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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 14 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 109), April 25, 2016
Cover (pdf), Cover (jpg), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1404

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Yeast, Lactose, and Organic Acids Mixture Improved Growth and Immune Status of Japanese quails

 

1,2Mohamed S. Yusuf, 2Mohamed T. Ibrahim, 2Hayam M. Samy, 2Manal M.A. Mahmoud, 1Hengmi Cui

 

1Institute Epigenetics and Epigenomics, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu, 225009 China.

2Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt.

Corresponding author: yusufm282@gmail.com and hmcui@yzu.edu.cn

Tel: +201221861881, +8618352733365

Short title: Organic production of Japanese quail

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of incorporating some organic feed additives, lactose (G2), yeast (G3), lactose+yeast (G4), benzoic+citric acid (G5), lactose+benzoic+citric acid (G6) and diet prepared without additives (G1), on performances and immune status of one-week-old growing Japanese quails in 35 days growth performance trial. Chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups (30 birds each; mean weight 30.5g), each was subdivided into 3 replicates (10 chicks each). Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency were determined weekly. At the end of the growing trial, 36 birds (2birds/replicate) were slaughtered for determination of carcass traits, and the economic efficiency. Blood samples were collected for measuring some serum biochemical parameters and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The results showed that the BW increased significantly in G2 and G6 compared to control (G1). The BWG was significantly higher in all treatments compared to G1. Feed conversion ratio was improved in G2, G3 and G6. There were significant increases of circulating natural agglutinins and mean serum levels of IgM in G4, G5 and G6, while other treatments showed increased natural agglutinins or IgM levels. Biochemical parameters showed significant decrease in cholesterol levels in G4, G5 and G6, and significant increase in high density lipoprotein levels in G3, G4 and G5. G6 and G2 showed higher relative economic efficiency compared to G1.

[ Mohamed S. Yusuf, Mohamed T. Ibrahim, Hayam M. Samy, Manal M.A. Mahmoud, Hengmi Cui. Yeast, Lactose, and Organic Acids Mixture Improved Growth and Immune Status of Japanese quails. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):1-13]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.01

 

Keywords: Japanese quails, Bio-additives, Organic acids performance, Immunity, Prebiotics

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Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Heavy Metal Remediation with Jatropha curcas L. Seedlings Grown on Spent Oil Polluted Soil

 

Idowu Oluyoye Damilola1 and Fayinminnu Olajumoke Oke2

 

1Moist Forest Research Station, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City, Nigeria

2Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

dextop2011@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Soil contamination by Spent Lubricating Oil (SLO) has adverse environmental effect because of its highly toxic constituents including heavy metals and complex mixtures of heavy Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of this wide range of toxic metals and compounds is responsible for its perceived adverse effect on flora and fauna in particular and the environment in general. This study employed Jatropha curcas seedlings in phytoremediating organically amended and unamended soil contaminated with 0, 3 and 6% (w/w) SLO for 84 days. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and heavy metal concentration of the phytoremediated soil were assessed every 28 days and at the beginning and the end of the experiment respectively. Phytoremediation with J. curcas seedlings was effective in the breakdown of TPH content of the polluted soil. At the end of the study, TPH reduction was higher in phytoremediated soil with up to 91.54% in amended soil and 84.81% in unamended soil at 3% level of pollution. For the three heavy metals investigated, there was a general reduction in their concentration at the end of the phytoremediation process in the order Pb>Cd>Fe. This study has shown that J. curcas seedlings together with organic soil amendment is a veritable tool for phytoremediation of SLO polluted soils.

