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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 14 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 117), December 25, 2016
 Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1412

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Sea Evaluation of Flapper Bycatch Reduction Device in Stow Net Shrimp Fishery

 

Eyo Ambrose *and Isangedighi Isangedighi

 

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, PMB 1017, Uyo AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. E-mail address: eyoambrose@yahoo.com

 

Abstract Comparative fishing trials with conventional and modified stow net bunts were carried out in nearshore Atlantic Ocean. The bunt was modified by incorporating flapper bycatch reduction device at 75% bunt length from tip. The stow nets were anchored in a gang of 30 sets; 15 conventional and 15 modified nets. Simultaneous setting and hauling operations of both category of stow net bunts showed that the flapper bunt significantly reduced the bycatch of juvenile fishes up to 54.4% (T-test, P<0.01) with no significant reduction (5%) in the quantity of the target shrimps, Nematopalaemon hastatus (T-test, P>0.01). Fusiform shaped and small sized fishes with total length range of 3-10cm were highly reduced in the flapper but while larger bycatch species (11-20cm TL) with morphometric body projections were retained for bycatch livelihood trade. The difference in the behavior of shrimps and fin fishes in relation to tidal current in the bunt which allowed the separation process is discussed.

[Eyo Ambrose and Isangedighi Isangedighi. Sea Evaluation of Flapper Bycatch Reduction Device in Stow Net Shrimp Fishery. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):1-6]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.01.

 

Keywords: Sea; Evaluation; Flapper; Bycatch; Reduction Device; Stow Net Shrimp Fishery

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Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis, identification of causative agents and sensitivity profile of isolates in Northern Pakistan

 

Noshsheen Sadaf1, Khalil Ahmed1, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees1, Tika Khan1&2*

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram international University, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

2Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre, Karakoram international University, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: tika.khan@kiu.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Mastitis is considered priciest disease causing multimillion dollar losses to dairy industry worldwide annually. Surf Field Mastitis Test (n=200) revealed almost one forth (n=57, 28.6%) positive. Similarly, highest infestation was recorded in Sonikot (n=30, 75%) followed by Kashrote (n=10, 25%), Yadgar Muhallah and Nagaral (n=8, 20%) each and Baseen (n=1, 2.5%) being the least. The various pathogens isolated by culturing and identified by biochemical tests from Surf Field Mastitis Test positive milk samples. Staphylococus was found 12 (21.5%), Streptococcus 10 (17.54%), Pseudomonas 8 (14.3%), and Escherichia coli 10 (17.54%). The infestation of Staphylococus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli was high as compare to Pseudomonas. Most of the isolates found sensitive against Pefloxacin, partial resistant with Ampicillin. All isolates were resistant with Erythromycin and Amoxicillin. It is recommended that the milking cows should be kept in dry and clean areas, teats must be dipped in any antiseptic after milking process to avoid bacterial infections and treatment of the infected cows is important with an appropriate antibiotic.

[Noshsheen Sadaf, Khalil Ahmed, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees, Tika Khan. Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis, identification of causative agents and sensitivity profile of isolates in Northern Pakistan. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):7-10]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.02.

 

Key words: Microbiology, cow milk, bacterial contamination, prevalence, Gilgit, antibiotic sensitivity pattern

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Seasonal changes in physico-chemical properties of River sediments in Agbabu areas, Nigeria: Insight from principal component analysis

 

Akinyemi, S. A1., Fagbote2, E.O., Olanipekun2, E. O., Adebayo1, O.F., Aturamu1, A. O., Gitari3, W. M., Ojo1, A. O.

 

1Department of Geology and Applied Geophysics, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

3Department of Ecology and Resources Management, University of Venda, South Africa.

segun.akinyemi@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The paper assesses the seasonal changes in the physico-chemical properties and the textural characteristic of the sediments for the duration of 2008 to 2009. The study appraises variations of physico-chemical parameters such as P, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, pH, EC, TN, TOC and CEC during the dry and rainy seasons. Texturally, the sediment composed mostly of sand size particles with small aggregates of silt and clay particles. The silt and clay fractions of sediments were enriched during dry season but depleted during the rainy season. The pore water pH is slightly acidic with values varying between 4.42 – 6.74 and 4.36 – 6.20 during the dry and rainy seasons respectively. The mean pH values of 5.58 and 5.44 for the periods of dry and rainy seasons respectively fall below the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold standards of 6.5 - 8.5. A significant increase in TOC, CEC, TN, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ during the dry season is attributed to the increase in the percentage of fine materials (i.e. clay and silt) and organic matter constituents in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) performed identified three extracted components namely comp. 1, comp. 2 and comp. 3. The Fe oxide, Mn oxide, TOC and the clay components of sediments are controlling the variation in the physico-chemical characteristics. The cluster analysis results corroborated the observed pattern in the principal component analysis.

