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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 14 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 116), November 25, 2016
 Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1411

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Effect of planting date and plant density on forage mustard fiber content in Golestan Province

 

Mohammad MirAzami1, Mohammad Vali Najafzadeh1*, Abolfazl Faraji2

 

1. M.Sc. of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Golestan Province, Iran

2. Assistant Professor in Golestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (GANRRC)

m.v.najafzadeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the effect of planting date and plant density on properties related to forage quality mustard field experiment 2010-2011, Gorgan Agricultural Research Station (Iraqi neighborhood) of affiliated stations Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan province. Using split plot design in a randomized complete block design with three replications in which main plots were planting dates at five levels (15 November, 30November, 15 December, 30 December, 15 Mars) and the density of 33.3, 50 and 100 plants per square meter were considered as sub-plots was carried out. Fiber traits of leaf, stem fiber, fiber, fiber sheath and the total amount of forage were measured at 50% flowering mustard. Analysis of variance results of this study showed that sowing date had a significant effect on the properties of fiber forage is harvested at 50% flowering mustard. In general, the delay in planting significantly decreased the total amount of fiber. In general, with planting delays in the take fiber to significantly decreased. By reducing the density of 33.3 per square meter impression to significantly reduce the amount of fiber found. The date of planting 15 November 14529 kg per hectare and the date of 30 December, 4962 kg per hectare, the highest and the lowest total forage fiber is produced.

[Mohammad MirAzami, Mohammad Vali Najafzadeh, Abolfazl Faraji. Effect of planting date and plant density on forage mustard fiber content in Golestan Province. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):1-7]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.01.

 

Keywords: mustard forage, planting date, plant density, quality traits, fiber content

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The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Vaccine Development

 

Worku Adugna, Mebratu Assaye, Yitayew Demessie, Dagmawi Yibatrek, Ayalew Negash and Kalkidan Getnet

 

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. Box 196

Email: kalget27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Recombinant DNA is created by combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together in nature and it is first incorporated in vector or plasmid. Vectors are DNA molecules that are capable of replicating in the host cells and act as a carrier molecule for the construction of recombinant DNA. The development of rDNA procedures has provided some unique opportunities for vaccine production, which are tend to be more stable, effective and safe. Development of vaccination as a tool in fighting disease has resulted in the potential to combat almost all infectious agents affecting people and animals. Current public health threats posed by the potential spread of highly infectious disease agents between animals and humans, as well as the emergence of new diseases, impact animal agriculture significantly. Animal vaccinations are among the most effective, successful tools for dealing with these concerns. However, the uses of rDNA vaccines have a great importance, there are still limitations for developing that are requiring a great attention.

[Worku A, Mebratu A, Yitayew D, Dagmawi Y, Ayalew N and Kalkidan G. The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Vaccine Development. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):8-16]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.02.

 

Key words: Development, Recombinant DNA, Vaccines, Vectors

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A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemical Composition and Pharmacological Profile of Canarium Schweinfurthii Eng

 

Olivier Tene Tcheghebe 1, Armel Jackson Seukep2, Francis Ngouafong Tatong 3

 

1Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

2Biochemistry Department, University of Dschang, P.O Box 67, West Region, Cameroon

3Chemistry Department, University of Dschang, P.O Box 67, West Region, Cameroon

Email: tetcholi@yahoo.com; Telephone: (237) 677381271/698048300

 

Abstract: Medicinal plants have recently become a focus of interest because it is said that they play key roles in the treatment of a majority of diseases with minimal or no side effects. All parts of Canarium schweinfurthii have been reported to be used in traditional medicine by people from tropical countries to manage some health problems such as anemia, eyes diseases, helminthes infection, diarrhea, goiter hypertension, gastro-intestinal disorder, toothache, cardiovascular, condition, yellow fever, fever, malaria, constipation, post-partum pain, rheumatism, sexually transmitted diseases, dysentery, gonorrhea, coughs, chest pains, pulmonary affections, stomach complaints, food poisoning, roundworm infections and other intestinal parasites, skin affections, eczema, leprosy, ulcers, diabetes mellitus, colic, gale and to ward off evil spirits. Canarium schweinfurthii has been scientifically studied for its numerous pharmacological profiles such as: antimalarial, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial, anti-diabetic, analgesic, nephroprotective, growth promoting, food preservative, anthelminthic and termiticidal. some bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, triterpenes, steroids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, significantly present in the plant extract, account for its multiple uses in traditional medicine and justify its pharmacological profile; while the rich nutrients composition validate its high nutritional value. The aim of this study is to collect data obtained from various studies carried out by different authors concerning the traditional uses, phytochemical composition and pharmacological profiles of Canarium schweinfurthii.

[Tene Tcheghebe O, Seukep AJ, Ngouafong Tatong F. A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemical Composition and Pharmacological Profile of Canarium Schweinfurthii Eng. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):17-22]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.03.