[Idowu Oluyoye Damilola and Fayinminnu Olajumoke Oke. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Heavy Metal Remediation with Jatropha curcas L. Seedlings Grown on Spent Oil Polluted Soil. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):14-20]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.02

 

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Jatropha curcas, Heavy Metals, Spent Lubricating Oil (SLO), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)

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Effect of Cyanobacterial Exudates on Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria

 

Okerentugba Phillip Oritsegbubemi, Ejileugha Chisom, Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Email: phillip.okerentugba@uniport.edu.ng, Tel: +2348033087332

 

Abstract: The effect of cyanobacteria exudates on aerobic heterotrophic bacteria was examined using cyanobacterial and bacterial consortia. Water and sediment samples were collected from Bodo creek for the isolation of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Physicochemical parameters of the ssamples were determined. The different species of bacteria isolated and identified using Analytical Profile Index (API) include; Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium 2, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter asburiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila group 2, Acinetobacter baumannii, Serratia ficaria, and Kocuria varians. The cyanobacteria consortium obtained from Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt consists of Anabaena cicadae, Pseudonabaena minima, Laptolyngbya sp., Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium, Microcoleus sp., Mycrocystis holsatica, Mycrocystis elabens, Phormidium faveolaurum, Phormidium sp., and Synechococcus sp. The total culturable bacteria counts (TCBC) increased progressively in the two treatment flasks troughout the experimental period. In flask A the TCBC increased from 3.0 103 cfu/ml to 10.3 108 cfu/ml, while in flask C it increased from 4.1 103 cfu/ml to 14.6 108 cfu/ml respectively. The difference in the bacterial counts in the two flasks was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The analysis of the cyanobacterial extract gave leucine, arginine, gluose, oxalic acid, malonic acid, propanoic acid, acetic acid and sucrose as exudates (metabolites). The cyanobacterial exudates obtained in this study can be utilized by bacteria which prove that cyanobacterial exudates can affect the growth rate of bacteria positively.

[Okerentugba Phillip Oritsegbubemi, Ejileugha Chisom, Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike. Effect of Cyanobacterial Exudates on Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):21-26]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.03

 

Keywords: Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Effect, Exudates

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Protection of Potted Okra against Fusarium wilt using Different Concentrations of Bacillus thuringiensis

 

*Okereke, V. C., Rehua, N. & Godwin-Egein, M.I.

 

Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture,

University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

* chykeoky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The bio-pesticide ability of commercially produced Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against wilt diseases of Okra was evaluated in a pot experiment. The experiment employed one cultivar of Okra (Lima F1) and four concentrations of Bt applied at three different times. The experiment was laid out in a 4 x 3 factorial experiment in completely randomized design replicated four times. Bt was applied as soil drenches at 3, 4 and 5 weeks after sowing. Data were collected on plant height, leaf wilt and plant wilt at weekly intervals and the percentage mean values were derived from the data. The results showed that Fusarium sp had the lower prevalence in pot treated with Bacillus thuringiensis. The treatments had no effect on plant height. Application of Bacillus thuringiensis at three levels suppressed both leaf wilt and plant wilt when compared with the control. Lower levels of the wilt diseases were obtained especially at Bt 0.5 g and    1.0 g per 10,000 g of potted soils, and this was significant for plant wilt. Although the commercially produced Bt strain used in this study did not show evidence of plant growth stimulation as observed in the plant height, but was effective in the reduction of Fusarium an important causal organism of wilt diseases in the humid tropics. 

[Okereke, V. C., Rehua, N. & Godwin-Egein, M.I. Protection of Potted Okra against Fusarium wilt using Different Concentrations of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):27-32]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.04

 

Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, Okra, Lima (F1), bio-control, leaf wilt, plant wilt, Fusarium sp

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5

Scoring Systems in Anesthesia

 

Ahmed Abdel-Raouf Metwally a, Elham Mohamed El Feky a, Khalid Mosa Abo El Enain a,

Islam Mohamed El Desoky Yousef a

 

aDepartment of anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya university, Gamal Abdel Nasser Street, Shebin El-koom, Menofiya, Egypt.

Tel: +20 48 322 170; Fax: +20 48 777 620

 

