevalence, West Arsi Zone

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5

The role of R & D in the value creation poultry industry

 

Abolfazl Valipour

 

MSc in entrepreneurship, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Industrial development requires research and innovation in them and research and development is informative light for each industry, including poultry industry. The aim of this article is investigate the role of research and development in the poultry industry and determine R & D priorities which lead to value creation in the industry. Research method in this paper is descriptive-survey and statistical community considered consists of experts the industry such as employees, managers and owners in the industry and research and development experts such as researchers, scholars, students and individuals who have some familiarity with R & D and poultry industry. For this purpose a questionnaire has designed and for increase reliability in the form of interviews - questionnaire acted to gather information from 12 cases from group workers and the owners of the industry, and 51 students from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study examined and proposed number of 10 hypotheses and by using correlation test is taking action ranking their impact on value creation in the poultry industry. This article specifies that R & D in this industry with using of new ways the product supply leads to more value creation and this subject as a suggestion for research and development of this industry can forgive more impact on their activities.

[Abolfazl Valipour. The role of R & D in the value creation poultry industry. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):28-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.05

 

Keywords: R & D, technology, value creation, innovation, productivity

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6

Impacts of Water Pollution with Heavy Metal on the Tissue of Egeria radiata (Bivalvia: Tellinacea: Donacidae) (Lammark, 1804) Obtained from Calabar River, Cross River State, Nigeria.

 

Ekpo, Eyo Antai1, George, Ubong Uwem2, Edet, Mercy2

 

1Department of Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanography University of Calabar, Calabar.

2Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

talk2georgeubong@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Heavy metals are natural trace components of the aquatic environment, but their levels have been increased due to human activities which include industrial wastes, agricultural and mining activities. All these sources of pollution affect the physicochemical characteristics of the water, sediments and biological components, thus negatively affecting the quality and quantity of macro fauna stock. Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem threatening extinction of many economic species; heavy metal is one of the most important pollutants that posed a risk to the health status of aquatic system. The progress in technological advancement has led to increased emission of pollutants into the ecosystem. Levels of heavy metal concentrations in the tissue of E. radiata from Calabar River were investigated. The toxic substances in Calabar River showed that their concentration in the water did not exceed acceptable levels during the studied period. There is need for constant monitoring of the levels of heavy metals in the area of study in order to forestall any significant rise in their levels.

[Ekpo, Eyo Antai, George, Ubong Uwem, Edet, Mercy. Impacts of Water Pollution with Heavy Metal on the Tissue of Egeria radiata (Bivalvia: Tellinacea: Donacidae) (Lammark, 1804) Obtained from Calabar River, Cross River State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):36-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.06

 

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Impacts, Water Pollution, Tissue, Egeria radiata, Calabar River.

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7

Dynamic relationship between fluctuations of exchange rate and stock index listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Sara seyed Hosseini Ramezi 1, Habibollah Rasoli 2

 

1.  Department of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

2.  Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic  Azad  university, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: Stock Exchange as one of the most elements of the capital market in the country is able to Flowing and equips of stagnant savings in the country and pushing them towards production, moves towards growth, accelerates the economic development. In this study, given the importance of the market in the economy, we study the dynamics of the relationship between exchange rate fluctuations and stock market index Tehran Stock Exchange. In this study, quarterly data from 1376 to 1392 Tehran Stock Price Index (TEPIX) and market exchange rate will be used. This study for the extraction of exchange rate fluctuations and the stock index, will studied GARCH model. The Johansen cointegration test for the analysis checks long-term relationship between the fluctuations of stock indices and exchange rate fluctuations. The results show that there is long-term relationship between exchange rate and stock prices.

[Sara seyed Hosseini Ramezi, Habibollah Rasoli. Dynamic relationship between fluctuations of exchange rate and stock index listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):40-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.07

 

Keywords: exchange rate, stock index, GARCH model

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8

Geotechnical Properties of Different Foundation Beds of Sadat City- Egypt

 

Mohammed H. Awad1, Ahmed M. Saad1, Yousry M. Mowafy2 and Abd Allah O. Hashim1

 

