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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 14 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 112), July 25, 2016
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1407

 

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CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

Serological Markers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Detection of HBV DNA in HIV Sero-positive Patients in Port-Harcourt

 

Ayodele, Martins Bamidele Oluseun 1, Frank-Peterside Nnenna 2, Wariso Kennedy Tamunoimiegbam 1

 

1Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

E-mail: ufuomartins@yahoo.com: Tel: +2348037055953

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

E-mail: nnenna.frank-peterside@uniport.edu.ng: Tel: +2348033106272

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to detect the serological markers and DNA of HBV in HIV co-infected patients in Port Harcourt. The immune system of HBV infected individuals normally produces antibodies against viral proteins found in the genome. The measurement or serological testing of such antibodies and antigens is the basis for diagnosis of HBV infection. Detection of viral antigens and nucleic acids in clinical specimens contributed to a better understanding of the pathobiology of HBV infection and disease. Twenty-five, HBsAg sero-positive serum samples from HBV-HIV co-infected patients were screened for HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb using the Quick profile HBV panel immunochromatography assay. The HBV DNA detection was done by rapid method using PCR assay with universal outer primers and amplified in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Thirteen, 13(52%) were females while 12(48%) were males. The results showed that, 25(100%) were sero-positive to HBsAg, 23(92%) were sero-negative while 2(8%) were sero-positive to HBsAb. Eighteen, 18(72%) were sero-negative while 7(28%) were sero-positive to HbeAg, 16(64%) were sero-negative while 9(36%) were sero-positive to HbeAb, 16(64%) were sero-positive while 9(36%) were sero-negative to HbcAb. The PCR results showed that HBV DNA was detected in 15(60%) while 10(40%) were negative. Sex distribution of HBsAg, HbsAb, HbeAg, HbeAb and HbcAb, sero-positivity in males and females in this study were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Detection of HBV DNA and screening of HBV serological markers should be considered as part of routine investigation in HBV infection. Adequate understanding, correct and timely interpretation of such results will assist clinicians in prevention, treatment and progression of HBV infection to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

[Ayodele, Martins Bamidele Oluseun, Frank-Peterside Nnenna, Wariso Kennedy Tamunoimiegbam. Serological Markers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Detection of HBV DNA in HIV Sero-positive Patients in Port-Harcourt. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):1-5]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.01.

 

Keywords: Serological markers; DNA; HBV/ HIV; Co-infection; Port Harcourt

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Estimation remaining variance milk yield trait in periods of partial and full lactation based on the analysis of test day records in random regression model

 

Reza Seyedsharifi1*, Nejat Badbarin2, Ali Mojtahedin1

 

1. Assistant Professor in Animal Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2. PhD of Animal Breeding, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran

reza_seyedsharifi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Full lactation period has less remaining variance than the incomplete lactation period and maximum residual variance, all incomplete and complete lactations for milk yield was related to early lactation period. Then rapidly decreased until mid-lactation and finally, at the end of lactation will increase slightly, but its initial value is not in early lactation. In fact, the residual variance not only high, but also volatility in early lactation is also in this period. To obtain separate estimates of residual variance or any day at any stage of lactation leads to more accurate estimates of the components will be referred to during lactation. In the event that the assumption of constant residual variance in random regression models for residual variance will lead to a bias in the resulting estimates, especially in early lactation and also over-estimated the heritability will be roughly the mid-lactation.

[Reza Seyedsharifi, Nejat Badbarin, Ali Mojtahedin. Estimation remaining variance milk yield trait in periods of partial and full lactation based on the analysis of test day records in random regression model. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):6-9]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.02.

 

Keywords: lactation, milk yield trait, random regression model

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Effectiveness of agricultural extension services for the farmers of Khartoum State, Sudan

 

Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan

 

Abstract: This study was carried to investigate the role of extension service in raising crops total product in Ombadda locality of Khartoum State, Sudan. Simple random sampling procedure was used to select 80 respondents from the four villages purposively selected. A structured interview schedule and observation were used to collect the primary data needed to meet the objectives of this study. Frequency distribution and T-test procedures were used for data analysis and interpretation. Results obtained revealed the extension package and inputs production provided there contributed positively in adopting new technologies and increasing crops production and farm income. T-test analysis showed significant difference between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups with respect to crop production. A further research is recommended to identify the farmers’ needs and suggest relevant agricultural extension intervention strategies to be adopted in the study area.

[Bello, AS. Effectiveness of agricultural extension services for the farmers of Khartoum State, Sudan. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):10-16]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.03.