 

Keywords: Canarium shweinfurthii; traditional uses; phytochemical; pharmacological

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Disease Tolerance and Yield Attributes of Yellow Open Pollinated Maize Varieties in South Western Nigeria

 

1*Feyisola R.T., 2Godonu K.G., Oduwaiye T.R. and 3Lamidi G.O

 

1Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P. M. B. 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.

3Institute of Agriculture Research and Training (IAR&T), Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: toluoso2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ten new open pollinated commercial maize hybrids: PVA SYN 16, PVA SYN 9, PVA SYN 12, PVA SYN 14, TEL COMP1-SYN-Y-1, IDO QPM, BODE IGBO QPM, ART/98/SW (Oloyin), PVA SYN 14 and PVA SYN 13 were tested for yield attributes and diseases tolerance against SUWAN-1-SR-1 maize hybrid as check to select the varieties with the highest yield potentials, disease tolerance and good agronomic character. The results showed no significant difference for number of days to 50% tasselling, plant height and ear height. Significant difference were observed for number of days to 50% silking among the varieties tested, PVA SYN 9 silked first at 63.0 days, PVA SYN 16 silked last at 67 days while SUWAN-1-SR-1 took 65.67days to silked. In plant aspect, Bode IGBO QPM had the most pleasing and visual appeal with a rating index of 2.82 indicating a very good performance, followed by five other varieties; PVA SYN 14, ART/98/SW (Oloyin), PVA SYN 9, PVA SYN 16 and PVA SYN 12 all having rating index of 3.17 which indicate good performance while SUWAN-1-SR-1 have a rating index of 3.50 indicating a poor performance. IDO QPM had the highest yield at 4.25t/ha while PVA SYN 9 yielded the lowest at 3.04t/ha. SUWAN-1-SR-1 the check maize hybrid yielded 3.75t/ha lower than IDO QPM (4.25t/ha). All the varieties were tolerant to maize blight, ear rot, maize streak and maize rust but were resistant to Curvularia spp infection. They were not also affected by stem and root lodging and all had tight husk covers. Thus, the open pollinated maize varieties (IDO QPM) studied that exhibited good yield and diseases tolerant/resistant traits could be recommended for sustainable maize cultivation and to the breeder to increase the maize gene bank for more research.

[Feyisola RT, Godonu KG, Oduwaiye TR and Lamidi GO. Disease Tolerance and Yield Attributes of Yellow Open Pollinated Maize Varieties in South Western Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):23-28]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.04.

 

Key word: yield potential, agronomic characters and disease tolerance

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Elucidation Of Chemical Constituents Of Yam (D. rotundata) (Healthy And Infected Tubers) And Some Plants For Tuber Rot Control

 

Ijato, J. Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Niger

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com, GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: The use of plants derivatives for therapeutic purposes against phyto-diseases is achievable. Processing yam tuber into powder for chemical assays: yam tubers were washed, peeled and sun-dried for 48hours, the tubers were milled into flour, using a hand milling machine. Yam extraction for chemical assays: 40g of the flour sample of both unhealthy and rotten yam tubers were dissolved in methanol and left overnight. The mixture was filtered with Whatman No. 1 filter paper and the extracts were used for chemical assays. Qualitative and quantitative tests for phytochemicals: Chemical tests were carried out on the test plants using standard procedures to identify the constituents as described in a standard procedure. Alkaloid, saponins and flavonoid were present in varied proportions in all the test plants; anthracquinone was present in only V. amygdalina while glycoside was present in all the test plants except V. amygdalina, tannin was present in all the test plants except A. indica, and phenols was absent in all the test plants. Moisture, fibre, lipid, flavonoid and tannin content in infected yam tubers were higher than healthy yam tubers. Proteins was mostly distributed in V. amygdalina, fibre was highest in A. indica, lipid was highest in N. tabacum, Moisture content of C. odorata was found to be highest among the test plants.

[Ijato JY. Elucidation Of Chemical Constituents Of Yam (D. rotundata) (Healthy And Infected Tubers) And Some Plants For Tuber Rot Control. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):29-31]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.05.

 

Keywords: Elucidation; Chemical; Constituent; Yam (D. rotundata); Healthy; Infected Tuber; Plant; Rot Control

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The Importance of Social Capital in Organizational Learning and Organizational Commitment (Case Study: Golestan Province Red Crescent Society)

 

Zahra Kakooei1, Zeinab Alinajafi2

 

1. Educational Assistant, Department of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2. Assistant professor, Department of management, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

Z.kakooe@golestan.pnu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Social capital can play an effective role as a profitable and useful variable in understanding social relationships between employees in different positions. The main goal of study was determining the relationship between social capital and organizational learning and organizational commitment in Golestan province Red Crescent Society. The research is descriptive and correlational. The population in this study consisted of all the employees of the Red Crescent Golestan Province that 175 member of it were studied by Morgan Table and simple random sampling as the sample. In this study Nahapiet and Ghoshal Social capital questionnaire (1998), Gomer et al organizational learning questionnaire (2005) and Susan Linz Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (2003) were used. The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between dimensions of social capital (capital structure, cognitive capital and bridging capital) and organizational learning and organizational commitment in Golestan province Red Crescent Society.