Abstract: Risk predictors and scoring systems are commonly used in medicine to provide a reliable and objective estimation of disease prognosis, probability of adverse events and outcome. Different scoring systems are available to stratify perioperative risk and adverse events in anesthesia. The most commonly used is the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score. While it is easy to use, the ASA score has not fulfilled all of the ideals and many other scores have been developed with respect to organ systems e.g. (cardiovascular system, neurological system, liver and hematological diseases). Postoperative recovery is a complex process related to various outcomes. The recovery can be divided into three distinct phases. Early (phase I) recovery is usually achieved by the fast-tracking scoring system. Intermediate (phase II) recovery is usually achieved by using the postanesthesia discharge scoring system (PADSS) and the modified postanesthesia discharge scoring system (MPADSS). Patients are then discharged home to complete full recovery (phase III). The Ramsay Scale continues to be the most widely used scale for monitoring sedation in adults. However, it includes several categories that are not relevant for young infants. The Comfort scale is the most practical scoring system for pediatrics. The measurement of satisfaction in anesthesia practice is considered as an important healthcare outcome measure. Various tests have been used to evaluate motor blockade during regional anesthesia. The most widely used, is the Bromage scale. Moreover, several scoring systems have been proposed for predicting post-operative nausea and vomiting. The Koivuranta et al or Apfel et al simplified scoring systems are the current preferred in adults, and the Eberhart et al simplified system are the current preferred choice for use in children.

[Ahmed Abdel-Raouf Metwally, Elham Mohamed El Feky, Khalid Mosa Abo El Enain, Islam Mohamed El Desoky Yousef. Scoring Systems in Anesthesia. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):33-52]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.05

 

Keywords: Recovery, Satisfaction, Scoring systems, Sedation.

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Comparative study of nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of educated and uneducated students of secondary schools in Mazandaran province

 

Ali Ramezankhani1, Vahid Keivanfard2, Alireza Khalilian3, Mohamadreza Saeidi Kiasari4

 

1. PhD in Health Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran

2. General practitioner, MPH student, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran

3. PhD in Biostatistics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

4. MSc in Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

vahidk1fard@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge, attitude and nutritional practice of educated and uneducated students of secondary schools in Mazandaran province. This study is applied and the method of semi-test and post-test design with a control group. The population of all school students Mazandaran province, 78,879 people were due to quasi-experimental study, the number of 856 students (428 students of experimental groups and 428 control group students) with random sampling - were chosen as the cluster. To collect data, a questionnaire with 40 questions was used. Contextual validity of the instrument was confirmed by experts and its reliability by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.8, which is statistically significant and approved. To analyze the data descriptive statistics of frequency, frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics, independent t-test was used. The results showed that: the score of knowledge, attitude and nutritional practice of students trained without more training and the knowledge and nutritional practice of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group.

[Ali Ramezankhani, Vahid Keivanfard, Alireza Khalilian, Mohamadreza Saeidi Kiasari. Comparative study of nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of educated and uneducated students of secondary schools in Mazandaran province. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):53-58]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.06

 

Keywords: nutritional practice, nutritional knowledge, Mazandaran province

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Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus L. on different substrates based on JUNCAO technology in EGYPT

 

Salama A.N.A.1, Abdou, A.A-K1; Helaly, A. A1; Salem, E.A.2 and Zhanxi L.3

 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Central laboratory for agricultural climate, Giza, Egypt.

3Fujian Agricultural University, Fuzhou, China.

alaahelaly@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus L. starin 66 on different substrates gave high yield quantity and quality during the two experimental seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Six substrates were used in this investigation such as berseem straw, wheat straw, sawdust, corn cob, soybean straw and rice straw was investigated. The obtained results showed that berseem straw gave the highest values of number of fruit/bag (13.33 and 13.00 /bag) and corn cop gave heaviest weight of fruit body/bag (311.8 and 316.4 g/bag), and dry weight (11.06 and 11.53 g/100g) in both seasons respectively. The highest nutritional values such as nitrogen, phosphor, protein, fat, carbohydrates and energy were obtained from soy bean substrate. On the other side the best result for ash was obtained from rice straw, fiber and potassium were obtained from the sawdust substrate.