 

 Key words: Agricultural extension, extension packages, crop production, Sudan

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Effects of Climate Change on Field Crops in the Scenario of Food Security

 

Misbah Zulfqar1, Samra Siddique1, Urfa Sehar1, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa2*, Ejaz-ul-Hasan2 and Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat1

 

1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2Directorate of Oilseeds, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding Author’s E.mail: saadpbg@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to overview the effects of climate change on the growth of field crop and their productivity in the scenario of food security. This overview describes the effects of several environmental stresses such as temperature, salinity, drought and elevated CO2, which greatly influence the crop production through climatic variability. Global warming and climate change have severe impacts on agricultural crops, leading towards food security. High temperature cause pollen sterility, lower CO2 assimilation, dehydration of tissues, reduction in pollen germination, pollen tube length, seed setting, grain size, silique, and seed production of crops. Low temperature affects germination rate, emergence percentage, stem length and root growth, chlorophyll contents, Fv/Fm ratio and yield in field crops. Cold stress causes solidification of membranes, loss of membrane functions and impaired with reproductive stage development leads to yield loss in plants. Drought stress has a significant influence on the stomatal exchange, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, vegetative growth, branches per plant, plant height, panicle initiation, flowering, pollen anthesis, pollination and accumulation of dry matter resulting in flower abortion, grain abscission and ultimately reduced seed yield and seed oil content. Salt stress affects germination, crop emergence, seedling growth, the rate of water uptake and significantly reduces the leaf number, leaf enlargement rate, root and shoot dry matter, root-shoot ratio, root growth rate, total dry matter in plants. Elevated concentrations of CO2 results in increased growth rate, respiration, photosynthetic activity, biomass production, water use efficiency along with high yield and decreased in transpiration process. Identifying suitable screening indices and quantifiable traits would facilitate the crop improvement process under such environmental stresses and development of crop cultivars resilient to climate change. There is a dire need to combat the current scenario of climate change by identifying suitable genotypes and management practices to sustain the crop productivity.

[Misbah Zulfqar, Samra Siddique, Urfa Sehar, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa, Ejaz-ul-Hasan and Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat. Effects of Climate Change on Field Crops in the Scenario of Food Security. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):17-33]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.04.

 

Keywords: ABA, Abiotic Stress, Climate Change, Field Crops, Food Security and Production

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Endophytic colonization of maize (Zea mays v.) root plants by PGPRs under salinity stress

 

Hanaa A. Abo-Kora

 

Agricultural Microbiology Research Department, Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt

Lana_allah333@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Endophytic bacteria are a group of bacteria that actively colonize plant roots and increase plant growth and yield. The current investigation succeeded to isolate 18 entophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from roots of Zea mays v. plants grown in saline soil, and evaluate the efficiency of these isolates on the growth parameters of maize plant grown on sterilized saline soil. In vitro, colonization predominantly on root hair zones was studied after 45 days from sowing. All of the obtained isolates were screened for their tolerance to against different concentrations of sodium chloride (0.1, 1, 10, 20, 30 and 50 Mm), bacterial growth and nitrogenase activity were determined. Six active tolerant isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing 3 of them identified as Bacillus polymyxa and the others identified as Azospirillum brasilense. The selected strains were tested in spermsphere model and electron microscopy to investigate the colonization patterns of endophytic bacteria on the roots of zea mays plant. Pot experiment, was conducted during summer 2012 at Agricultural Research Center (ARC) Giza, Egypt, to evaluate the efficacy of these endophytes on the growth and productivity under salt stress conditions. Results indicated that the mixture of endophytic bacteria strains significantly increased growth parameters of maize plants. The plants inoculated with these bacteria showed increase in photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities. Proline content decreased significantly by inoculation of maize plant with endophytic bacteria when applied individually and or in mixture. The endophytic bacteria significantly improved growth and yield components. The increase in total carbohydrates (62.41mg/g and crude protein (4.81%) respectively as compared to control (uninoculated). Moreover, mixture of endophytic bacterial strains increased 100-grain weight (37.12g),nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in grainsin comparison with control. Therefore, these six strains under study are considered good candidates as plant growth promoters endophytes in maize plants.

[Hanaa A. Abo-Kora. Endophytic colonization of maize (Zea mays v.) root plants by PGPRs under salinity stress. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):34-51]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.05.