[Zahra Kakooei, Zeinab Alinajafi. The Importance of Social Capital in Organizational Learning and Organizational Commitment (Case Study: Golestan Province Red Crescent Society). Nat Sci 2016;14(11):32-41]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.06.

 

Keywords: Social Capital, Organizational Learning, Organizational Commitment

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Estimation Of Genetic Diversity Based On Randomly Amplified Polymorphic Dna (Rapd) In Landraces Of Hexaploid Wheat Collected From Northern Areas Of Pakistan

 

Shagufta Parveen1, Shaista Bibi2, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan1*

 

1 Department of Biological Science, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan

2 Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan

Parveenshagufta85@gmail.com, shaistabibi250@yahoo.com, dr.imtiaz@kiu.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a hexaploid species and is the most important cereal crop of the world. It’s annual production worldwide is approximately 700 million metric tons. In Pakistan annual production of wheat is 23 million metric tons. To improve wheat production in mountainous northern area of Pakistan, DNA based research on landraces is very important. Present research is the first documented attempt to utilize recently developed DNA technology for wheat improvement in the area. Seeds of 16 landraces of wheat were obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI) of National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Pakistan. Ten Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA primer were used to amplify the DNA isolated from 16 landraces. A total of 73 DNA fragments of various sizes (ranging from 100 to 1300 bp) were amplified. DNA fragments were scored as present and/or absent. Bivariate (1-0) data matrix was constructed and Genetic Diversities (GD) among all the possible combinations was calculated. Genetic diversity estimated among 16 landraces ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Bivariate data was also used to construct dendrogram. Sixteen genotypes were clustered in 4 groups. Present research indicated that sufficient level of genetic diversity exists among landraces of hexaploid wheat collected from northern areas of Pakistan. It is recommended that the landraces showing high level of genetic diversity (PAK 0016479 and 019353) should be used in future breeding programs designed to improve quality and quantity of wheat production in the area.

[Shagufta Parveen, Shaista Bibi, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan. Estimation Of Genetic Diversity Based On Randomly Amplified Polymorphic Dna (Rapd) In Landraces Of Hexaploid Wheat Collected From Northern Areas Of Pakistan. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):42-46]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.07.

 

Key words: Triticum aestivum L., Genetic diversity, landraces, Northern areas Pakistan, RAPD

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Review of weeds with Phytoremediation potentials of Petroleum Hydrocarbon contaminated soil in the Niger-Delta states

 

Omovbude, S. and Udensi, U.E.

 

Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt. M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Corresponding author’s email: sundayomovbude@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oil spillage in the Niger Delta is often as a result of petroleum exploration and exploitation activities, as well as sabotage through pipe vandalization. Most chemical and physical methods employed to clean-up the oil spill, have always come with far-reaching consequences that are more devastating to the environment than crude oil spills. Consequently, there is the need to do an environmental audit of weed species especially grasses with phytoremediation potential and their diversity in the Niger Delta, as an environmental friendly alternative. This approach will restore the ecosystem to its original status capable of supporting biological activities that will in turn support the livelihood of the communities or population that depends on it before the oil spill. Therefore, sustainable phytoremediation with weeds must explore the potentials of local and indigenous weed species with proven adaptability to the local environmental and ecosystem challenges occasioned by the peculiarity of the Niger Delta region.

[Omovbude, S. and Udensi, U.E. Review of weeds with Phytoremediation potentials of Petroleum Hydrocarbon contaminated soil in the Niger-Delta states. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):47-55]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.08.

 

Keywords: Weeds, Phytoremediation, ecosystem regulation, Soil, Niger Delta

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Sem Studies On Effects Of Dust Deposition On Foliage Of Some Avenue Plants

 

*Sadhna Awasthi And P.C. Joshi

 

Department Of Zoology And Environmental Sciences, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar -249404

*sadhnaawasthi02@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out to correlate the combined impact of particulates and vehicular exhaust on the foliage of selected plants viz. R.communis, F.bengalensis, F.religiosa, C.fistula and S.indica at two different sites namely Amausi Airport ( a site I) and its adjacent area at Lucknow-Kanpur highway and B.B.A.U Campus (Site II). Dust load was calculated after continuous exposure of particulates on the foliage of avenue plants at both the sites. It was observed that dust load was more on the leaves of plants at Site-1 than Site-2.Foliar surface morphology and an epicuticular layer of plants at both the sites were studied with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis which revealed a number of changes in micro morphology of foliage due to dust exposure and deposition such as clogged stomata, ruptured epidermis and foreign particle deposition inside the leaf. Infrared spectra of dust samples collected over the leaves of selected plants were also recorded and the dominant peak of different intensities was obtained.

