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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 14 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 115), October 25, 2016
 Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1410

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Survey Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Phenothiazine Drug

 

Fateme Zare1, Zahra Beik Mohammadloo2

 

1. M.Sc. of Analytical chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2. M.Sc. of Physical chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

zarefateme26@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is determination of phenothiazine drug by spectrophotometry method. A new simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for some phenothiazine derivatives has been developed. The proposed method is based on the reaction of phenothiazine derivatives promethazine hydrochloride, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, triflupromazine hydrochloride, prochlorperazine, and trifluoperazine with potassium iodate followed by reaction of liberated iodine with leuco crystal violet and measurement of the color of the oxidized LCV at 634 nm. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry related journals has been conducted and the instrumental analytical methods which were developed and used for determination of some drugs. The method showed a good linearity. The optimum conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The proposed methods have been applied successfully to the analysis of phenothiazine derivatives in pure form and in their dosage forms, and no interferencewas observed from common excipients present in pharmaceutical formulations. The results obtained were in a good agreement with those obtained from a previously published method of the investigated drug.

[Fateme Zare, Zahra Beik Mohammadloo. Survey Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Phenothiazine Drug. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):1-5]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.01.

 

Keywords: Spectrophotometry, Drug, Phenothiazine

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Natural Polymers 3.Photoxidation and Mechanical Properties of Gum Arabic Nanocomposite Exposed to UV Irradiation

 

Turoti M*1, Oti C1. and Achi S.S2

 

1.  Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

2.  Department of Chemistry, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

muyiwa5552@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The unavailable information on the mechanical properties of Gum Arabic(GA) and its nanocomposites under exposure to UV irradiation has been obtained through this study. The nanocomposite consists of GA and Cloisite 20A(C20A), an organoclay of montrimorilonite. Based on the preliminary studies of the mechanical properties involving 16 nanocomposite samples with varying weight fractions, the films of four of them at 2.5,4.5,5 and 8.5% were selected and exposed to 365nm UV radiation at room temperature. The early exposure mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS), Young’s modulus (YM), and elongation at break (EB,%) were determined. The concurrent chemical changes were monitored using FTIR and UV spectroscopy. The results showed that the rather low mechanical properties of GA polymer films could be improved significantly by nanocompositing the polymer with 4.5% C20A. The TS and YM improved by 90 and 100% respectively while the EB decreased by 40 %. The unchanged infrared absorptions and reduced λmax as well as higher absorptivity of the UV spectra during photoxidation at this loading compared to the control and other loadings most probably accounted for the effectiveness of the nanocomposite sample. The study shows the importance of nanocomposite in the technology of Gum Arabic.

[Turoti M, Oti C and Achi S.S. Natural Polymers 3.Photoxidation and Mechanical Properties of Gum Arabic Nanocomposite Exposed to UV Irradiation. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):6-14]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.02.

 

Key words: Gum arabic, Cloisite 20A, Nanocomposite, Photoxidation, Tensile strength, Young’s modulus, Energy at break, Elongation at break.

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3

Review obligations in the works talae Ben Rzyk

 

Saeed Albo kord

 

Department of Arabic Language and literature, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: Concept of God in the Qur'an and prophetic traditions of their art text-Shiite poets have long been the focus of attention. It should be noted that all translations made by the poet in this work is done by the author.

[Saeed Albo kord. Review obligations in the works talae Ben Rzyk. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):15-19]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.03.

 

Key words: talae Ben Rzyk, commitment, Quran, intertextuality and the Holy Quran

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4

A comparative study of secondary attorneyship in Jurisprudence and Rights of Iran

 

Ali Baharestani

 

Department of Theology - Jurisprudence and principles of law, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

 

Abstract: Every person having legal capacity, it is able to applied all their rights in person. But in many cases, people for various reasons, the exercise of this authority, and to avoid non-financial part of law such as marriage, divorce and especially the seizure of property law including the transfer of the property or its management, on behalf of other agencies and layers. In fact, the action performed by the agent, but the rights of the proprietor, and he appears to favor. Legal framework for this process, in accordance with the contract law of contracts has certain religious and civil law there. Attorney Rights Institutions permission, permission for him on behalf of another (attorney) to perform this action Hqvqy.br Foundation, as a lawyer, and the substitution of another person's right to a lawyer, the lawyer is mediated by attorney client. After substitution Ghyrasvla the immediate left of attorney unless he wants to be his downfall. Appointed legal Attorney has two components, one substitution to another, and another, the immediate resignation of the attorney. But after the attorney-mediated primarily vested with the same rights and immediate needs of attorney. In other words, the deputy attorney lawyer first.