 

Key words: Endophytic bacteria, Zea mays v., salt stress, colonization patterns,transmission electron microscopy, growth characters, yield

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Determination the Level of Development of Rural Areas in Marvdasht City

 

Hamidreza Shirazi

 

MSc in Geography and Rural Planning, Economy of Space Trend, Payam Noor University of Ardestan, Isfahan Province, Iran

 

yazdanshirazirx@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Levels of development and the level of regions using quantitative methods, on the one hand led to the recognition of inequalities between regions and the other is trying to reduce and eliminate existing inequalities. This research aimed to the city of rural districts Marvdasht using 20 indicators in the form of social norms, economic, infrastructural and cultural - sports results of the general census of population and housing in 1390 with two models, numerical taxonomy has been developed by TOPSIS model.  The results indicate that there is a difference between the results of two models so that the taxonomy model villages Ramjerd 2, Ramjerd 1 and North Kamfiruz and TOPSIS model villages Majdabadi, Khafrak Alia and Ramjerd 1, Rudbal, Naqsh-e Rustam are the best villages. However, the most disadvantaged in numerical taxonomy side, Doroodzan and South Kamfiruz, Naqsh-e-Rustam and in TOPSIS, district of Khurram Makan, Doroodzan, Abraj and Rahmat. Overall results indicate that differs significantly from the level of development of this city can be seen in this county every year, resulting in the migration of rural residents to cities like Marvdasht.

[Hamidreza Shirazi. Determination the Level of Development of Rural Areas in Marvdasht City. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):52-58]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.06.

 

Keywords: TOPSIS model, Taxonomy, Marvdasht City, Villages

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Various types of prodigality, implications and procedures to extirpate

 

Afrouz Mahmoudian (M.A) (Corresponding author)1, Maryam Ashtari2

 

1Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, College of Theology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran E-mail: afrooz.mahmoudian@gmail.com

2Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, College of Theology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran

 

Abstract: The question related to prodigality is considered by Muslim ethics and there are many references to it in Holy Qur'an therein besides the matter of profligacy. Prodigality means exceeding the limitations, moderation, overact and aggressiveness considered in entire acts e.g. eating, drinking, donation, wasting, tyrannizes, commission of sins and etc. The place of prodigals considered by Holy Qur'an is obliteration and they are mentioned as dwellers of the hell thereupon. The reverence of prodigality is obtained by declaratory judgment, consensus of Shiite Jurists, paradigms of Qur'n and traditions. Roots of prodigality stem from foppery, nurturing, moral turpitude, falsification, whim-wham, insurrection, colonization, ignorance, emulation, scourge, poverty, lack of blessings, fall of gifts, ingrate, falter, production loss, class difference, violation of rights and etc thereinafter. The beneficial effects of prodigality keeping off are the following: Securing of financial strength, rejection of financial tort, welfarism, extirpate colonization and eucharis. Proofs related to prodigality are wasting of public domain e.g. natural resources, public fund, wasting of patrimonium e.g. food, clothing, accommodation, conveyances and etc. So we conclude that the recognition of the roots of prodigality and the unfortunate effects of it is very overriding for both upper crusts and other social strata to debar the throw down of capitals and trappings respectively.

[Afrouz Mahmoudian, Maryam Ashtari. Various types of prodigality, implications and procedures to extirpate. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):59-65]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.07.

 

Keywords: prodigality, profligacy, moderation, immoderation

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The Prevalence of Pneumonic Pasteurellosis-Causing Microbes: Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica in Abattoir Samples in Nigeria.

 

Olalekan Taiwo Lasisi1, Uchechukwu Chukwudi Obiekwe, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun2 ⃰.

 

1Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria,

2*Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

elizabethamosun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of pneumonic pasteurellosis-causing microbes: Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica in cattle. A total of 148 bacterial isolates were identified from 100 samples collected from freshly slaughtered abattoir cattle comprising 20 lung tissue samples and 12 clotted heart blood samples collected from cattle with unhealthy lungs showing signs of congestion, pneumonia, oedema or presence of nodules. Other 41 lung tissue samples and 27 clotted heart blood samples were collected from cattle with apparently healthy lungs. Eighty-three bacterial isolates from lung tissues while 63 were isolated from clotted Heart blood samples. Samples were processed and recovered isolates were identified following standard cultural, morphological and biochemical laboratory techniques. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from six unhealthy lung tissue samples (7.22%) and seven clotted heart blood samples (11.11%) of which 4 were from cattle with healthy lungs and 3 from those with unhealthy lungs. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from one (1.22%) unhealthy lung tissue sample only. Six (6) isolates of Pasteurella multocida were found to be motile. Other bacteria isolated in this study include Proteus mirabilis (1.20%), Pasteurella lymphangitidis (1.20%), Pasteurella ureae (1.20%), Pasteurella pneumotropica (1.20%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.17%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.61%), Morganella morganii (8.43%), Escherichia coli (21.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (24.00%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.51%) from lung tissue samples while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.59%), Proteus rettgerii (1.59%), Pasteurella pneumotropica (1.59%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.59%), Proteus mirabilis (4.76%), Morganella morganii (6.35%), Shigella dysentariae (6.35%), Pasteurella multocida (11.11%), Streptoccocus pneumoniae (15.87%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.22%), Escherichia coli (26.98%), were isolated from clotted heart blood. The attention of animal handlers and veterinarians is therefore called to the high prevalence of these highly pathogenic organisms in the environment of the abattoir.