[Sadhna Awasthi And P.C. Joshi. Sem Studies On Effects Of Dust Deposition On Foliage Of Some Avenue Plants. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):56-64]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.09.

 

Keywords: Dust load, Leaf orientation, Micro morphology, Scanning electron microscopy, FTIR

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Antibiogram and Detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (MBL) positive Escherichia coli isolates from abattoir

 

Ejikeugwu Chika*1, Edeh Chijioke1, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu1, Orji Jerry1, Eluu Stanley2, Ugbo Emmanuel1, Duru Carissa3, Esimone Charles3

 

1Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

2Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B 053, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025, Awka, Nigeria

ejikeugwu_chika@yahoo.com; +2348097684562

 

Abstract: Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are group of β-lactamase enzymes that have zinc ion (Zn+) in their active site and are active hydrolyzer’s of carbapenems including meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem. However, MBLs are inactivated by chelating agents such as Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). This study evaluated phenotypically, the occurrence of Metallo-β-lactamase positive Escherichia coli from the anal swab of cows in an abattoir in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of 40 anal swab samples from cows were used for this study. The samples were bacteriologically analyzed in the microbiology laboratory of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki using MacConkey agar, nutrient broth and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar. The isolated E. coli were identified using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. MBL production was phenotypically detected in the E. coli isolates using the inhibition based assay. A total of 32 E. coli isolates were recovered from the anal swabs of cow and they showed varying rates of susceptibility to the tested antibiotics. The isolates were particularly resistant to oxacillin (100 %), ceftriaxone (87.1 %), cefotaxime (87.1 %) and ceftazidime (83.9 %). However, most of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to the carbapenems, particularly imipenem (87.1 %) and meropenem (80 %). Only 14 (43.8 %) E. coli isolates out of the 32 isolates recovered were suspected to produce metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in the screening test for MBL detection. However, only 4 (28.6 %) isolates of E. coli were phenotypically confirmed to be MBL producers. Proper detection of resistant bacteria from community samples and discouragement of the use of antibiotics as growth enhancers in animal production can help to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria and thus, preserve the efficacy of available antibiotics.

[Ejikeugwu Chika, Edeh Chijioke, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu, Orji Jerry, Eluu Stanley, Ugbo Emmanuel, Duru Carissa, Esimone Charles. Antibiogram and Detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (MBL) positive Escherichia coli isolates from abattoir. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):65-69]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.10.

 

Keywords: Abattoir, Antibiotics, Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Resistance, Nigeria

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Geographical Analysis of Socio-economic Characteristics of Traffic in Persons Sources in Southern Nigeria

 

Ezinneka Eunice Okodudu

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

nneokodudu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of traffic in persons (TIPs) sources in Southern Nigeria. The study considered human trafficking data between 2010 and 2014 from National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Person (NAPTIP). Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. Results showed that the mean population of TIPs sources was 229,296 persons and the population was highest in Akwa Ibom State (19.1%). Population of people living in poverty was highest in Cross River State (23.2%) followed by Bayelsa State (12.3%) while the least was observed in Osun State (0.7%). Similarly, the population with extreme poverty was also observed in Cross River State (28.0%) and Bayelsa (12.2%). Considering the accessibility to city of less than or equal to 50,000 people, Bayelsa State was highest (19.9%), followed by Akwa Ibom State (16.1%) and Cross River State (12.2%). Furthermore, about 80% of the total population of Lagos and Abia States had access to improved water while it was 24.6% in Cross River State. Also, not less than 80% of the population in relation to the entire population had access to improved sanitation in Lagos, Abia, Anambra and Imo States while it was 12.3% of the entire population of Bayelsa State. Akwa Ibom State and Cross River State had higher population of young people enrolled in primary school and secondary school. Moreover, Lagos State had the highest (61.9%) proportion of literate people in relation to the total population of the state while the lowest was found in Ebonyi State (33.7%). Of the entire population of Lagos State, 91.8% had access to electricity while more than 70% of the population of Anambra, Edo and Abia States had electricity in their household and the least was found in Cross River State. The study recommended that poverty should be abolished among the residents of the Southern Nigeria and adequate infrastructural facilities should be put in place.

[Nneka Ezinne Okodudu. Geographical Analysis of Socio-economic Characteristics of Traffic in Person Sources in Southern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):70-80]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.11.