[Ali Baharestani. A comparative study of secondary attorneyship in Jurisprudence and Rights. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):20-23]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.04.

 

Keywords: The secondary lawyer. Lawyer .delegated Jurisdiction

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Study the Effects of Drought on the Economic and Social Aspects of Rural Areas (Case Study: Sivand River basin in Marvdasht city)

 

Hamidreza Shirazi1, Behrooz Gharani Arani2, Asghar Norouzi3

 

1. MSc in Geography and Rural Planning, Economy of Space Trend, Payam Noor University of Ardestan, Isfahan Province, Iran

2. Assistant Professor and Faculty Member in Geography and Rural Planning, Payam Noor University of Ardestan, Isfahan Province, Iran

3. Assistant Professor in Geography and Rural Planning, Payam Noor University of Zarrin Shahr, Isfahan Province, Iran

yazdanshirazirx@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Drought is a natural disaster inevitable phenomenon, has long been based on a wide variety of different countries of the world in hot and dry regions and increases occurred frequently. Drought is a common phenomenon in Iran is seen as the social and economic impacts on local communities, including in particular the villagers. Due to the high vulnerability of rural communities in the social and economic impact of drought on rural communities study was conducted in neighboring Sivand River. In order to do research in the form of a questionnaire survey and Student's t-test was used. The sample size according to the number of households studied 11 villages, 370 were considered. The results showed that drought on all the villages studied economic and social adverse impact, but it residents in the villages is different. So if the average effect of drought on economic indicators in the villages are: Sivand (3.97), Mansourabad (4.47), Dashtbal (4.36), Khalaf Tahouneh (4.55), Hashtijan (4.53), Hajiabad (4.53), Zangiabad (4.05), Shamsabad (4.56), Firouzi (4.01), Fathabad (3.74) and Emadabad (4.49). The results showed that in the opinion of head of household, the recent drought impact on rural communities is a social indicator. Average calculated for the entire village was higher than average favorable social indicators (3). So, for the village are: Sivand (3.75), Mansourabad (4.32), Dashtbal (4.2), Khalaf Tahouneh (4.26), Hashtijan (4.28), Hajiabad (4.31), Zangiabad (3.67), Shamsabad (4.07), Firouzi (3.74), Fathabad (3.92) and Emadabad (4.17).

[Hamidreza Shirazi, Behrooz Gharani Arani, Asghar Norouzi. Study the Effects of Drought on the Economic and Social Aspects of Rural Areas (Case Study: Sivand River basin in Marvdasht city). Nat Sci 2016;14(10):24-29]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.05.

 

Keywords: Drought, Economic and Social Consequences, Sivand River

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Reconstructing Origin, Speciation and Migration of Berberis Species across Karakoram Mountain Ranges, Pakistan: A Novel Phytogeographic Hypothesis

 

Tika Khan

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram International University, Pakistan & Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author: tika.khan@kiu.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Genus Berberis (Berberidaceae), a worthwhile plant taxon used for treating different forms of cancer, hepatic disorders, cardiovascular anomalies and bone healing. Its phylogeny, taxonomy, speciation and migration across continents and intra-continent are uncertain. Many scientists believe in a North hemispheric origin followed by a Southward migration. Present study deals with migration and speciation of Berberis within Asia and revealed a Northward migration and speciation within Karakorum Mountain Ranges, Pakistan. This phenomenon has occurred during late Oligocene period. Endemism and morpho-molecular affinity of B. pseudumbellata ssp. gilgitica to other closely related Berberis species found in Himalaya provide a strong justification infavour of the hypothesis.

[Tika Khan. Reconstructing Origin, Speciation and Migration of Berberis Species across Karakoram Mountain Ranges, Pakistan: A Novel Phytogeographic Hypothesis. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):30-35]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.06.

 

Keywords: Phylogeny, Himalaya, Eurasia, Gilgit-Baltistan, Tectonic plates

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Study of ethno-gynecologically important medicinal and other plants used for women specific purposes in Murtazaabad, Hunza, Pakistan

 

Shaheen Akhtar*1, Nosheen Akhtar1, Saima Kazim1, Tika Khan1&2

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan.

2Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan.