[Olalekan Taiwo Lasisi, Uchechukwu Chukwudi Obiekwe, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun. The Prevalence of Pneumonic Pasteurellosis-Causing Microbes: Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica in Abattoir Samples in Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):66-71]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.08.

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Pneumonic Pasteurellosis, Microbes, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Abattoir Samples, Nigeria

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Dexmedetomidine and clonidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in ultrasound guided sciatic nerve block: A randomized, controlled trial

 

Ibrahim Mohammed Abd-Elmoaty1, Reda Khalil Kamel1, AymanMohamady Eldemrdash2, Mohammed Gamal Abd-Elazem1

 

1Department of anesthesia and intensive care, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

2Department of Anesthesia and intensive care, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt

medookasha70@yahoo.com, Medookasha80@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and objectives: this study was done to evaluate the effect of adding dexmedetomidine and clonidine 1 /kg to levobupivacaine 0.5% with the sciatic nerve block. Patients and methods: Sixty patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery were randomly allocated into 3 groups to receive ultrasound guided sciatic nerve block with ultrasound guided femoral nerve block to avoid tourniquet pain as follows: Group L received 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% for sciatic nerve block and 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% for femoral nerve block. Group LD received 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% PLUS dexmedetomidine 1/kg for sciatic nerve block and 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% PLUS dexmedetomidine 1 /kg for femoral nerve block and Group LC received 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% PLUS clonidine1/kg for sciatic nerve block and 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% PLUS clonidine 1 /kg for femoral nerve block. Onset and duration of sensory block, onset and duration of motor block, hemodynamic parameters and quality of operative conditions were assessed. Results: Onset of sensory and motor block in group LD and group LC were significantly faster than that of group L. The duration of sensory and motor block in group LD and group LC were significantly longer than group L. There was a significant decrease in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure in group LD and group LC in comparison with group L. The quality of operative conditions was better with dexmedetomidine than with clonidine. Conclusion: adding 1 /kg dexmedetomidine and clonidine to levobupivacaine for sciatic nerve block leads to more rapid onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor block and improves quality of block.

[Ibrahim Mohammed Abd-Elmoaty, Reda Khalil Kamel, Ayman Mohamady Eldemrdash, Mohammed Gamal Abd-Elazem. Dexmedetomidine and clonidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in ultrasound guided sciatic nerve block: A randomized, controlled trial. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):72-78]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.09.

 

Keywords: dexmedetomidine, clonidine, levobupivacaine, sciatic nerve block

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Estimation of interrelationship among plant growth related traits of Portulaca oleracea

 

*Aqib Manzoor1, Qurban Ali2, Muhammad Inzamam1, Muhammad Talha1, Muhamamd Aslam1 and Idrees Ahmad Nasir2

 

1.  Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s email: aqibmanzoor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purslane is an important weed that grows in maize, wheat and cotton fields and caused yield losing effects due to competition for water minerals, nutrients and space. The prescribed study was carried out at the Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan during February 2016. Data for different morphological traits was recorded and statistically analyzed. Significant differences were found for all studied traits and locations for study. The results from mean performance and GGEbiplot for mean vs stability concluded that the plant growth and development of Purslane was higher under locations 1 & 2. Significant and strong correlations were found among most of the studied traits which indicated the higher survival ability of Purslane under different environmental condition. The traits total inflorescence moisture percentage, total plant moisture percentage, number of plants per square meter, total plant fresh weight and total plant dry weight showed strong but negative interrelationship which clearly indicated that the reduction in one of these traits may be useful to remove or control Purslane growth, development and plant population. It was suggested that the control and removal of weeds should be carried out to less down the harmful effect of weeds for crop plants.

[Manzoor A, Ali Q, Inzamam M, Talha M, Aslam M and Nasir IA. Estimation of interrelationship among plant growth related traits of Portulaca oleracea. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):79-84]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.10.