 

Keywords: Population, Socio-economic characteristics, Southern Nigeria, Traffic in person

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Weighting atmospheric general circulation models in order to achieve the best fit models with area (Case Study: Isfahan)

 

Aghil Soltani Mohammadi 1, Mahmoud Reza Molaienia 2, Ali Ajamzadeh 3

 

1. M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zabol, Iran

2. Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, University of Zabol, Iran

3. Graduate of Master of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zabol, Iran

aghilsoltani1992@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Increasing the density of greenhouse gases and expansion of industries, full color footprints of climate change. Including methods of estimating the size of climate change, the use of atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) is. In order to study climate change, the atmospheric general circulation models suitable for different models in the study area due to large-scale data generation is important. In this study, the results of general circulation climate models to simulate meteorological parameters were used for the statistical base period and data produced by 18 models of Fourth Report and 39 models of Fifth Report of the intergovernmental climate change an important loss, for the base period of four stations located in the province were compared with data monitoring and comparing the weight of each model according to data produced by each model and monitor data on monthly basis, on the other. Then, according to the weight of each model and root mean square error, models CGCM3T47, INMCM3 and MIROC3.2-MEDRES  of the Fourth Report and models CCSM4, CSIRO-MK36 and HADGEM2ES of the fifth report were appropriate for the province.

[Soltani Mohammadi A, Molaienia M.R, Ajamzadeh A. Weighting atmospheric general circulation models in order to achieve the best fit models with area (Case Study: Isfahan). Nat Sci 2016;14(11):81-84]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.12.

 

Keywords: Weighting, General Circulation Models, Fourth and fifth reports, Isfahan

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Service oriented survey on job satisfaction, financial performance and customer satisfaction was mediated by National Bank branches in Ahvaz

 

Seyed Ali Hosseini *, Abdolreza Moghadami **

 

* . Department of Executive Management, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

** . Department of Executive Management, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran.

 

Abstract: The aim of all institutions Bank¬Ha services including tailored service and customer satisfaction. Since the financial service provider organizations, especially in an environment Bank¬Ha work with undifferentiated products, quality services as they compete first weapon known as quality of service and customer satisfaction, strategic issue for organizations their service. Khvasth¬Ha and preferences of customers better than competitor organizations to respond to them satisfaction, business performance will Mvfq¬Try. Given the expressed aim of this study was to examine the issue of how SOA on the financial performance of the role will affect job satisfaction and customer satisfaction? The aim of the present study, the research for numerous applications. According to the method of data collection, including the researcher-descriptive study - Ali respectively. The population of this research managers and employees in all branches of the National Bank is the city of Ahvaz. Given that the number of branches of the National Bank in the city of Ahvaz 69 branches and 681 employees total sample size of 246 people have been met. In this study hypotheses analysis software SPSS (22) and lisrel (8.5) was used. The results show the positive effects of Khdmt¬Grayy on customer satisfaction, job satisfaction and financial performance respectively. Customer satisfaction was confirmed positive impact on financial performance, but the impact on customer satisfaction and job satisfaction of the National Bank in this study was rejected.

[Seyed Ali Hosseini, Abdolreza Moghadami. Service oriented survey on job satisfaction, financial performance and customer satisfaction was mediated by National Bank branches in Ahvaz. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):85-91]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.13.

 

Key words: Khdmt¬Grayy, job satisfaction, customer satisfaction, financial performance

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Physico-chemical and microbial assessment of drinking water sources across world’s largest glacial deposits in Karakoram Mountain Ranges, Pakistan

 

Maisoor Ahmed Nafees1, Khalil Ahmed1, Andrea Lami3, Azhar Hussain2, Shujaat Ali2, Tika Khan4*

 

1Department of Biological Sciences Karakorum International University, Gilgit, Pakistan

2Department of Food and Agriculture Karakorum International University, Gilgit, Pakistan

3Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Verbania, Italy

4Integrated Mountain Areas Research Centre, Karakoram International University, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author: tika.khan@kiu.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Karakoram Mountain Ranges, Pakistan harbor largest glacial deposits in the world outside poles. They are key source of life and livelihoods of more than 15 million people living downstream. Water samples tested for physico-chemical and microbial health revealed severe bacterial contamination. A total Bacterial count, occurrence of E. coli and Enterococci in alpine origin sources indicate their vulnerability and undesirable human interferences into fragile mountain ecosystems making them unsafe for consumption. However, chemical ingredients found within the specified water quality limitation. Water sources need proper attention to mitigate frequency and prevalence of water borne diseases in the area.

[Maisoor Ahmed Nafees, Khalil Ahmed, Andrea Lami, Azhar Hussain, Shujaat Ali, Tika Khan. Physico-chemical and microbial assessment of drinking water sources across world’s largest glacial deposits in Karakoram Mountain Ranges, Pakistan. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):92-96]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.14.