 

Abstract: Ethno-gynecological study was conducted in Murtazaabad Valley, Hunza. Study revealed that elderly women (N=40) of age fifty and above do not use allopathic medicine and rely on indigenous plants for their women specific five major purposes i.e. beauty, smoothening deliveries, back pain, menses pains and bleeding control during menses. They identified eighteen (n=18) plants belonging to 10 plant families and members of family Rosaceae dominate overall consumption in this regard. Centuries old practices are rapidly diminishing and younger generation has forgotten their ethnobotanic heritage and totally depend on allopathic and commercial products for ailments and aspects mentioned above. Such information will extinct in a generational time or in the next thirty (30) years if not properly documented and institutionalized. Folk wisdom is value and a great source for novel drug discoveries for pressing health issues and their management. Present study was aimed at documentation of women specific ethonobotanical information from the area which has never been explored on scientific basis.

[Akhtar S, Akhter N, Kazim S, Khan T. Study of ethno-gynecologically important medicinal plants used for gynecological and other women specific purposes in Murtazabad, Hunza, Pakistan. Nat Sci 2016;14(6):36-39]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj140616.07.

 

Keywords: Infertility, Gonorrhea, Irregular Menstrual cycle, infertility, leucorrhoea

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Application of Genetic Algorithm to Identify Optimal Temperature Trajectory of a S-PVC Batch Reactor

 

Zeinab Zandieh1, Arjomand Mehrabani-Zeinabad2, Mohsen Nasr Esfahany2

 

1. M. Sc. of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

2. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

zeinabzandieh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This article discusses on development of a dynamic model for predicting transient behavior of a batch polymerization PVC reactor. It was utilized for increasing productivity of the polymerization process by minimization of its batch processing time. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was implemented for determining of the process optimal temperature trajectory profile to achieve a desired monomer conversion within a minimum batch time considering constraints of molecular weight and reactor thermal capacity. SQP method was initially implemented to improve the application of GA by generation of the first population of input data.

[Zeinab Zandieh, Arjomand Mehrabani-Zeinabad, Mohsen Nasr Esfahany. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Identify Optimal Temperature Trajectory of a S-PVC Batch Reactor. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):40-49]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.08.

 

Keywords: Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC), Suspension Polymerization, Dynamic Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Temperature Trajectory

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Taxonomic study of two species of Sargassum: Sargassum fluitans (Brgesen) Brgesen and Sargassum natans (Linnaneus) Gaillon (brown algae) collected in Cte d’Ivoire coasts, West Africa.

 

KOMOE Koffi1, SANKARE Yacouba2, FOFIE N’Guessan Bra Yvette1, BAMBA Abou3 and SAHR Abraham Grass-Sessay4

 

1 - Botanic laboratory, University of Felix Houphouet Boigny, 22 BOX 582 Abidjan 22

2 - Oceanological Research Centre, Abidjan (RCI) BPV 18 ABIDJAN (RCI)

3 – Convention d’Abidjan (RCI) - Division of Environmental Policy Implementation Address: Rue Harris Memel Foteh, 2 Plateaux-Vallons / 01 BP 1747 Abidjan 01 Cte d’Ivoire

4 - WABiCC Advisor to the Abidjan Convention Secretariat Tetra Tech ARD - West Africa Biodiversity and Climate Change (WABiCC) Programme UNEP Regional Seas Programme - Division of Environmental Policy Implementation - Address: Rue Harris Memel Foteh, 2 Plateaux-Vallons / 01 BP 1747 Abidjan 01

Email: komoek@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: Seaweeds, new for the coastal area of Cte d’Ivoire. The authors describe two seaweeds that have not been collected previously from Cte d’Ivoire coasts: the Phaeophyceae Sargassum fluitans and Sargassum natans. Ecological data are added to the morphological description.

[KOMOE K, SANKARE Y, FOFFIE N BY, BAMBA A and SAHR A GS. Taxonomic study of two species of Sargassum: Sargassum fluitans (Brgesen) Brgesen and Sargassum natans (Linnaneus) Gaillon (brown algae) collected in Cte d’Ivoire coasts, West Africa. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):50-56]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.09.

 

Keywords: Sargassum natans, Sargassum fluitans, brown algae and Cte d’Ivoire

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Evaluation Of The Protective Effect Of Hydro-Methanolic Extract Of Tiger Nut (cyperus esculentus l.) On Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizures In Mice

 

Alhassan, AW1; John, M1; Saleh MIA1; Yusuf, A1; Yarube, I. U2

 

1Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Kaduna State. Nigeria.