1 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Civil Department Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abdallhomar53@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research involves the geotechnical properties of different foundation beds of Sadat City. The studied area is characterized by very gentle topography and lack of sharp relief and is covered by Quaternary deposits which are mainly composed of sands and gravels intercalated with clay lenses. The investigation results of sands at foundation levels reveal that the values of specific gravity ranged from 2.55 to 2.88 with an average 2.72, effective diameter ranged from 0.16 mm to 0.87 mm, uniformity coefficient ranged from 1.59 to 13.65, and coefficient of curvature ranged from 0.26 to 1.57. According to unified soil classification system the group symbol of the majority of the studied samples are SP. The values of the internal angle of friction obtained from a direct shear test range from 33 to 43. The investigation results of clays at foundation levels reveal that the values of the initial water content ranged from 7.9 % to 20 %, liquid limit range from 35% to 78 %, plastic limit ranged from 22% to 36%, shrinkage limit ranged from 10.8% to 17%, and the values of free swell ranged from 50 % to 120 %. The results of chemical analysis of the studied samples reveal that the values of pH ranged from 6.1 (moderately aggressive) to 7.9 (non aggressive), sulfates ranged from 0.001% (non aggressive) to 0.88% (aggressive) and chlorides ranged from 25.89ppm (non aggressive) to 1380ppm (aggressive). According to Egyptian code (2001), more than 50% of the studied samples are non aggressive soil. The ultimate soil bearing capacity values of the studied samples using Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation for square foundation range from 1182 kN/m2 to 5433 kN/m2.

[Mohammed H. Awad, Ahmed M. Saad, Yousry M. Mowafy and Abd Allah O. Hashim Geotechnical Properties of Different Foundation Beds of Sadat City- Egypt. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):46-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.08

 

Keywords: Soil, uniformity coefficient, coefficient of curvature, bearing capacity

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One Health Program: Its Future Implications, Challenges and Opportunities: Review

 

Sultan Aliyi, Tadesse Birhanu*, Ayele Gizachew and Tadele Kebeta

 

School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia, * drbirhan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One Health (OH) plans to work locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal human, animals and environment’s health. The aim of the program is to bring desirable change in the public health that resulted due to globalization, growth of human population, ecological changes and technological advancements. The concept of one health embodies the integration of different disciplines to prevent and control zoonotic diseases. Humanity faces many challenges that require global solutions and one of these challenges is the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that interfaces between animals, humans and the ecosystems. The future implication of the program will be improvements of animal, public as well as environmental health. Moreover; the commonalities of Public, Veterinary Medicine and the financial constraints that many governments presently facing are arguments in favour of one health one medicine approach. The marketing of animal and animal by-products between developing and developed countries are also strengthening. Thus; multidiscipline the professionals should be cooperated to implement the objectives of one health program via improving the status of thinking, education system, administrative structures and legislation.

[Sultan Aliyi, Tadesse Birhanu, Ayele Gizachew and Tadele Kebeta. One Health Program: Its Future Implications, Challenges and Opportunities: Review. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):59-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.09

 

Key words: Challenges, Future Implication, Multidiscipline, One Health Program

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Expression of α-Amylase by a Tropical Strain of Aspergillus niger: Effect of Carbon Source of Growth

 

1Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, 2Anthonia Olufunke Oluduro, 3Femi Kayode Agboola, 4Adesola Adetutu Ajayi, 5Patrick Ojo Olutiola, 6Blythe Amanda Burkhardt, 7Sheldon, Jerome Segal

 

ao_adejuwon@yahoo.ca, adejuwon.ao@lcu.edu.ng

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

4Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

5Department Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

6St. Louis University Medical School, Missouri, United States of America

8Director, Division of Population Sciences, The Rockefeller Foundation, Manhattan, New York, United States of America/Adjunct Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, Manhattan, New York, United States of America

 

Abstract: Background: Aspergillus niger is an Ascomycete and a known contaminant of food especially grain products in the tropics. Materials and methods: In the present investigation, a defined growth medium with potassium nitrate as nitrogen source was inoculated with spore suspensions of approximately 5x105 spores per ml of Aspergillus niger. The carbon source was varied and was independently starch, maltose, sucrose, lactose, glucose and galactose.  Bread as sole growth and carbon source was also inoculated with the same spore suspension of the isolate. Incubation was at 25oC. Extracellular proteins produced in medium were analysed for α-amylase activity. Results: The proteins produced by Aspergillus niger in the inoculated medium exhibited α-amylase activity. All the carbon compounds supported α-amylase expression by the fungus. Starch, maltose and bread were the most supportive. Conclusion: All the carbon compounds used in this investigation supported expression of α-amylase activity by Aspergillus niger indicative of a constitutive nature of the enzyme in the fungus. This expression in Aspergillus niger is most supported by starch or maltose when potassium nitrate is nitrogen source; and bread as carbon and sole growth source.