 

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea, weeds, correlation, GGEbiplot, crop plant field, yield, stress environment

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Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Function as Indicators for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites

 

Amany H. Lashin1, Mohammed E. Elshewi1, Eman G. Behiry2 and Shimaa M.Elshami3

 

1 Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Benha, Egypt.

2Department of Clinical Pathology , Faculty of Medicine, University of Benha, Egypt.

3B.B.CH., University of Menofia, Egypt.

Amany.lashin@fmed.bu.edu.eg, Mohammed.elshwei@fmed.bu.edu.eg, Emangamal24@yahoo.com, Shimaaelshami2016@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background/Aims: The objective of this study is to measure mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet cluster of differentiation molecule 40 ligand (CD40L) to evaluate their usefulness in the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 80 cirrhotic patients with ascites. MPV and platelet CD40L were measured Results: A significant increase in MPV and platelet CD40L observed in SBP group compared to non SBP (P < 0.001). At cutoff value of 8.71 fl MPV had 68.75% sensitivity and 80% specificity for diagnosis of SBP. At cutoff value of 4,81 ng/ml platelet CD40L in serum had 62% sensitivity and 80% specificity for detecting SBP. Conclusion: mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet cluster of differentiation molecule 40 ligand (CD40L) are useful marker in the diagnosis of SBP in cirrhotic patients.

[Amany H. Lashin, Mohammed E. Elshewi, Eman G. Behiry and Shimaa M. Elshami. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Function as Indicators for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):85-90]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.11.

 

Keywords: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, mean platelet volume, cluster of differentiation molecule 40 ligand, liver cirrhosis

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Parameter estimation using genetic algorithm technique

 

Naji Mohamad Salem Gajam, Sadek. M. F. Elkuri, Yousef Mohamed Khalifa Ali

 

Electric and Electronic Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Aljabal Algarby University, jado, libya.

gjam_2011@yahoo.com, najigajam09@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A system identification problem can be formulated as an optimization task where the objective is to find a model and a set of parameters that minimize the prediction error between the plant output (the measured data) and the model output. The most existing system identification approaches are highly analytical and based on mathematical derivation of the system’s model. As an alternative to these methods, evolutionary computation such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) seems to be a very capable approach, because it needs only little knowledge about the problem to be solved. This paper presents a system identification technique based on an evolutionary strategy. The GA approach has shown to be versatile when applied to parameters estimation without requiring a detailed mathematical representation. and attempts to show how genetic algorithm (GA) can be applied in system identification tasks as off line identification of the Ball and Hoop system as the case study of this work. The least square was used to compare and contrast the intelligent identification techniques with adaptive techniques.

[Naji Mohamad Salem Gajam, Sadek. M. F. Elkuri, Yousef Mohamed Khalifa Ali. Parameter estimation using genetic algorithm technique. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):91-95]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.12.

 

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Least Squares, System identification.

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Bioremediation Of Condensate Polluted Fresh Water Ecosystem

 

Vincent C. Wokem And Lucky O. Odokuma

 

Department Of Microbiology, University Of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Tel: +2348130306131, Email: Chinedivine@Yahoo.Com

 

Abstract: Biostimulation with N.P.K fertilizer (option C) bioaugmentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) (option B) and a combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmantation (option A) as well as option without any remedial treatments, positive and negative controls (options D and E) were evaluated ex-situ in the remediation of artificially condensate polluted fresh water sample collected from African Regional Aquaculture centre (ARAC), Aluu in Rivers state. The monitoring period was 56 days. There was an increase in the total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) counts in all the period except in the negative control option E, which was added sodium azide. Results of physicochemical parameters using ANOVA showed that pH, alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were significantly different at 5 percent levels (P<0.05) in the treatment options, while there were no significant difference (P>0.05) in the following parameters, salinity, biochemical oxygen demand BOD) and total hydrocarbon content (THC) in the treatment options. Using least significant difference (LSD), treatment D and E were fond to be different from treatment A,B and C. the percentage total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) losses from Gas Chromatograph (GC) results, showed the following % TPH losses; option A 99.4%, option B, 99.0%, option C 88%, option D 65%, and option E 23% respectively Characterization an identification tests of HUB reveal that the following genera Bacillus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Alcaligen, Arthrobacter, Proteus, and Enterobacter were implicated in the biodegradation process. The results suggest that the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation or the use of bioaugmentation with indigenous HUB would be more effective in the bioremediation of condensate polluted fresh water ecosystem.

[Vincent C. Wokem And Lucky O. Odokuma. Bioremediation Of Condensate Polluted Fresh Water Ecosystem. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):96-102]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.13.