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences,  Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

abdulwhb2002@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with an incidence of 3% in the general population. The prevalence is higher in developing countries where most people still rely on herbal medicine for the management due to cost, side effect and drug interactions associated with orthodox antiepileptics. Tiger nut has been reportedly used in the management of febrile convulsion in children. This study therefore, aims to evaluate the protective effect of tiger nut extract in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in mice. Twenty-five mice were used for the study, divided into five groups of five mice each. Group I served as the control and received distilled water(1ml/kg) only, group II received 200mg/kg of sodium valproate (SV), an antiepileptic drug, and groups III, IV and V received 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg of the tigur nut extract respectively, intraperitoneal. Each group received 65mg/kg of PTZ (i.p) for induction of seizures one hour after treatments and the latency to onset (LO) and duration of seizure (DS) were recorded. The results showed that, LO and DS were significantly reduced in the treatment groups compared to the control. The protective effect was greater than SV at highest dose (2000mg/kg) tested. The findings in this study suggest that tiger nut may be beneficial in epilepsy.

[Alhassan, AW; John, M; Saleh MIA; Yusuf, A; Yarube, I. U. Evaluation Of The Protective Effect Of Hydro-Methanolic Extract Of Tiger Nut (cyperus esculentus l.) On Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizures In Mice. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):57-62]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.10.

 

Key words: pentylenetetrazole, seizure, Cyperus esculentus, epilepsy

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Effect of planting date and plant density on mustard forage proteins in Golestan Province

 

Mohammad MirAzami1, Mohammad Vali Najafzadeh1*, Abolfazl Faraji2

 

1. M.Sc. of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Golestan Province, Iran

2. Assistant Professor in Golestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (GANRRC)

m.v.najafzadeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the effect of planting date and plant density on related properties of mustard quality forage field experiment in years 2010-2011 in Agricultural Research Station of Gorgan (Eraghi Mahalleh) of affiliated stations Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan province. In this study, the split plot design in a randomized complete block design with three replications in which main plots were planting dates at five levels (15 November, 30 November, 15 December, 15 April, 30 April) and 33.3, 50 and 100 plants per square meter were considered as sub plots were used. Protein content, protein, stems, pods protein and total protein were measured at 50% flowering. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of planting date and plant density on all traits was investigated. The highest weight of total protein in 50% flowering understanding of the history of planting 15 November 1743 kg per hectare and lowest weight of protein impression with the 655.2 planting 15 kg per ha. By reducing the density of 33.3 per square meter significantly decreased the total amount of protein. In vitro appears to be the first planting date and plant density of 100 per square meter, the highest amount of protein produced shoots and are recommended for planting mustard grass in Gorgan.

[Mohammad MirAzami, Mohammad Vali Najafzadeh, Abolfazl Faraji. Effect of planting date and plant density on mustard forage proteins in Golestan Province. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):63-69]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.11.

 

Keywords: Mustard forage, planting date, plant density, quality traits, protein

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Investigation and prediction of fluctuation level and SST in Oman Sea due to wind variation using Satellite altimetry Data

 

Masoud Torabi Azad1, Arash Mohammadpour2, Kamran Lary2, Seyed Abdolreza Adnani3*

 

1. Associate Professor, Department of Physical Oceanography, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. M.Sc. of Hydrography, Department of Hydrography, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Ministry of Education, Tehran Province, Tehran, Iran

mrpco.info@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Prediction level of volatility in coastal waters is necessary to prevent marine disaster and planning and management of beaches. In order to predict the level of volatility and SST and space, updated information is needed. Providing information about coastal waters and marine areas are time-consuming and costly. Today, much information are available by using data of satellites. In this study, by using data from satellites and ground stations, the SST was developed on the shores of the Sea of Oman. Then to predict the water level fluctuations in the wind artificial neural network algorithm was used which involved information about wind speed, wind direction, air pressure and water level at any point. ANN algorithm was used to predict fluctuations which has negative bias (-7.14%) and absolute error was 0.13 meters. This means that the model significantly predicted the long-term estimate which is close to reality, but the amount of error is much closer to reality. The results also showed a standard deviation of SST maps derived from satellite data which was 0.56 meters.