[Adejuwon AO, Oluduro AO, Agboola FK, Ajayi AA, Olutiola PO, Burkhardt BA, Segal SJ. Expression of α-Amylase by a Tropical Strain of Aspergillus niger: Effect of Carbon Source of Growth. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):66-69]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.10

 

Key words: Aspergillus niger, α-amylase, growth medium, carbon source, nitrogen source

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The Lable directions with emphasis on ignorant poetry and the Quran in Arabic Literature

 

Farid Deris

 

Department of Arabic Language and literature, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: This study Look for identify how stabilize directions name with use of library and valuable resources and scientific documents in Arabic Language. the main questions that this study answer them are following: (1) How nomenclature direction by Bedouin Arabs. (2) Thanes formations that dominate on these names. This study shows that correct recognitions directions are important for Bedouin Arabs and they have been used fix directions with create name due to find correct directions form that time and these words expose to exchange and trans formation during the history in that was the main and fix directions as well as relative directions clear for everybody today and recognition of these, name and their changes have important help to literacy men to understand more strictest and correct the poetic texts and lack in their translation.

[Farid Deris. The Lable directions with emphasis on ignorant poetry and the Quran in Arabic Literature. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):70-73]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.11

 

Key words: Bedouins Arabs, events, directions, stars, exodus In the name of God.

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The Effects of different factors on GDP of Pakistan

 

Muhsin Bilal1, Dr. Ahmed Raza Bilal2, Chaudhary Abdul Rehman3

 

1PHD Scholar, Superior University, Lahore Contract: 0342-0656493, Email: mohsinbilalncn@yahoo.com

2Professor, Business School, superior University, Lahore, Contact: 0333-6560982, Email: arb@superior.edu.pk

3Professor, Business School, superior University, Lahore, Contact: 042-35530361-8, Email: ceo@superior.edu.pk

 

Abstract: GDP is considering very important elements in every country. The country of low GDP is live complex environment every time. The use of industry, resources, and manpower, professional’s, material, tools, instructions and food is very important factor in GDP. This research provides complete guideline and directions how Oil prices, foreign direct investments, interest rate, telecommunication and inflation rate will cause to the low GDP. Data was collected through different sites, newspaper, magazines and educated personal of Pakistan so this research is only limited within the boundaries of Pakistan. The results shows that in Pakistan interest rate, FDI & telecom industry have positive impact on GDP but inflation rate and oil prices (diesel) have negative impact on GDP of Pakistan.

[Muhsin Bilal, Dr. Ahmed Raza Bilal, Chaudhary Abdul Rehman. The Effects of different factors on GDP of Pakistan. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):74-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.12

 

Key words: oil prices, telecommunication, inflation rate, interest rate, foreign direct investment.

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Diagnosis and prevention of chronic kidney allograft loss

 

El-Metwally L. El-Shahawy1, Mohamed E. Salem1, Ashraf T. Mahmoud1, Ahmed W. Mahdy1 and Mohamed E.M. Salem2

 

1Division of Nephrology, Department of internal medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt 2Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

abobassant2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Kidney transplantation is the best possible treatment for many patients with end-stage renal failure. Chronic, progressive, and irreversible loss of a transplanted kidney function, previously named chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), is the leading cause of chronic allograft failure among kidney transplant recipients and eventual allograft loss with return to dialysis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. CAN is a generic term of all causes of chronic kidney allograft nephropathy associated with fibrosis. It is clinically characterized by a gradual worsening of renal function in the presence of arterial hypertension and low-grade proteinuria. Histological changes of CAN usually precede functional deterioration and include interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy accompanied by vascular changes and glomerulosclerosis. Both immunological and non immunological factors can be responsible for CAN. Immunological causes include chronic active antibody-mediated and T cell-mediated rejection. Non immunological factors include brain death in the donor, increasing donor age, ischemia-reperfusion injury, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstruction and chronic viral infections. Even if the contributing factors to CAN can be identified, not all of them can be interrupted prior to and after grafting. Preventive strategies include improvements in medical and surgical strategies to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury, strategies to minimize acute rejection and strategies aiming for HLA-matched transplants. Additional measures include tight control of blood pressure, proteinuria, lipids and glucose. Antivirus treatment, appropriate diet, weight control, no smoking and good compliance are also suggested in certain settings. Conclusion: Evidence-based treatment strategies for CAN are lacking, but several prevention and management strategies are recommended in clinical practice. Recommended proactive preventive measures are control of hypertension, proteinuria, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, and other comorbidities. Strategies to maintain transplant function and improve long-term graft survival are important goals of translational research.