 

Key words: Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation, Condensate, Biodegradation

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Evaluation of New Technologies and Materials with a Sustainable and Industrialization Approach

 

Maryam Ghorbani1, Hojjatollah Rashid Kolvir2

 

1. MSc student, Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal Branch, Khalkhal, Iran

2. Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

mgorbaniamoogin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, the use of new technologies in industrial methods of building to sustainability in architecture and design were discussed. Today, industry as one of the most important factors of sustainability in the design and use of new construction has played a role. Among these factors, reduced power consumption, fast construction time and reduce economic costs, which has attracted more attention to residents. Other important issues regarding the protection of the environment is the purpose of building waste reduction or recycling may also be effective. The need for housing in safe, inexpensive, and has a shelf life has become important in the building. Therefore, the scientific goals, achieve safe construction using new technologies in materials and sustainability and energy efficiency and sustainable architecture and design strategies for organizing industrial production building in the modular design also accelerates the time of operation of the project. Familiarity with local materials and traditional, the impact of technology in improving the quality of education, the impact of changes in technology and new materials in architectural spaces, pre-fabricated and modular design, origami, in accordance with the principles of sustainable development has provided ways of understanding these objectives and at a lower cost side building would be entrepreneur. Due to the nature of your research objectives in this study, a library and analytical software and has been observed, management concepts, work on the new technologies in traditional materials using modern technology, utilization of local materials, combining traditional architecture with contemporary architecture, modularity is designed and built in compliance with applicable rules and principles of sustainability and its proposed solutions. After analyzing the collected material and taking into account the population, including books, magazines, the media and with the results, findings, interactive traditional architecture with contemporary architecture,  with technology and the use of renewable energy and using local materials and indigenous peoples in sustainable construction, as well as by examining the technologies used in the construction industry, the modular design inspired by the phenomena of nature, with a flexible approach to architectural spaces in front of climatic and environmental factors has been detected.

[Maryam Ghorbani, Hojjatollah Rashid Kolvir. Evaluation of New Technologies and Materials with a Sustainable and Industrialization Approach. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):103-108]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj14071614.

 

Keywords: Technology, Modular, Vernacular Architecture, Origami

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A Review on Diagnostic Techniques in Veterinary Helminthlogy

 

Kassa Demelash 1, Mengestie Abebaw 1, Ayalew Negash 1, Belaynew Alene 1, Mebrie Zemene 2, Metadel Tilahun 1

 

1 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.o.box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, 2 Lecturer at University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. Box. 196.

drayalewdvm@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Helminth parasites can be diagnosed based on clinical signs together with history of the animal. However, requires confirmation special laboratory procedure. If an accurate diagnosis cannot be obtained by other methods, but laboratory procedures are used for what assistant they may offer. The detection techniques of these parasites include fecal examination, culture of larvae, molecular and post mortem examination techniques. Faecal examination techniques are qualitative and quantitative techniques. Qualitative faecal examination includes direct smear, sedimentation and flotation technique. Floatation techniques include simple flotation, centrifugal flotation and FLOTAC techniques. The major quantitative techniques include McMaster, Baerman technique, stool egg count and modify Wisconsin sugar flotation methods can be used in parasitic helminth parasite diagnosis. In laboratory and field diagnosis of helminth infections a great variety of methods such as fecal egg count, larvae count and larvae identification are important. Best diagnostic techniques are very important in order to know etiology agent of similar morphology of helminth parasites like Trichostrongyloidea species using other morphological identification such as sheath tail extension. As a conclusion the above diagnostic techniques enable an individual to identify the causative agents of the parasitic disease so that proper treatment, prevention and control measures of helminth parasitic diseases can be established. The objective of this seminar is to review diagnostic techniques which have been employed to diagnosis helminthes parasite and to summarize advantage and disadvantage of each diagnostic technique.

[Kassa D, Mengestie A, Ayalew N, Belaynew A, Mebrie Z, Metadel T. A Review on Diagnostic Techniques in Veterinary Helminthlogy. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):109-118]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.15.