[Masoud Torabi Azad, Arash Mohammadpour, Kamran Lary, Seyed Abdolreza Adnani. Investigation and prediction of fluctuation level and SST in Oman Sea due to wind variation using Satellite altimetry Data. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):70-76]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.12.

 

Keywords: Water level fluctuations, Topography, Satellite, Artificial neural network

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The effect of underground dams on the management of water resources and water deficit supply

 

Mohamad karami

 

Department of Civil Engineering Water, Dehloran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehloran, Iran

 

Abstract: Given the fact that Iran is located on the arid belt of land, in any case surface and groundwater resources are not available, for this purpose the efficient use and management of water resources are needs and goals of development. In this regard, the use of old and new techniques and the use of scientific methods is needed, in arid regions and locations where despite, having a rainy season, have dry season and low rainfall, using underground dams can be supplied need of water of restricted areas and sparsely populated, through the alluvial of seasonal streams. The combination of this technology simple with aqueduct, for water shortages could offer a new way. In this study, we tried that the first definition of underground dams, underground dams' history, advantages and limitations, and application and construction purposes should be provided. The rest of this paper is investigated characteristics of the construction and exploitation of underground water reserves Dam.

[Mohamad karami. The effect of underground dams on the management of water resources and water deficit supply. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):77-80]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.13.

 

Keywords: surface water resources, water resources management, underground dams, exploitation

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Mycobacterial Metabolic Pathways as Drug Targets: A Review

 

Asaye Moges, Elias Kebede, Yitayew Demessie, Tesema Dumesa, Ayalew Negash and Geda Shendo

 

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. Box

Email: yitayew455vet@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a pathogenic bacteria species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in the world from a bacterial infectious disease. The emergence of antibiotic resistance strains has raised the need towards the development of new antibiotics or drug molecules which can kill or suppress the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The increasing emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis along with the HIV pandemic threatens disease control and highlights both the need to understand how our current drugs work and the need to develop new and more effective drugs. Novel efforts in developing drugs that target the intracellular metabolism of M. tuberculosis often focus on metabolic pathways that are specific to M. tuberculosis. Potential drug targets were also identified from pathways related to lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, vitamin and cofactor biosynthetic pathways and nucleotide metabolism. This review provides a brief historical account of tuberculosis drugs, metabolic pathways, examines the problem of current chemotherapy, discusses the targets of current tuberculosis drugs with focuses on some metabolic pathways. Approximately, one-fourth of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains genes that encode proteins directly involved in its metabolism. These represent potential drug targets that can be systematically probed with CB models through the prediction of genes essential (or the combination) for the pathogen to grow.

[Asaye M, Elias K, Yitayew D, Tesema D, Ayalew N and Geda S. Mycobacterial Metabolic Pathways as Drug Targets: A Review. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):81-91]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.14.

 

Key Words; Anti-tuberculosis agent, Drug targets, metabolic pathway, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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Understorey Vegetation Assessment in Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) Plantations of Different Ages in Omo Forest Reserve, Southwestern Nigeria

 

Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

olatunde.eludoyin@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Understorey vegetation helps to conserve soils in tree plantations thereby enhancing natural forest regeneration (NFR). Although, NFR has been extensively studied, there is paucity of knowledge on understorey vegetation under single species tree plantations. The study, therefore, investigated the understorey vegetation under Gmelina arborea plantations of different ages in Ogun State, South-western Nigeria. Ten quadrats of 20m x 25m were established randomly in Gmelina arborea plantations of 5, 22, 29 years and natural forest (NF). In each 20m x 25m quadrats, five sub-quadrats of 1m x 1m were delimited whereby species of understorey vegetation were identified and counted. These information was thereafter used to compute population of individual species, species richness, and diversity of understorey vegetation. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the results while analysis of variance was used to determine significant variation in the understorey parameters at p<0.05. Findings showed that species composition of understorey vegetation comprised of 94 species and the total population was 1,910. Species composition of understorey vegetation comprised of 51 families with Euphorbiaceae having the dominance. The mean population of individual per understorey species was 54.1, 55.9 and 60.8 in the gmelina plantations of 5, 22 and 29 years respectively while NF had 20.2 species. Population of individual species varied significantly among gmelina plantations (F0.05=3.051). Mean species richness and diversity were higher in gmelina plantations than NF. The study recommended that higher species richness of understorey vegetation in gmelina plantations should be maintained to sustainably conserve wildlife habitat and understorey biodiversity.