[Akinyemi, S. A., Fagbote, E.O., Olanipekun, E. O., Adebayo, O.F., Aturamu, A. O., Gitari, W. M., Ojo, A. O. Seasonal changes in physico-chemical properties of River sediments in Agbabu areas, Nigeria: Insight from principal component analysis. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):11-18]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.03.

 

Keywords: Seasonal changes, physico-chemical properties, sediment, heavy metals, principal component analysis, cluster analysis.

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Effects of Nitrogen, phosphorous (inorganic fertilizers) and Farm Yard Manure on growth, yield, yield components and oil contents of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) at Assosa district, Beneshangul Gumuze Region, Ethiopia

 

Tefera Teshome

 

Department of plant science, Assosa University, Po. Box 18

Email: teshometefera36@yahoo.com, Mobile phone: +251 917 817 817

 

Abstract: The research was conducted to study the effect of NP and FYM on growth, yield, yield components and oil content of sesame. The research consisted of four main treatments and three replications laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD). Four levels of NP fertilizers (0-0, 30-15, 60-30, and 90-45 kg ha-1) and four levels of FYM (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 t ha-1) were used under drill sowing method. For the used fertilizers; Urea, DAP and FYM were the main source of nitrogen and P2O5 respectively. Abasena improved sesame variety which was collected from Pawe Agricultural Research Center was selected for the study and it also provided better yield. All necessary vegetative and generative parameters including oil content were collected timely and data analyses also done among treatments. Parameters were investigated includes; days to 50% emergency, days to 50% flowering, date to maturity, number of plants per plot, plant height (m), number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, total biomass (kg ha-1), seed yield (kg ha-1), thousand seed weight (g), harvest index(%) and oil content (%). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each studied parameter was computed by statistical analysis system (SAS) and separation between mean for treatments was done by using the least significant difference (LSD) test. Among NP and FYM levels 60-30 kg ha-1 with 5t ha-1 in drill planting method gave maximum seed yield (750 kg ha-1) and maximum seed oil content (60%). The profitability obtained from the selected treatment was 3.78 and generally all treatments were indicated economically profitable. As recommendation, combination of 60-30kg ha-1 NP and 5t ha-1 FYM trial should be practiced widely with 6 kg ha-1 seed rate under drill sowing method. Generally, the study was statistically significant, which indicated that there was yield and oil content variation among different levels of NP and farmyard manure.

[Tefera Teshome. Effects of Nitrogen, phosphorous (inorganic fertilizers) and Farm Yard Manure on growth, yield, yield components and oil contents of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) at Assosa district, Beneshangul Gumuze Region, Ethiopia. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):19-28]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.04.

 

Key words: FYM, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, oil content, and seed yield

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Screening of Aspergillus And Aflatoxin From Arachis hypogaea

 

Padma Singh1, Bhavya Trivedi2 and Mamta Yadav3

 

Department of Microbiology, Kanya Gurukul Campus, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

Email: dr.padmasingh06@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This is a preliminary investigation of the incidence and  aflatoxins in Arachis hypogaea. The survey was based on groundnut samples, collected from local market. Most dominating fungi was found to be A. flavus followed by Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp. It was found that A. flavus produce aflatoxin G .From this study, it was clear that heavy fungal load in groundnut was present, however further research is needed in this field.

[Padma Singh, Bhavya Trivedi and Mamta Yadav. Screening of Aspergillus And Aflatoxin From Arachis hypogaea. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):29-31]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.05.

 

Key words: Aflatoxin, Fungal load, Preliminary

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Species Availability and Marketing System in Two Fish Markets of Coastal Region in Bangladesh

 

Md. Moazzem Hossain 1, Md. Aminul Islam 2, Md. Hafijur Rahman 3

 

1. Department of Fisheries Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

2. Department of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

3. Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

moazzem@pstu.ac.bd; Cell phone: +8801914137236; Fax: 04427-56009

 