[Salama A.N.A., Abdou, A.A-K; Helaly, A. A; Salem, E.A. and L Zhanxi. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus L. on different substrates based on JuNCAO technology in EGYPT. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):59-66]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.07

 

Keywords: Oyster mushroom, substrates, JUNCAO, protein, fat, carbohydrates

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Morphometric Study Of Mastoid Canal And Suprameatal Triangle Of Human Egyptian Skull,With Gender Determination

 

Saadia A. Shalaby,Essam M. Eid,Omar A. Allam, Naglaa A. Sarg and Amal G. Metwally

 

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

dr_amal_gh@yahoo.com, engamryosef704@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the anatomical variations of mastoid canal, mastoid groove and suprameatal triangle and to evaluate the use of mastoid process as atool for sex determination in unidentified skeleton. Material and methods: The mastoid region of 100 dry human skulls were observed for prescence of mastoid canal and groove.If any, ametallic wire was passed through the canal for its confirmation and then the length was measured. Inspection of suprameatal spine for its shape and size and determine the depth of suprameatal triangle or depression (deep or shallow). The following measurements were taken using vernier caliper:mastoid triangle measurements,mastoid length and mastoid breadth. Results: Mastoid canal was present in 28% of total 100 skull either unilaterally or bilaterally.mastoid groove was present in 24% of total 100 skull.both mastoid canal &groove were present in 8% of total 100 skull.suprameatal triangle was deep in 46% of total skulls and it was shallow in 30% of total skulls. The most prevalent type of supameatal spine was crest type (46%) while triangular type was present in 26% of total skulls.There were a highly significant difference between both sex (p< 0.01) as regard mastoid triangle measurements,mastoid length and mastoid breadth. Conclusion: It was possible to conclude that mastoid canal,mastoid groove and the suprameatal triangle presents anatomical variations that may help neurosurgeons and otologic surgeones during surgical procedures which involve access to structure in posterior cranial fossa and mastoid air system.

[Saadia Ahmed Shalaby, Essam Mohammed Eid, Omar Abd-Alaziz Allam, Naglaa Ali Sarg and Amal Ghonaimi Metwally. Morphometric Study Of Mastoid Canal And Suprameatal Triangle Of Human Egyptian Skull, With Gender Determination. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):67-73]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.08

 

Key words: mastoid canal, suprameatal triangle, mastoid process, mastoidectomy.

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Computational studies on the α- and β- Elimination Pathways for the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Allyl Formates

 

Adejoro Isaiah Ajibade, Adeboye Omolara Olubunmi

 

Chemistry Department, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Telephone: 08058584417; E-mail: moadeb5848@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study of α- and β-elimination pathways for the pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamics of allyl formate was carried out in the gas-phase using Density Functional Theory (DFT with B3LYP at 6-311++G (2DF, 2P) in Spartan. The two pathways proceeded through a six-centered cyclic transition state. The result obtained for the [Cα-O, (43-46%) Cα-H11 and Cβ-H5 (9-10%)] bond lengthening character in a single step suggested that the reaction is concerted and asynchronous. The energy of formation for the α-elimination pathway that is elimination initiated from the formyl moiety is lower compare with the β-elimination pathway, elimination initiated from the allyl moiety. The activation parameters [Ea=178.59kJ/mol, log A=10.10 s-1 ∆H*=172.79 kJ/mol ∆S*=8.16J/mol.K and ∆G*= 167.20kJ/mol] obtained for the α-elimination pathway are in good agreement with the experimental value than the values obtained for the β-elimination pathway.

[Adejoro Isaiah Ajibade, Adeboye Omolara Olubunmi. Computational studies on the α- and β- Elimination Pathways for the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Allyl Formates. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):74-82]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.09

 

Keywords: Allyl formates, pyrolysis, pathways, Elimination, DFT calculations

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The Effect of Post Activation Potentiation (PAP) on improving Performance of male sprinter

 

Enas Aboul Ella Mohamed zaki

 

Department of Training, Track and Field Competitions Faculty of Physical Education for Girls, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

Dr.enas_zaki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Post activation Potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon by which the force exerted by a muscle is increased due to its previous contraction. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of PAP on performance (Physical abilities, Physiological, health and Fitness variables). 15 male sprinter, aged (18-22y) were subjected to PAP training program for 8 weeks, 3 training units per week, The unit lasted for 90 min. Physical, physiological, health and fitness properties were reported pre-post PAP training Program. The parameters detected by coulter counter, Eliza technique, pulse meter, Accusport, instruments for Physical detection. Results indicated a significant differences in all parameters for the favor of the post training program, and improving performance, due to the positive effect of the program. In conclusion: The findings reveal an improved performance of the athletes related to physical, physiological, health and fitness properties.