[Eludoyin OS. Understorey Vegetation Assessment in Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) Plantations of Different Ages in Omo Forest Reserve, Southwestern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):92-101]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.15.

 

Keywords: Gmelina arborea, Omo forest, Plantation, Understorey vegetation, Wildlife habitat

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Antibacterial effects of guava plant parts (Psidium guajava Linn) on some pathogenic microbes

 

1* Ijato, J.Y and 2Onisuru, O.O

 

1Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

2CHI pharmaceuticals Limited, 14 chivita Avenue, Ajao Estate Isolo, Lagos

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com.

 

AbstractVarious parts of guava plant are used in the tropic as herbs in curing dysentery, gastro intestinal disorder, typhoid fever, diarrhoea and other bacterial infections due to their antibacterial activities. Antibacterial sensitivities of ethanol, hot and cold water extracts of guava leaf, bark and fruit were tested against ten human pathogenic bacteria using cup plate agar diffusion method (plate diffusion method). The result showed that ethanol fruit extracts of guava exhibited the highest phytotoxicity against Bacillus subtilis (1.80cm) this was closely followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus faecalis (1.70cm) while clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed resistance to both leaf and fruits extracts, except the bark extracts. Staphylococcus aureus was most inhibited by both cold and hot water fruit extract of guava by 1.40cm and 7.00cm respectively. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus (2.10cm) was most inhibited by leaf extract of guava, followed by Bacillus cereus (1.90cm). However, Bacillus cereus (1.70cm) was most inhibited by cold water extract of guava leaf. Hot water leaf extract of guava was most inhibitive by 1.80cm against Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sporogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Ethanol bark extract of guava most inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.00cm). Hot water leaf extract of guava was most antibacterial on Klebsiella pneumonia (1.40cm) while Escherichia coli (1.50cm) was most retarded by cold water of leaf extract of guava. The activity of guava extracts is bactericidal on the test pathogenic microbes.

[Ijato JY and Onisuru OO. Antibacterial effects of guava plant parts (Psidium guajava Linn) on some pathogenic microbes. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):102-105]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.16.

 

Keyword: guava plant, human pathogenic microbes, plant extracts

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Job Insecurity; Leading to Job Stress and Staff’s Working Burnout: Case Study of Eastern Golestan Province’s Hospitals

 

Zahra Kakooei1, Zeinab Alinajafi2

 

1. Educational Assistant, Department of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2. Assistant professor, Department of management, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

Z.kakooe@golestan.pnu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The lack of job security is an issue which can lead to many negative results for the organization. Regarding the fact that staff are the most important property of any organization and can be a competitive advantage for firms, organizations are bound to provide a fair ground for this to happen. This paper aims to evaluate the connection between job insecurity, job stress, and working burnout at hospitals of eastern Golestan. The method to the research is descriptive and correlational. The statistical population consists of all the staff of eastern Golestan’s hospitals. 186 are selected by Cochran’s method by simple random sampling as sample to this research. Job insecurity questionnaire of nessi (2002), job stress questionnaire of Spiu (1987), and working burnout questionnaire of Maslach & Jackson (1981) are used. To analyze the assumptions of the research, path analysis as well as LISREL were used. The results showed that there is significant relation between job insecurity, job stress, and aspects of working burnout (emotional fatigue, turn of personality, lack of self-esteem).

[Zahra Kakooei, Zeinab Alinajafi. Job Insecurity; Leading to Job Stress and Staff’s Working Burnout: Case Study of Eastern Golestan Province’s Hospitals. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):106-113]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.17.

 

Keywords: Environmental job insecurity, job stress, working burnout

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Characterization of Elements in the Printed Circuit Boards of Television to Enhance Managing E-Waste through Resource Recovery

 

Oyelami H.I. 1, Hammed T.B. 2* and Sridhar M.K.C. 3

 