Abstract: An investigation was carried out on the availability of fish species and marketing system in Indrerhat and Banaripara fish markets of Bangladesh over 12-months between January and December, 2013. Combinations of the participatory qualitative and quantitative methods were used for questionnaire interviews during data collection and species identification has been done based on morphometric and meristic characteristics. A total 140 species of fresh water, brackish and marine water fish and crustacean species were recorded during the observation period. The number of fresh water species was 89 including 15 fresh water culture species, 18 SIS and 10 crustaceans (fresh water prawn) whereas the recorded brackish and marine water species was 51 including 7 crustaceans (6 marine and brackish water shrimp and 1 crab). Among the total species of which 12 species as endangered, 9 species as vulnerable and 1 species as critically endangered were identified. The availability of fish species in two markets was varied between 38 and 83 in different months while the highest 83 species was recorded in October and lowest 38 species in January. The highest 37.77% was recorded as marine and brackish water fish, 34.34% as freshwater capture fish and 30.83% as freshwater culture fish which contributed mainly Indian major carps, hilsa, catfish, snakehead, shrimp, prawn, SIS (Small Indigenous Species) and others. The marketing channel from fishermen/fish farmers to consumers passed through a number of intermediaries such as wholesaler/aratder, local agent/foria and retailer. About 95% fish was transported by mechanized boats and trawlers in Indrerhat fish market while that was 60% for Banaripara fish market. Fish transportation cost by mechanized boasts was 80% lower than road communication system. There were some common constraints of fish marketing system observed in both markets such as lack of capital, storage facilities, ice supply, sufficient space, clean water supply and proper communication facilities. Exploitation by middlemen acts as a common fence for the improvement of socioeconomic condition of fishermen/fish farmers.

[Md. Moazzem Hossain, Md. Aminul Islam, Md. Hafijur Rahman. Species Availability and Marketing System in Two Fish Markets of Coastal Region in Bangladesh. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):32-42]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.06.

 

Keywords: Species Availability; Fish Marketing; Constraints.

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Study changes the chemical properties of the limy soil around the drain cover in the absence and presence of sugarcane bagasse round drain cover

 

Atefeh Raisi, Abdolrahim Hushmand, Abdali Naseri

 

Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

a.raisinafchi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In order to analyze the application of sugarcane Baggase in controlling the clogging of the agricultural sub-surface drain envelopes, an experiment was conducted at the physical models experimental lab of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz between February 2016 And September 2016. The physical model utilized in this practice for simulating the drainage trench consists of a 150cm High, 40cm Wide and 120cm Long trench. In the first case, the Sugarcane Baggase with a volumetric ratio of 30 to 70 was mixed with soil and placed around the drainage pipe and was established to flow continuously for 2,000 hours. in other tests not covered bagasse. The in-flow continuously passed through the system from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Before starting the experiment, soil chemical and physical properties were evaluated. To study the chemical properties of soil saturation extract was prepared. Also after the end of the test, chemical was re-evaluated soil. The results showed that the soil elements at the end of the experiment in both presence and absence of bagasse increased. The results showed that in the case of bagasse placed around the drain cover was an increase of less elements of the other.

[Atefeh Raisi, Abdolrahim Hushmand, Abdali Naseri. Study changes the chemical properties of the limy soil around the drain cover in the absence and presence of sugarcane bagasse round drain cover. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):43-45]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.07.

 

Keywords: limy soil, sugarcane bagasse, drain cover

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Food Habit and Growth Pattern of Oreochromis niloticus in Wase Dam, Nigeria

 

Yem Innocent Yakubu 1, Bankole Nathaniel Oluranti 1, Ewutanure Jacob 1 and Umar Rilwan 2

 

1. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, P.M.B. 6006, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria

2. National Agricultural Extension Research and Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State

bamo30@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Food habit and growth pattern of one hundred and thirty seven (137) samples of Oreochromis niloticus in Wase Dam, Kano State was investigated. One hundred and thirty seven samples, which comprised of 81 males and 56 females were used for the study. Males’ (4.50cm-19.50cm) with mean 12.52, females (5.00cm-20.50cm SL) of mean 13.17 and combined sexes (4.50cm-20.50 SL) of mean 12.78 did not show any significantly difference (p<0.05) although males were bigger than females. Stomach contents analysis using frequency of occurrence and numerical methods showed that the fish fed mainly on plankton (algae) followed by insect part, detritus then fish fry and lowest unidentified materials. The diversity of food items found in the stomach categorizes the fish as an omnivore with tendency of being a planktivore. The length-weight relationship (b-value) obtained for the male, female and combined sexes suggested negative allometric growth.

[Yem Innocent Yakubu, Bankole Nathaniel Oluranti, Ewutanure Jacob and Umar Rilwan. Food Habit and Growth Pattern of Oreochromis niloticus in Wase Dam, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):46-49]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.08.