[Enas Aboul Ella Mohamed zaki. The Effect of Post Activation Potentiation (PAP) on improving Performance of male sprinter. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):83-87]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.10

 

Key words: Post Activation Potentiation, Performance, Physical, physiological, health, fitness.

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The Effect of a Training Program of Muscular Balance on Numerical Level and Performance of 100 meter Female Runners with hamstring strain

 

Enas Aboul Ella Mohamed zaki

 

Department of Training, Track and Field Competitions Faculty of Physical Education for Girls, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

Dr.enas_zaki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Balance training has evolved into a very important area of focus for our fitness industry. It has become its own section in exercise programs, where it may take someone the rough a series of balance exercises. Many would describe balance as the ability to remain still over a base of support that is small. There are several things to consider when training balance, body position, footwear, training balance in motion, surface, integration of the body and righting vs. Equilibrium reflexes (Nasher, 1997), (Hong and Chan, 2004) . The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a training program of muscular balance on numerical level and performance of 100 meter female runners with hamstring strain. Methods: 10 female players of 100 meter run with hamstring strain volunteered for the study. They performed balance training for three times per week for 12 weeks. Each training unit included of one legged balance and balance exercises which help to train pro-prioceptive system before and after the end of the program, performance tests: vertical jump, maximal isometric strength of the leg extensors was measured with a dynamometer, shuttle run test, stability posture using Biodex stability system together with numerical level of 100 meter run. Statistical analysis using T test was performed P < 0.05. The Results revealed an increased value of vertical jumps and improved of isometric lower limb extension strength, and a benefit of shuttle run tests, and improvement of balance test after the proposed program compared to the cases before the program. Conclusion: Balance training might improve balance stability of hamstring strain and performance together with improvement of the numerical level of the female runners.

[Enas Aboul Ella Mohamed zaki. The Effect of a Training Program of Muscular Balance on Numerical Level and Performance of 100 meter Female Runners with hamstring strain. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):88-93]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.11

 

Key words: Balance training, performance tests, numerical level, female runners , Hamstring strain

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The barriers to promote female athletes in Khuzestan Premier League

 

Somayyeh Pourgachi1, Sedigheh Heidarinejad2, Nahid Shetab Bushehri3, Amin Khatibi4

 

1 Sport Management Master Student, 2 Associate Professor of Sport Management, 3 Assistant Professor of Sport Psychology, 4 Assistant Professor of Sport Management

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz

 

Abstract: The main objective of this research was to identify the barriers to promote female athletes in Khuzestan Premier League. Given the lack of proper tools to investigate the barriers, a questionnaire was first designed and its validity was evaluated in three stages. In the first step, after literature review, semi-structured interviews were conducted with female athletes and a primary questionnaire with 62 items was prepared. After review by the research team, the overlapping items were removed and finally 54 items were identified. In the second step, exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the number of items and to identify more relevant items. Removing 8 items, 46 items remained and classified in 9 main factors. In the third step, the validity of the structure and test was evaluated by partial least squares method. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity. The results showed that the 8-factor model fits better than the other models. Accordingly, 8 main factors with 43 questions were identified as barriers to the promotion of female athletes in Khuzestan province to the top sports ranks including gender and culture, costs and career, community impact, gender inequality in sports organizations, corruption in sports organizations, management factors, technical factors and gender attitudes.

[Somayyeh Pourgachi, Sedigheh Heidarinejad, Nahid Shetab Bushehri, Amin Khatibi. The barriers to promote female athletes in Khuzestan Premier League. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):94-101]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.12

 

Keywords: Reliability, barriers to promote female athletes, Khuzestan province

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Demographic analysis of the visitors of Sisangan forest park

 

Sedigheh Babazadeh Khameneh1, Afshin Danehkar2, Ghavamedin Zahedi Amiri3, Borhan Riazi4

 

1MSc. in Environmental science, Azad University, Science and Research Unit, Tehran, Iran