 

Key words: Diagnostic techniques; Helminthes parasite

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Study of The Prevalence, Species Identification and Risk Factors Associated with Poultry Coccidiosis in Gondar Town, North Ethiopia

 

Belaynew Alene 1, Wudu Temesgen 2, Mengestie Abebaw 1, Ayalew Negash 1, Kassa Demelash 1, Mebrie Zemene 3, Genene Girma 1

 

1 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.o.box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, 2 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, Department of Veterinary epidimeology and public health, P.o.box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, 3 Lecturer at University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy,Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o.box. 196.

mengistab23@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2015 up to April 2016 in Gondar town todetermine the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis, to identify the associated risk factors and to identify Eimeria species involved in the disease. A total of 407 birds were used for the study from different areas of Gondar town. Fecal sample were taken from all the 407study chickens examined by floatation method to detect Eimeria oocysts and identify species. The result revealed that out of the 407 chickens, 218 (53.6%) of the chickens were found positive for coccidiosis.The prevalence was found statistically significantly different (P=0.001) between different age groups which was 66.1% in young chickens and 43.3% in adult chickens. A statistically insignificant difference (P = 0.986) in prevalence of coccidiosis was noted across breeds of chickens, with the prevalence of 54.1%, 53.3% and 53.2 % in local, cross and exotic respectively. There was a significant difference (p=0.001) in prevalence of coccidiosis among the different housing system with the prevalence of 28.6% in Floor, 60.8% in Backyard. There was no statistically significant difference (p= 0.698) in the prevalence between male (54.9%) and female (52.9%) chickens. The effect of body condition on the disease prevalence was significant in which higher prevalence was recorded in those chickens which have poor body condition (69.5%) than those chickens with good body condition (39.6%)). This study showed that coccidiosis was prevalent in the study area. Body condition, age, housing system and management system were found as important risk factors. The most frequent species are Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina).These signifies the need for intervention through awareness creation among farmers and veterinarians

[Belaynew A, Wudu T, Mengestie A, Ayalew N, Kassa D, Mebrie Z, Genene G. Study on the Prevalence, Species Identification and Risk Factors Associated with Poultry Coccidiosis in Gondar Town, North Ethiopia. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):119-124]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.16.

 

Key words:Coccidiosis; Eimeria species; Ethiopia; Gondar; Prevalence; Risk Factors

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Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms

 

Ali Ibrahim Ali1, Diaa Mohammad El Tiby1, Mostafa Abd Al Azeez Al Hawary1, Mohammed Saied Bukeer2, Sayed Abd Elrehem Sayed Ali3

 

Departments of Tropical Medicine1, Internal Medicine2 and General Pathology3, Faculty of Medicine-Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Draliibrahim627@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) is a disease in which upper intestinal symptoms are associated with dense eosinophilic infiltration of the squamous esophageal epithelium or deeper esophageal tissue. Neither symptoms nor eosinophilia respond to the administration of a PPI. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are likely related to allergic inflammation, not to an underlying motility defect as in GERD. In this study we aimed to detect the prevalence of EE in adult patients with various upper GI symptoms and its possible overlap with GERD. This study included 70 adult patients who presented to the endoscopy unit of Al Azhar university hospitals in Cairo (Al Hussein and Sayed Galal) in the period from 1st of January 2015 till 30th of June 2015, complaining of various upper GI symptoms such as heartburn, dysphagia/odynophagia, food impaction, vomiting and abdominal pain. All patients were subjected to the following: 1- Detailed history taking and clinical examination. 2- Laboratory investigations (liver function tests, renal function tests, complete blood count, serum Ig E level, stool analysis and pregnancy test for female participants. 3-Upper GI endoscopy and three biopsies at least were taken from 2 different sites in the esophagus including the distal and either mid or proximal esophagus even if the esophagus appeared endoscopically normal to detect endoscopic findings suggestive of EE and to be preserved in 10% formalinand examined by histopathologist after staining with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Results: Mean age of the participants was 34 years with a standard deviation of 9.9 years. Eight patients were complaining of dysphagia; only three of them proved to be EE by histopathological examination in spite of normal endoscopic examination in two of them. Conclusion: 1- EE is more common in males and normal endoscopic examination of the esophagus does not exclude EE. 2-Dysphagia is the main presenting symptom of EE while heart burn is more common in GERD. 3- Eeosinophilic biopsy is the only inclusion criterion for diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (>15 eosinophils /HPF). 4- Peripheral blood eosinophilia and serum total IgE are unreliable markers for predicting, diagnosis and follow up eosinophilic esophagitis.

[Ali Ibrahim Ali, Diaa Mohammad El Tiby, MostafaAbd Al Azeez Al Hawary, Mohammed Saied Bukeer, Sayed Abd Elrehem Sayed Ali. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):125-133]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.17.