 

Keywords: Diet, growth pattern, Nile tilapia, Wase Dam

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Comparison of three methods modified pine trees on copper absorption from aqueous solutions

 

Samaneh Abdellahi Neisiani1, Amir Soltani Mohammadi1, Saeed Boromand Nasab1 and Nematollah Jaafarzadeh2

 

1. Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

2. Environmental Technologies Research center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

s.abdellahi89@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In view of water crisis, effective prevention of water resources contamination is increasingly important. Absorption process is as one of the most efficient and application technology water and wastewater treatment in the world. Until now, valuable efforts have been made to develop low-cost adsorbents using agricultural, industrial and urban waste. Sometimes, adsorbent used needs to be modified and preparation. The aim of this study was to compare three different modified pine trees on the removal of copper from aqueous solutions. Also, the effect of copper concentration on absorption efficiency was studied. Pine leaf powder prepared, was modified by three methods using NaCl, Surfactants and Surfactant and NaCl. The test was done in a batch system by building artificial solutions containing copper in the lab. Results showed that adsorbent modified by NaCl had the highest removal efficiency.

[Abdellahi Neisiani S, Soltani Mohammadi A, Boromand Nasab S, Jaafarzadeh N. Comparison of three methods modified pine trees on copper absorption from aqueous solutions. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):50-52]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.09.

 

Keywords: Absorption, Copper, Pine leaf, Modify

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Benzene-induced hematotoxicity and DNA damage in rats

 

Mohamed M. El-khawankya, Basel A. Abdel-Wahabb, Metwally E. Metwallyc and Alaa M. Hashemd

 

a Department of Clinical Hematopathology, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.

Current address: 7-Elnady st., Belbeis, Sharkia, Egypt.

e.mail: mma_emy1976@yahoo.com; (M):+201142604661

b Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Current address: Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.

e.mail: basel_post@msn.com; (M): +966-553899185

c Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Current address: Department of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.

(M): +966-558447931; e.mail: scu.met@gmail.com

d Department of clinical Pathology, College of Medicine, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Current address: Department of clinical Hematopathology, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia. e.mail: alaammail@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Exposure to benzene has a detrimental effect on the hematopoietic system and affects its genetic material through the enhancement of oxidative DNA damage. 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a result of DNA damage due to the hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 position of the nucleobase guanine which occurs after exposure to benzene. Such damage if unrepaired, may contribute to mutageninicity and cancer promotion. A group of 19 male Wistar rats were benzene administered by gastric gavage 100 mg / kg body wt, 5d/week for 4 weeks and another group of 12 rats were not exposed to benzene served as control group with the aim to assess the changes in peripheral blood cells count and 8-OHdG levels in benzene exposed rats. There was a highly significant decrease of TLC, RBC and Hemoglobin concentration in benzene exposed group (P=.001,.007,.000), respectively. Also, there was a significant increase (P=.031) of 8-OHdG in benzene exposed group. The mean + (SD) of 8-OHdG in benzene exposed group was (49.5 + 7.1) pg/ml while in control group was (38.7 + 4.3) pg/ml. In conclusion; benzene exposure has a toxic effect on peripheral blood cells with increased the oxidative DNA damage in the form of increased 8-OHdG. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological significance of 8-OHdG as a clastogenic and carcinogenic risk factor.

[Mohamed M. El-khawanky, Basel A. Abdel-Wahab, Metwally E. Metwally  and Alaa M. Hashem. Benzene-induced hematotoxicity and DNA damage in rats. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):53-57]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.10.

 

Key Words: Benzene; blood cells; 8-OHdG; DNA; oxidative damage; biological; genotoxicity as clastogenic; mutageninicity; carcinogenic.

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A Novel Eco-Friendly Pre-Mordnating Technique For Dyeing Cellulose/Wool Fabrics Using Allium Cena Natural Dye

 

Wessam El-Zairy*

 

*Textile printing, dyeing and finishing dept., Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Giza, Egypt.

wessam.reda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Coloration of fabrics is a major process in the production of textile material. In the current study, natural dye was extracted from onion skin (Allium Cena) using microwave irradiation technique and used to dye wool/cotton blended fabrics, via eco-friendly natural mordants, i.e., aloe vera and chitosan. Factors that may affect pre-mordnating process were studied like mordant conc., curing time/ temperature. Various parameters that affect on the dyeing process were investigated such as dye concentration, dyeing time/temperature as well as pH value of the dyeing bath. The fastness properties gave results ranged from good to excellent.