2Associate Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran

3Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran

4Assistant Professor, Azad University, Science and Research Unit, Tehran, Iran

saeede_babazade@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the modern world, tourism and its management is considered as an economic power. Since Iran has a significant potential in relation to having natural areas, studying and researching on the factors affecting the tourism industry is recognized as a necessity of studies. This study evaluates the visitors of Sisangan forest park in Mazandaran province with a social approach. Methodology of this study is a descriptive analysis. The first step was visiting the study area and then the sample size was estimated by using statistical methods that the number of questionnaires was 140. The questionnaire and its questions were designed according to the experts’ opinions and peer reviews. The questions include the visitors’ demographic characteristics, destination and park accessibility, travel companions, visit history of the forest park, duration of stay in the park, seasons and days of visit and finally visitors’ effects on the environment. The results of this study show that the majority of the visitors belong to the age group of 25 to 44 years old and most visitors drive to the park. The spring is the best season to visit the park from the visitors’ point of view and most of the visitors come to the park with their family. Finally, the most important impact of the visitors on the environment of park is littering in the park.

[Sedigheh Babazadeh Khameneh, Afshin Danehkar, Ghavamedin Zahedi Amiri, Borhan Riazi. Demographic analysis of the visitors of Sisangan forest park. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):102-108]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.13

 

Keywords: Forest park, Ecotourism, Sisangan, Questionnaire, SPSS

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Genetic variability among different traits of Lepidium draba

 

Muhammad Zeeshan Ali1*, Qurban Ali2, Muhammad Abu Bakar Jaffar1, Muhammad Waqar Anwar1, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat1 and Idrees Ahmad Nasir2

 

1.  Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s email: zeeshan.ali9292@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Lepidium draba or whitetop is one of most rapidly growing weed throughout the world. It caused major losses in yield of crop plant due to its higher plant population, body size and surviving ability under harsh environmental conditions. The prescribed study was conducted at Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan. The data were recorded from three different locations during the start of February, 2016. Significant differences were recorded among the locations and traits under study. It was found from mean performance and GGEbiplot that locations 1 & 2 served as suitable locations for better growth and development of L. draba. The significant and positive correlation was recorded for inflorescence weight and moisture percentage with different plant growth traits, which indicated that the survival and stability of L. draba is higher under different environmental conditions. It was suggested that the L. draba should be properly controlled to reduce yield losing effects on crop plant yield. However, the use of transgenic crop plants and mutation breeding may be an advantage to control weeds and their harmful effects.

[Ali MZ, Ali Q, Jaffar MAB, Anwar MW, Sadaqat HA and Nasir IA. Genetic variability among different traits of Lepidium draba. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):109-113]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.14

 

Keywords: Lepidium draba, whitetop, weed plant, GGEbiplot, correlation, harsh environmental condition

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Biological Impact, Formulation and Field Performance of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives as Novel Plant Protective Agents

 

Nasser A. Ibrahim1, Ali F. Ali1 and Hisham A. Elbakhshwingy2

 

1Cent. Agric. Pest. Lab. (CAPL), Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Locust Affairs & Agro-Aviation Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

naaibrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fungicidal evaluation for new ten benzimidazole derivatives, belonging to three different functional groups attached to C-2 of benzimidazole ring system, was carried out in this study aginst four pathogenic fungi. The tested fungi are Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporium, Botrytis allii and Aspergillus niger. Some of the investigated compounds possessed promising antifungal activities. Structural activity relationship was discussed in this work. The most reactive derivative was formulated in the form of 10% Emulsifibale Concentrate (EC). The new formulation was re-evaluated and its activity was compared with the standard fungicide. Field performance efficacy of the local formulation against some pathogens that cause bulb rotting of onion during storage was also investigated. Data obtained under laboratory conditions showed that, some new benzimidazoles possessed high biological impacts. Local formulation showed also higher activity than that of the standard fungicide under laboratory and field conditions.

[Nasser A. Ibrahim, Ali F. Ali and Hisham A. Elbakhshwingy. Biological Impact, Formulation and Field Performance of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives as Novel Plant Protective Agents. Nat Sci 2016;14(4):114-122]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj140416.15

 

Key words: benzimidazole derivatives, soil borne fungi, air borne fungi, bulb rotting of onion and formulation.

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