[El-Metwally L. El-Shahawy, Mohamed E. Salem, Ashraf T. Mahmoud, Ahmed W. Mahdy and Mohamed E.M. Salem. Diagnosis and prevention of chronic kidney allograft loss. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):79-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.13

 

Keywords: Kidney transplantation, Chronic allograft nephropathy, allograft dysfunction, chronic rejection, deterioration, immunological and non-immunological factors of allograft loss

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Effect of Soil Types on the Preliminary Growth of Jatropha curcas in River State, Nigeria

 

Offor, U. Stephen and W.S. Hope

 

Department of Agricultural Science Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Port Harcourt

E-mail: sos2212003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A preliminary study on the effect of soil types on the growth of Jatropha curcas in River State was carried out at the teaching and research farm, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele campus, Port-Harcourt. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments – sandy, loamy and clay soils were used. In all a total of seventy-five pots were used with each pots planted five seeds. Each treatment was replicated five times. Data were collected on germination percentage, plant height, root length and number, leaf number and stem width development. Data was analyzed by use of analysis of variance and subjected to least significant difference. Results showed that Jatropha curcas perform better in loamy and sandy soil in most parameters tested compared to other soil.

[Offor, U. Stephen and W. S. Hope. Effect of Soil Types on the Preliminary Growth of Jatropha curcas in River State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):91-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.14

 

Key words: Soil types, Jatropha curcas, germination, Growth development and usage

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Growth Tolerance Of Horticultural Crops To Gas Flare In Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area Rivers State.

 

+Offor, U. S, +Jane Onwugbuta - Enyi And ++Akonye, 1. A.

 

Department of Agricultural Science Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt

E-mail: sos2212003@yahoo.com

++Department of Plant Science and Biotech University of Port Harcourt

.

Abstract: Studies on the growth tolerance of horticultural crops to gas flare in Ogba/Egbema!Ndoni local government area of Rivers State using T. occidentalis as test crop was carried out. T. occidentalis seeds were planted on plastic containers and allowed to establish for a period of 6 weeks in a nursery. The plants were randomly selected for even growth and placed at varying distances along a straight line from the flare. The distances are, 45, 50, 60 and 65m respectively. A control was set up and kept away from the flare. Growth measurements-leaf area, plant height and pod production were evaluated on weekly basis. Results showed that the growth parameters tested increased with increasing distances from the flare and were less significant (P<0.05) to the control. It was then postulated that gas flare hinders the growth of horticultural crops in general.

[Offor, U. S, Jane Onwugbuta - Enyi And Akonye, 1. A. Growth Tolerance Of Horticultural Crops To Gas Flare In Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area Rivers State. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):94-96]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.15

 

Keywords: Horticultural crops, Gas flare and growth tolerance

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Providing a Model for Competitive advantage Based on Organizational innovation through the ability to absorb Knowledge Market, Market Orientation and Entrepreneurial viewpoint

 

Reza Ansari , Dr. Leila Andervazh

 

1.  Department of Business Management, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, Khorramshahr, Iran

 

Abstract: Nowadays the most important concern of the organizations is the formulation and implementation of strategies which guarantee their success and survival in complicated and changing situations, so that with active presence in competitive market to gain a share in this market, they show appropriate measures from themselves. The aim of this project is to examine the effects of effective factors on innovation and the effect of innovation on competitive advantage. The Population of present study consists of all institutions of knowledge of science and technology park in shiraz, that is a total of 50 institutions. Morgan tables are used to estimate the sample size and the required sample size is 44 participants. According to non-cooperation of some institutions, eventually 42 institutions, a total of 99 questionnaires were collected. To analyze the data, structural equation modeling is used. According to the findings, all the study hypothesizes were confirmed.