 

Key words: E. coli, Enterococci, water borne diseases, pathogen, bacteria, Himalaya, Hindukush, water quality, Gilgit-Baltistan

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Reactivity Of 4,6-Dimethyl-2-Oxo-5-(Phenyldiazenyl)-1,2-Dihydropyridine-3-Carbonitrile Towards Some Carbon Electrophiles

 

Hassan A. El-Sayed*1, Abdussattar S. A. Mohamed2

 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

*Corresponding e-mail: hasanneg@gmail.com

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Al-Gabel Al-Gharbi University, Kikla, Libya

Correspondence: E-mail: abdusmoh2015@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the reactivity of 4,6-Dimethyl-2-oxo-5-(phenyldiazenyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (1) towards some carbon electrophiles. Electrophilic reaction of 1 with allyl / propargyl bromides and epichlorohydrine in presence of mild base (K2CO3) gave the corresponding N-alkylated derivatives 3-5, respectively and not O-analogues 3'-5'. Furthermore, reaction of 1 with 4-acetoxybutyl bromide, 2-acetoxyethoxymethyl bromide, 3-chloropropanole and 1,3-dicloroisopropanole in presence of K2CO3 gave the corresponding N-acyclonucleosides 6-9, respectively. Although, the same results were obtained at using strong base NaH. Carring out the mannich reaction on the starting pyridine derivative 1 confirmed the N-regioselectively of the reaction. The structural assignments of new compounds were based on their elemental analysis and spectral (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR) data.

[Hassan A. El-Sayed, Abdussattar S. A. Mohamed. Reactivity Of 4,6-Dimethyl-2-Oxo-5-(Phenyldiazenyl)-1,2-Dihydropyridine-3-Carbonitrile Towards Some Carbon Electrophiles. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):97-101]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.15.

 

Keywords: Pyridin-2(1H)-one. Alkylation. Acyclonucleosides. Mannich reaction

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Epilithic Soft Algae of Dilimi River in Jos, Nigeria

 

Cyril C. Ajuzie

 

Aquaculture, Freshwater and Marine Ecology Research Lab, Fisheries & Aquaculture Unit, Department of Animal Production, University of Jos, Nigeria

efulecy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: River Dilimi flows through urban areas in Jos, Nigeria. As a result of this, a lot of human-generated pollutants find their way into the river. The locals attach a lot of socio-economic importance to the river. But the scientific community has shown minimal interest in the ecology of the river. Hence, there is a dearth of information in the literature about the biotas (especially soft algae) that inhabit the river. Epilithic soft algae were sampled from the river at two sites (an upstream site close to British-America bridge, and a downstream site at the pedestrian bridge, Unijos permanent site). Nutrients (N and P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels were relatively higher at the downstream site, which suffers more from anthropogenic pollution. Seven Divisions of soft algae were registered during this study. Cyanobacteria, Charophyta, Chlorophyta and Dinophyta were recorded at the upstream site. The fore-mentioned Divisions (excluding Dinophyta) plus Euglenophyta, Ochrophyta and Cryptophyta were observed in samples collected at the downstream site. Cyanobacteria was the most common group of soft algae at the upstream site with 82 % occurrence. At the downstream site, Chlorophyta was the most common group with 35 % occurrence, followed by Cyanobacteria (29 % occurrence) and Euglenophyta with 16 % occurrence. A total of 78 species of soft algae were recorded in this study. The downstream site was richer in species (57 species vs. 30 species at the upstream site), and had a higher diversity index value (3.89 vs. 2.67 Shannon index at the upstream site). The community similarity index between the two sites was low (11.5 %). This study is the first to describe the community of soft algae in River Dilimi, a grossly polluted river. Hence, the documented soft algae could be described as pollution tolerant organisms.

[Ajuzie CC. Epilithic Soft Algae of Dilimi River in Jos, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):102-111]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.16.

 

Keywords: Dilimi River; epilithic soft algae; Nigeria; pollution tolerant organisms

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Preparation, Characterization and Physical Properties Study of La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3-δ Perovskites Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

 

A.G. Mostafa 1*, Ibraheem Othman Ali 2, I.M. Ashraf 3 and M.G. Ismaeil 3

 

1. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City (11884), Cairo, Egypt

2. Chem. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ.,Nasr City (11884), Cairo, Egypt

3. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Aswan Univ., Aswan, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Some perovskite samples of the composition La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3 (where x= 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8) have been prepared by the sol-gel method. The TGA/DTA analysis indicated that perovskite structure may be formed at about 930 °C, and therefore the obtained powder samples have been calcinated at 1000 °C for 24 h. XRD analysis of all samples indicated that a single perovskite phase has been crystallized in rhombahedral structure and all crystallites are found within the nano-size range. Saturation magnetization (Ms) and reminance magnetization (Mr) were found to increase monotonically with the increase of Fe content while coerctivity field decreased. The dc conductivity was found to increase with increasing temperature where all samples behave like sami-conductors and the small polaron hopping model with thermally activated charge transfer is the applicable conduction mechanism. Also, the optical band gap increased with increasing Fe content.