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

1luvhan0287@yahoo.com, 2hammetab2003@yahoo.co.uk, 3mkcsridhar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The environmental effects of e-waste disposal are drawing increasing attention throughout the world. The crude recovery methods being used in the developing world expose people to a host of toxic materials and contaminants. The objective of this study was to characterize electronic waste emanated from television printed circuit boards for their elemental composition to enhance heavy metal recovery from the boards. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) of about 5kg, extracted from obsolete television sets were ground and sieved to obtain 2 mm particle size. The processed PCB was soaked in 1 M, 3 M, 5 M and 7 M nitric acid solutions for varying period of time (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h). The PCB characterization was done by analysing the leachates using Inductively Couple Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS 2000). Varying quantities of up to 70 elements were found on the PCB. Copper (236 190.00 2.31 mgkg-1) was found to be the most abundant metal followed by aluminum (27 148.00 1.1 mgkg-1), iron (97 010 5.00 mgkg-1), lead (33 513 2.14 mgkg-1), tin (6 665.20 0.74 mgkg-1) and zinc (8 948.00 0.68 mgkg- 1). The concentrations of aluminum, nickel, lead and titanium using 1 M, 3 M, 5 M and 7 M concentrations of nitric acid were found to be statistically significant across the various time intervals (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h). Rare earth elements were found in trace quantities. The results of this study are useful in management of valuable heavy metals present in e-waste through resource recovery thereby reducing the toxic hazardous waste getting into the waste stream.

[Oyelami H.I., Hammed T.B. and Sridhar M.K.C. Characterization of Elements in the Printed Circuit Boards of Television to Enhance Managing E-Waste through Resource Recovery. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):114-118]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.18.

 

Keywords: E-waste; Heavy metals recovery; Obsolete television sets; Printed circuit board; Rare earth elements

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Investigation Image Encryption and Image Processing in Power Engineering Industry

 

Hasan Moslemi

 

Esfarayen University of technology, department of engineering, Esfarayen, North Khorasan, Iran

h.moslemi@esfarayen.ac.ir

 

Abstract: A method for image encryption is proposed, which encodes original object image into the encrypted image and then embeds it into host image in our modified interferometer architecture. Several image encryption schemes based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Final encrypted object image is registered as interference patterns, thus the secure information is imperceptible to unauthorized receivers. The method can simultaneously realize image encryption and image hiding at a high speed in pure system. The results of an experiment in which we encrypted a plaintext image optically and then decrypted it numerically demonstrate that our proposed incoherent optical security system is feasible.

[Hasan Moslemi. Investigation Image Encryption and Image Processing in Power Engineering Industry. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):119-123]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.19.

 

Keywords: Image Encryption, Image Processing, Power Engineering Industry

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Evaluation the Application of Image Processing and Digital Signal Processing

 

Manoochehr Joodi1, Kazem Sahebi2, Shapoor Joodi3

 

1. B.Sc. of Guilan University

2. M.Sc. of Artificial Intelligence, Iran University of Science and Technology

3. Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University Paesabad Moghan

Manoochehr.joodi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is evaluation the application of image processing and signal processing in various scientific field such as computer science and astronomy and biometry. Besides, Super-resolution (SR) technique reconstructs a higher-resolution image or sequence from the observed LR images. Signal Processing has evolved into Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allowing computer simulations and digital electronics implementations. Today, it’s difficult to consider DSP algorithms without their software implementation and/or a proper dataset. Technical details are discussed in this article, including optimization algorithms, parameter selection methods, reconstruction models and acceleration strategies. It’s suggested an objective quality meter for quantifying the combined blackness and blurriness distortions in frequency domain.

[Manoochehr Joodi, Kazem Sahebi, Shapoor Joodi. Evaluation the Application of Image Processing and Digital Signal Processing. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):124-129]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.20.

 

Keywords: Image Processing, Digital Signal Processing, Super Resolution

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Physico- chemical assessment of waste water discharged in to Gilgit River, Northern Pakistan

 

Javaria Shakeel1, Khalil Ahmad1, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees1, Tika Khan1&2*

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram international University, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

2Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre, Karakoram international University, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: tika.khan@kiu.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Gilgit-River is a major source of drinking water and irrigation not only in district Gilgit but rest of down country. Study assessed various important factors including concentration of pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, Ortho phosphate, total phosphate, total Nitrogen and Ammonia at different seasons of 2014-2015. Samples collected from seven important sites were; Baseen (Slaughter House), Konodas (New Bridge), Gilgit city (Chinar Bhag- Twin Bridge), Sonikot (Suspension Bridge), Jutial (Zulfiqarabad KIU Bridge) and Henzal. Addition of toxic untreated chemical effluents from these drains reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen which in turn effect the aquatic fauna. This requires further investigations to gauge the level of loss, however, it is evident from community perceptions regarding decline of fish population over the last ten years. District government requires immediate attention towards treatment of waste waters to avoid further damage to human health, novel cold water fish species and other aquatic life simultaneously.