[Reza Ansari, Leila Andervazh. Providing a Model for Competitive advantage Based on Organizational innovation through the ability to absorb Knowledge Market, Market Orientation and Entrepreneurial viewpoint. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):97-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.16

 

Key words: competitive advantage, innovation, the ability to absorb knowledge, learning, market-oriented, entrepreneurship

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A Study Of Three Fault Dynamics Parameters Associated With The Seismicity Of Mid-Ocean Ridge System

 

Olatunde Isaiah Popoola and Nicholas Irabor Adimah

 

Department Of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

nickydof@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mid-ocean ridges are sources of moderate and shallow earthquakes. The possible relationships between radiated energy per area (ξ) of earthquakes occurring along these ridges and certain defined fault dynamics parameters namely ridge spreading speed (ϒ), kinetic energy factor (Ω) and angle of deviation from normal ridge divergence (Ѳ) were investigated for the mid-Atlantic and Indian Ocean ridge using a fifty year earthquake data. The study area was divided into 27 regions and a radiated earthquake energy model was used to obtain ξ for each region while Ω was calculated from ϒ and a parameter that is a measure of the lithospheric mass of the region in kilogram. The results revealed a general increase in seismicity in 25 out of the 27 regions. Correlations of ξ with ϒ, Ω and Ѳ showed high degree of randomness, indicating that additional factors believed to be unique to each region may influence the seismicity process.

[Olatunde Isaiah Popoola and Nicholas Irabor Adimah. A Study Of Three Fault Dynamics Parameters Associated With The Seismicity Of Mid-Ocean Ridge System. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):105-110]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.17

 

Keywords: Mid-ocean ridge, Earthquakes, Fault dynamics parameters, Radiated energy

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Generation of Calibration Curves for the AWCC with Different NM Samples using the MCNP Code

 

W. El-Gammal 1, A.G. Mostafa 2* and M. Ebied 3

 

1. Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Division of Regulations and Radiological Emergencies, Department of Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection, Nasr City, P.O. Code 11787, Cairo, Egypt

2. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, P.O. Code 11884, Cairo, Egypt

3. Atomic Energy Authority, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Division of Industrial Irradiation, Department of Nuclear Safety Research and Radiation Emergency, Nasr City, P.O. Code 11762, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims to generate calibration curves for different nuclear material samples to be measured in the Active Well Neutron Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The curves are generated using the MCNP code to relate the real coincidence count rates with 235U mass contents in samples. This approach will reduce both the measurement effort and the heavy reliance on unavailable or expensive reference materials required for calibrating the instrument. The real coincidence count rates for different nuclear material shapes, compositions, densities and 235U enrichment are calculated.

[El-Gammal W, Mostafa AG and Ebied M. Generation of Calibration Curves for the AWCC with Different NM Samples using the MCNP Code. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):111-116]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.18

 

Keywords: Nuclear Safeguards; Monte Carlo; Detector calibration; Uranium; AWCC; NDA

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Factors affecting physical and physicochemical properties of NR/SBR rubber blends: I) Effect of blending ratio on the stress-strain characteristics for pure and carbon blacks filled composites

 

H.H. Hassan, S.S. Abdel-Aziz, A.S. Abdel-Rahman* and M.H. Soleiman

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

*asabry@sci.cu.educ.com

 

Abstract: Blends of Natural Rubber/Styrene Butadiene Rubber (NR/SBR) loaded with different ratios of N220:N774 carbon black fillers were prepared. The mechanical properties of pure blends and those loaded with different ratios of carbon black were investigated. The (50NR/50SBR), 40N220/(50NR/50SBR) and 60N774/(50NR/50SBR) blends were found to exhibit the highest values of tensile strength and elongation at break. The theoretical Mooney-Rivlin model was applied to NR/SBR where it supports the result of stress-strain characteristics. (50NR/50SBR) blends loaded with mixed ratios of N220 and N774 blacks were also prepared. The stress-strain study did not show any significant change due to the order of addition of carbon black. The values of shore hardness (A) for all samples were measured and showed a marked increase by increasing the black content. The relation between the volume concentration and the filler concentration (phr) for each carbon types is found to follow power laws.

[Hassan HH, Abdel-Aziz SS, Abdel-Rahman AS and Soleiman MH. Factors affecting physical and physicochemical properties of NR/SBR rubber blends: I) Effect of blending ratio on the stress-strain characteristics for pure and carbon blacks filled composites. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):117-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.19

 

Keywords: Carbon black, NR rubber, SBR rubber, stress, strain, order of addition, power law

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Surface Processing of Stainless Steel Using the Channel Spark Device

 

M.A.I. Elgarhy 1*, S. Hasaballah 1, U. Rashed 1, M. El-Sabbagh 1, H. Soliman 2 and A. Saudy 1

 

1. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Enshas, Egypt

*elgarhy@azhar.edu.eg

 