[Mostafa AG, Ali IO, Ashraf IM and Ismaeil MG. Preparation, Characterization and Physical Properties Study of La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3-δ Perovskites Prepared by Sol-Gel Method. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):112-118]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.17.

 

Keywords: Perovskites; Perovskite Structure; Physical properties of Perovskites; Cathode Materials; fuel Cells.

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Study the Effect of Some Parameters on [Cs-134/Cs-137] Activity Ratio for Nuclear Spent Fuel

Using ORIGEN-ARP Code

 

A.G. Mostafa 1*, A.A. Hamed 2 and M. Gad 2

 

1. Department of Physics, Faculty of science Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Department of Nuclear Safeguard and Physical Protection, Egyptian Nuclear Radiological Regularity Authority (ENRRA), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Safeguard state system is engaged in Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Research and Development (R&D) work on spent fuel elements (SFE). One of the traditional methods for the verification of SFE’s is the so-called gamma spectrometry, relying on gamma measurements for the assessment of burnup SFE. For better understanding of the principles behind Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio, significant efforts were done in terms of both Monte Carlo modeling and depletion & evolution code calculations. However, this study focuses on the impact of some irradiation history parameters on the Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio in SFE, where ORIGEN-ARP code was used to determine such activity ratio. The cases considered in this study are some parameters of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) of 17×17 PWR fuel with an initial enrichment of 4.5%. The burnup ranged between 10 and 60 GWd/tu, as well as 18 values of cooling time, from 0 up to 30 years. The varied parameters were the average power level, the cooling time between cycles and the duration of an irradiation cycle. Conclusions about the role of the considered irradiation history parameters on the Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio were drawn and the obtained values were discussed.

[Mostafa AG, Hamed AA and Gad M. Study the Effect of Some Parameters on [Cs134/Cs137] Activity Ratio for Nuclear Spent Fuel Using ORIGEN-ARP Code. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):119-124]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.18.

 

Keywords: Nuclear Safeguard Applications; Spent Fuel elements; Cesium Isotopic Ratio; ORIGEN-ARP Code.

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Evaluation of biotic and abiotic elicitors to control Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

 

Abd El-Monem M.A. Sharaf 1, Atef M. Kailla 2, Mohamed S. Attia 1* and Mohamed M. Nofal 1

 

1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, 11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Nematology department plant pathology research institute, Agric. Research Center, Giza, Egypt

*drmohamedsalah.92.@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted in the experimental farm station of plant pathology research institute during 2015 season at three application times for biotic and a biotic elicitors, to evaluate the efficient antagonistic bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Cyanobacterial strain Spirulina platensis and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants. Second stage juveniles/250 g soil, Females/1 g root, and Developmental stages/1 g root, Photosynthetic pigments and phytochemicals as response to induction of SAR in tomato plants were recorded. The results demonstrated that root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita challenged plants emerged from B. subtilis, S. marcescens, S. platensis and AgNPs showed reduction in the level of second stage juveniles in soil, female and developmental stages of Meloidogyne incognita. Application of B. subtilis at the same time of inoculation of M. incognita recorded 90.48% reduction of average number of females.  Significant improvements in tomato plants were obtained due to the used B. subtilis, S. marcescens, S. platensis and AgNPs. On contrary, considerable reductions in all tested parameters were occurred as a result of the M. incognita infection. Application of S. platensis one week before infection gave the most potent effect as regard the chlorophyll (a) as well as total chlorophyll (a+b) when being compared with other treatments as being compared with healthy ones. While, application of AgNPs (especially at the same time of infection or one week after infection) was more effective in increasing the contents of chlorophyll (a), (b) as well as total chlorophyll (a+b). The beneficial effects of the used treatments were extended to increase not only total phenol and free proline but also the activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymes in comparison with control plants. On the other hand, the results appeared that tomato plants treated with inducers show variability in number of polypeptide peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase isozymes in the leaves especially one week before infection or one week after infection according to the type of used elicitors.

[Sharaf AMA, Kailla AM, Attia MS and Nofal MM. Evaluation of biotic and abiotic elicitors to control Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):125-137]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.19.

 

Keywords: Cyanobacterial; Bacillus subtilis; Silver nanoparticles; Nematodes.