 

Keywords: prevalence, eosinophilic esophagitis, dysphagia, ERD, NERD eosinophilic biopsy

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Aeromonas salmonicida associated with Hetrophyes hetrophyes infection in a Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopica) flock: A Case Report

 

Jihan M Badr, Bothaina A. Badawy and Assia M. El-Sawy

 

Poultry Diseases Department –Animal Health Research Institute –Giza –Egypt

jihanbdr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aeromonas (A. salmonicida) belonging to the genus Aeromonas, is a common pathogen that causes furunculosis and septicaemia in variety of fishes. It infects cold blooded vertebrates living at low temperatures mainly salmonid fish hence named salmonicida. Untill recently A. salmonicida is considered to be a fish pathogen. Sudden deaths occurred among 5 out of 31 birds of a flock of Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopica) at the zoo of Giza, Egypt in February 2016 after ingestion of a tilabia zilli fish meal. The birds aged over 10 years old and deaths occur within few hours of ingestion. Post-mortem examination identified dark blackish localized colorization on the outer surface of the lung and turbid serous membranes. Dark red coloration of liver with focal areas of attached turbid capsule besides, the gizzard and intestine contain dark red content and brain was tangled with red coloration. Parasitological examinations confirmed the presence of severe infection with Hetrophyes hetrophyes. Bacteriological examination revealed the isolation of A. salmonicida from the brain of dead bird. This is the first demonstration of A. salmonicida associated with mortality in a wild bird in Egypt. The significance of A. salmonicida infection in wild birds, and its implications for poultry and captive bird health, is currently unknown.

[Jihan M Badr, Bothaina A. Badawy and Assia M. El-Sawy. Aeromonas salmonicida associated with Hetrophyes hetrophyes infection in a Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopica) flock: A Case Report. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):134-139]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.18.

 

Keywords: Sacred Ibis, Aeromonas salmonicida, Hetrophyes hetrophyes

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Inflammatory Response in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

 

Emad Latif Agban, Sawsan Abd EL Aziz Yousef, Dorriya Abd EL Fattah EL Sayed and Sabah Mohamed Lotfy

 

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

dremadlatif@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relapsing/remitting or chronic/ progressive disease of presumably autoimmune origin affecting mainly or exclusively the CNS, leading to demyelinisation and remyelinisation. Many pathogenic agents have been incriminated in being either directly involved in the pathogenesis or indirectly, i.e. by triggering an autoimmune process within the CNS. Aim: The aim of our study is to estimate serum levels of IL-15 and RANTES chemokine in MS patients either in relapse or remission state compared with age and sex matched healthy subjects. Subjects and methods: This case-control study was conducted on forty patients with clinically definite relapsing remitting MS according to 2010 Revisions of the McDonald Criteria. The patients were selected from Inpatient and outpatient Clinic of Neurology Department of Zagazig University Hospitals. The patients were divided into 2 main groups: (1) Twenty patients with MS in acute relapse stage (group I), (2) Twenty patients with MS in remission stage (group II) compared to 20 control healthy subjects. All patients were subjected to the following: Full history taking, Neurological assessment by Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), MRI examination, serum IL-15 cytokine was assessed by enzyme like immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum RANTES chemokine assessed by (ELISA). Results: We found increased serum levels of IL15 and RANTES in MS patients compared with healthy controls with significant correlations with clinical disability scale. The elevated serum level of IL15 and RANTES is still elevated in remission compared to control and this indicates continuous subclinical pathology during remission. Conclusion: Our results suggest the possible role of cytokines/chemokines in the pathogenesis of MS, and their activity is inked more to relapse of the disease.

[Emad Latif Agban, Sawsan Abd EL Aziz Yousef, Dorriya Abd EL Fattah EL Sayed and Sabah Mohamed Lotfy. Inflammatory Response in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):140-148]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.19.

 

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis (MS), IL-15 cytokine and RANTES chemokine

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Rhinoplasty: Grafts and Sutures

 

Hossam Abd-El Hay1, Elsayed El Fayoumy1, Hesham Abd-El Rahman1, Ahmed M. Eliwa2

 

1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha, Egypt.

2 Resident at Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mattaria Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

Ahmed2011dr@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Rhinoplasty is a fascinating and complex surgical procedure aiming at attaining a well-functioning and aesthetically pleasant nose. The use of grafts is of the utmost importance for the nasal surgeon to achieve such results. Also the uses of sutures to control the shape of nose especially tip sutures which will be described.

[Hossam Abd-El Hay, Elsayed El Fayoumy, Hesham Abd-El Rahman and Ahmed M. Eliwa. Rhinoplasty: Grafts and Sutures. Nat Sci 2016;14(7):149-156]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140716.20.

 

Key words: Rhinoplasty • Graft • Sutures • Surgery

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 2, 2016.

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2016 Marsland Press