[Javaria Shakeel, Khalil Ahmed, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees, Tika Khan. Physico- chemical assessment of waste water discharged in to Gilgit River, Northern Pakistan. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):130-134]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.21.

 

Key words: Municipal waste, toxic water, water quality, Chemical Affluent, Ammonia, Phosphorus, EC, pH, TDS

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Legal review of the country's membership in the WTO and the effects and consequences

 

Abbas Seiedy *

 

*Department of Private law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran.

 

Abstract: Today, due to the increasing share of world trade is impossible to think out of the circle of global communications. The World Trade Organization to increase its ability to conduct international trade and to regulate and control the admission and member countries of the organization, rules and regulations are imposed to all countries to join the appropriate place for Deputy accept it. Today, due to the increasing share of world trade is impossible to think out of the circle of global communications. If the regulations relating to tariffs and trade, much of the material and is able to look at the World Trade Organization guidelines. We know that free and competitive foundation for the regulation on the production and trade between countries is formed. To that for manufacturing firms and economic conditions of fair trade to be provided. World Trade Organization one of the most influential international organizations at the international level is that global trade liberalization and rule-making is undertaken. The organization from January 1995, following the Uruguay Round of negotiations to replace the 50-year-old temporary GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) has been developed. The organization is in fact more than any other institution, organization or institution is the globalization of the economy. Unlike GATT, which was limited to trade in goods, rules, regulations and agreements of the World Trade Organization, in addition to goods, services and intellectual property rights as well as rules on international trade. All countries that want to engage with the global economy and benefit from international economic institutions in the process of economic and industrial development through membership in the organization. In addition to assume the obligations of market liberalization in goods and services is determined during negotiations the regulations and rules of the organization that the organization is contained in agreements and compliance with laws and regulations, economic and trade agreements compatible to the organization. During the first years after the revolution, one of the most important issues facing the country has been a member of this organization and its possible consequences so that the witness statements about the case have been different. This is the beginning of the year 1991 was on the agenda of the Ministry of Commerce and political and administrative procedures related to the country's highest levels have been considered. The thesis is an attempt to review the history of the World Trade Organization to consider how Iran's membership in the organization, requirements, strategies for reducing the negative effects and its effect on domestic production, including production, employment, and subsidies and finally conclusions and recommendations are given.

[Abbas Seiedy. Legal review of the country's membership in the WTO and the effects and consequences. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):135-143]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.22.

 

Key Words: World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Tipper, legal obstacles to accession, internal rules and regulations

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Study the Inhibitory effectiveness of Bee Glue (Propolis) on growth of the Prostate cancer cell lines to manifest the scientific miracles in the Quran

 

Lina Abdul-Fattah Kurdi

 

Department of Biology "Zoology", Faculty of Sciences - Al Faisaliah- King Abdul Aziz University, P.O. Box. 4938, Jeddah 21412, KSA. dr.lina_kurdi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The current study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the inhibitory effect of propolis against cytotoxicity on prostate cancer cell lines being considered the second- essential cause of cancer death in men. Compared with the effect of cyclophosphamide (CP ) - anti-cancer pharmacological compound - in vitro. The cytotoxic activity of propoliswas assessed using SRB-U assay against prostate cancer cells PC3. Cells were exposed to serial dilution (0.1 to 1000 g/ml) of the test propolisfor 72 h; IC50: 50% to kill half of cells and R-fraction was calculated using Emax model. propolisshowed gradual logarithmic cell kill effect starting at 30 g/ml. The calculated IC50 was found to be 73.1 g/ml with resistance fraction of 3.27%. By comparison to positive control cytotoxic agent cyclophosphamide, it showed gradual cell kill from concentration 0.3 g/ml with IC50 of 0.58 g/ml. however, the resistance fraction of PC3 cells to cyclophosphamide was found to be 7.7%. despite the relatively high IC50 of propolis. The results showed that the treatment with propolis has made a marked improvement in the standards measured by this study. From the results of our study, we see that the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer for treatment with propolis is useful for therapy for prostate and perhaps other types of cancers.

[Lina Abdul-Fattah Kurdi. Study the Inhibitory effectiveness of bee glue (propolis) on growth of the Prostate cancer cell lines to manifest the scientific miracles in the Quran. Nat Sci 2016;14(10):144-152]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141016.23.

 

Keywords: Propolis, Cyclophosphamide, Prostate cancer cell lines, Apoptosis.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 15, 2016.

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2016 Marsland Press