Abstract: This paper represents the surface treatment of stainless steel using the electron beam generated by a channel spark device after 400 treatment shoots, The electrical measurements showed that the maximum discharge current was 500 A at 10 kV charging voltage and the beam current 400 A. The stainless steel samples where characterized using XRD, EDX, SEM and micro-hardiness. XRD spectra reveal that the treatment leads to the γN solid solution formation. EDX spectra shows that nitrogen peak began to increase from 24.733 % for untreated sample to 86.487% in the treated sample. It was also found that the hardness is 1500 VHN on the surface of the treated sample. The surface morphology by the SEM showed that the film deposited has more overlapping semi-flat layers than columnar growth like form of the untreated sample.

[Elgarhy M, Hasaballah S, Rashed U, El-Sabbagh M, Soliman H and Saudy A. Surface Processing of Stainless Steel Using the Channel Spark Device. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):127-131]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.20

 

Keywords: Stainless steel Nitridation; Electron beam ablation; Channel spark device

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A Short Review on Tungsten Expansivity Measurements, Assessments and Modeling

 

H. H. Hassan*, S. A. Khairy, H. S. Ayoub

 

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

*hussamhhassan49@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A short review on tungsten expansivity measurements and assessments, sorted in their historical order since the beginning of the last century. This work include the physical form of the tested tungsten sample, the used dilatometry technique, the temperature range of the measurement and the most important equations for linear expansion, deduced form the regression of experimental data at various era. Most important theoretical models are also listed.

[Hassan HH, Khairy SA, Ayoub HS. A Short Review on Tungsten Expansivity Measurements, Assessments and Modeling. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):132-137]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.21

 

Keywords: Tungsten, Expansivity measurements, Coefficient of thermal expansion CTE

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Influence of γ-Irradiation on the Optical Properties of Sodium Silicate Glasses Doped With Iron Oxide

 

Nassif A. Mansour1 , Laila I. Soliman2*,  Fatthy M. Ezzeldin3 and Ghada M. Hassan4

 

1. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig Univ., Zagazig , Egypt

2. Solid State Phys. Dept., National Research Centre, Dokky,  Cairo, Egypt

3. National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

4. Basic Science Dept., Modern Academy for Engineering and Technology, Maady, Cairo, Egypt

*Lailasoliman2000@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Sodium silicate glasses doped with 1 and 3 mol% iron oxide have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. The obtained X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. The UV-VIS spectra of the doped glasses have been recorded in the range from 200 to 800 nm, before and after γ–irradiation with various doses. The cut off wavelength of the doped glasses was found to decrease with increasing Fe2O3 content, while it increased by increasing γ–irradiation dose. The analysis of the optical absorption spectra revealed that all the glass samples exhibited indirect optical transition. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was found to decrease with increasing γ–irradiation dose, while the urbach energy (Eu) increased. The decrease in the optical band gap and consequently the increase in Urbach energy confirmed more extension of the localized states within the band gap which indicated an increase in the disorder of the glass network.

[Mansour NA, Soliman LI, Ezzeldin FM and Hassan GM. Influence of γ-Irradiation on the Optical Properties of Sodium Silicate Glasses Doped With Iron Oxide. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):138-144]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.22

 

Keywords: Sodium silicate glass, Glasses containing iron oxide, Optical properties, γ–Irradiation

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Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactive Study of Borosilicate Sol-Gel Glass

 

Khairy M. Tohamy 1, Islam E. Soliman 1, Asem E. Motawea 2, Mohamed A. Aboelnasr 1*

 

1. Biophysics Branch, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt

2. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt

*abomalk3939@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Silicon-boron based glass was prepared by sol gel method. This bioactive glass (70-x) SiO2-6P2O5-24CaO and (x) B2O3 in which SiO2 substituted by B2O3 with variated values x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt %. The morphology of the 600 0C heat treated samples was characterized through SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR. The bioactive glass have been analysed in vetro test. The results indicate that after 15 days of immersion, the microstructure of the sample with 15 wt% B2O3 is quite close to that of dry human trabecular bone.

[Tohamy KM, Soliman IE, Motawea AE, Aboelnasr MA. Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactive Study of Borosilicate Sol-Gel Glass. Nat Sci 2015;13(8):145-154]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnsj130815.23

 

Keywords: sol-gel, borosilicate, bioactive glass, hydroxyapatite

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 2, 2015. 

 All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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