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The use of potassium and antioxidants to improve water use efficiency, yield and quality in potatoes

1- Evaluation of surface irrigation using gated pipes techniques in potato crop

 

Abdel-Ati, Y.Y.1, Abdelreheem, H. A.2, Haithan Elham Mohamed Zaki1, Ahmed Yousry Tammam2

 

1Faculty of Agricultures, Minia University, Minia Egypt

2Water Management Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Egypt

dr.hassanahmed_999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out at Mallawy, Water Requirements Research Station –Minia Governorate - Egypt. The present research was carried out to study the effect of irrigation systems, potassium sources and salicylic acid on water use efficiency, yield, saving of water and economic evaluation for potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum). The experiments were included two irrigation systems (a) (surface irrigation a1& improving surface by gated pipes a2) and four sub treatments, potassium sulfate 200 kg/ fed (b1), potassium nitrate 200 kg/fed (b2) without potassium treatment (control b3), potassium sulfate 200 kg / fed + salicylic acid with concentration 200 ppm spray on plant (b4) and potassium nitrate + salicylic acid with concentration 200 ppm spray (b5) on plant with four replications so that experiment was arranged in split plot design. The treatments of irrigation systems were randomly distributed in the main plots. While, the potassium and salicylic acid treatments were randomly distributed in sub plot. Results indicated that the planting potato crop by gated pipes with potassium fertilization96 kg/K2O leads to an increase in productivity with rate equals 19.94 %, more water saving about by 25.62% per year, rising the total irrigation’s efficiency to 72.87 %. It also saving water by about 31307419.60 million m3/area (Average area cultivated by potato in Egypt) compared with the traditional method in this region. The results indicated also from the economic view point that, the gated pipes with rate 96 kg/K2O + SA200 ppm / fed recorded the highest values of field and crop water use efficiencies (6.40 and 10.62 kg/m3) respectively. The highest values of total income, production, net return of each and water irrigation (L.E /m3) and economic efficiency were gained with it. Therefore, the economics of irrigation water becomes very important for planting irrigation management project where the over irrigation practices by farmers usually lead to low irrigation efficiency, water logging and high losses of water. It could be recommended to application gated pipes with rate 96 kg/K2O + SA 200 ppm / fed to produce high yield of potato with less amount of water applied under El Minia province conditions and other corresponding conditions.

[Abdel-Ati, Y.Y., Abdelreheem, H. A., Haithan Elham Mohamed Zaki, Ahmed Yousry Tammam. The use of potassium and antioxidants to improve water use efficiency, yield and quality in potatoes. 1- Evaluation of surface irrigation using gated pipes techniques in potato crop. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):138-149]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.20.

 

Keywords: development surface irrigation by gated pipe; surface irrigation; water relationship; economic evaluation

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Studies on the production of synbiotic yoghurt

 

Fayed, A.E.1; Meranda A. Tawfek2; Amany M. El-Deeb2 and Amal Elsayed Ibrahim2

 

1- Food Sci. Dept., Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El-Kheima, Cairo, Egypt

2- Dairy Sci. & Technol. Dept., Food Technol. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

profateffayed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The manufacture possibility of bioyoghurt fortified with different levels of a physiological active ingredient, namely γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was aimed to study in relation to bacterial, biochemical, physical, rheological and organoleptical attributes of yoghurt made using milk inoculated with probiotic bacterial starter culture (BSC) versus ordinary yoghurt inoculated with yoghurt bacterial starter culture as a control. Milk was firstly adjusted to 3 % fat and fortified with GABA preparation at the level of nil, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg. Then fortified milks were heat treated to 85°C for 5 min. followed by temperature adjustment to 42°C. Milk preparations were converted into yoghurt, where they were inoculated with 2% of freshly activated YC-X11 or ABT-2, filled into 100 ml polystyrene containers, covered, and incubated at the same temperature degree (42°C) until complete coagulation (through about 3 h.). Thereafter, the containers were transferred to the refrigerator (5±1°C), where they were kept for periodically analyses along 3 weeks. The obtained results declared that, the proportional fortification of yoghurt milk with GABA was associated with significantly gradual increment in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterum sp., the levels of titratable acidity (TA) as well as acetaldehyde (AC) and decrement in the values of the pH and diacetyl (DA). However, the organoleptic scores of bioyoghurt were not influenced by the fortification level with GABA. The penetration value increased and consistency coefficient (CC), yield stress (YS) decreased as GABA was added. Moreover, the ordinary yoghurt was distinguished with higher count of Str. thermophilus, TA%, AC, DA, CC as well as YS; and lower values of pH. Along the cold storage period (CSP) of yoghurt, all BSC strains reached their higher count at the 1st week then reduced in the 2nd week. Similar trends were behaved by DA content of yoghurt. Gradual increase in TA%, CC, YS, dynamic viscosity and decrease in pH, AC and penetration values were occurred as the CSP of yoghurt was prolonged. Nevertheless, all yoghurt samples, without any exception, were organoleptically accepted until the end of the CSP (3 weeks). Finally, the foregoing results led satisfactory to conclude that, yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with such physiological active ingredient, namely γ-aminobutyric acid at any level studied.

[Fayed, A.E.; Meranda A. Tawfek; Amany M. El-Deeband Amal Elsayed Ibrahim. Studies on the production of synbiotic yoghurt. Nat Sci 2016;14(11):150-157]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141116.21.

 

Keywords: Probiotics, prebiotics, γ-aminobutyric acid, biochemical and rheological properties

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from October 26, 2016.

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