[Wessam El-Zairy. A Novel Eco-Friendly Pre-Mordnating Technique For Dueing Cellulose/Wool Fabrics Using Allium Cena Natural Dye. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):58-63]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.11.

 

Key words: natural mordant; chitosan; aloe vera; Allium Cena; wool/cotton.

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Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of fresh, dried and infused herbal extract of Feijoa Fruit

 

Sahar Kabiri1, Farzad Gheibi2, Maryam Joker1, Shadi Basiri2

 

1. Department of Food science and technology, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

2. Department of Food Processing- Research Institute of Food Science & Technology, Mashhad, Iran

sahar.kabiri88@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present study fresh, dried and herbal infusion of feijo fruit (Feijoa sellowiana) were compared to their total phenol content, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity as well as different physicochemical characteristics. The study reveals that the physical characteristics of fruit, that is, color, texture and density were significantly affected by hot air drying. The chemical parameters of fruit determined, total soluble solid (TSS), acidity, pH, moisture, ash content, carbohydrate, protein, fat, ascorbic acid, total phenol, flavonoids and iodine content also evaluated as chemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by drying so with the various nutritional benefits, the fresh and dried fruits could be recommended for commercial exploitation and preparation of different value added products. Fresh fruit were found to be a good source of antioxidants and had the highest total phenol content, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity. A significant (p< 0.05) amount of antioxidants was lost after sun-drying of feijoa, whereas the herbal infusion of feijoa had the same total antioxidant activity with fresh fruit. These results suggest that all feijoa types serve as a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food or functional food.

[Sahar Kabiri, Farzad Gheibi, Maryam Joker, Shadi Basiri. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of fresh, dried and infused herbal extract of Feijoa Fruit. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):64-70]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.12.

 

Keywords: Feijoa; antioxidant; herbal infusion; tropical; drying; composition

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Toxicological Effects of Lagocephalus scleratus fish extracts against Culex pipiens

(Diptera: Culicidae)

 

Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Ahmed N. Alabssawy, Ahmed Z.I. Shehata

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Ahscience09@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three extracts of Skin (SE), Muscle (ME) and Viscera (VE) of Lagocephalus scleratus were evaluated against immature and mature stages of Culex pipiens to assess the toxicity, LC50, fecundity, egg hatchability and some biochemical parameters. The survival potential of larval stage was highly affected by the treatment with the tested extracts. On the basis of LC50, ME was the most toxic one against the larval stage followed by SE and VE. The late toxicity of fish extracts tested on the adult females resulted from larvae treated with the LC50 of each extract decreased the number of eggs laid by female. The fecundity recorded 88.3±2.9, 136.7±7.6 and 150±5 eggs/♀ for females resulted from larvae treated with the LC50 of ME, SE and VE; respectively, compared to 171.7±7.6 eggs/♀ for control females. The hatchability percent of eggs laid by females treated with the LC50 of ME, SE and VE was decreased to 33.9, 51.3 and 60%; respectively, compared to 90.3% for eggs laid by untreated females. A marked decrease in total carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents in the whole body of males and females, C. pipiens resulted from larvae treated with the LC50 of ME, SE and VE were observed. It is clear from the results obtained in this study that puffer toxins are effective in the mosquito control.

[Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Ahmed N. Alabassawy, Ahmed Z.I. Shehata. Toxicological Effects of Lagocephalus scleratus fish extracts against Culex pipiens(Diptera: Culicidae). Nat Sci 2016;14(12):71-77]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.13.

 

Key words: L. scleratus, C. pipiens, Toxicity, reproduction

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Neurotoxicity of strawberry Artificial flavour (Benzyl Acetate) on some neurotransmitter contents in male albino rats.

 

A. E. Bawazir

 

Department of Biology (Zoology), Faculty of Girls Education, Scientific Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; ebawazir@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: flavour strawberry (Benzyl Acetate) a widespread Artificial flavoured used in many food products, fast foods, beverages and soft drinks in Saudi Arabia. This research aims to study the effect of artificial flavour strawberry on some neurotransmitters content particularly norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in different brain regions. The results indicate that oral administration of Artificial flavour strawberry lead to a significant reduce in the content of neurotransmitter in the different brain areas, benzyl acetate may be induce neurotoxicity by conjugation with glycine it will changes in the neurotransmitter levels and lead to motor activity behavioral changes in the rat.

[A. E. Bawazir. Neurotoxicity of strawberry Artificial flavour (Benzyl Acetate) on some neurotransmitter contents in male albino rats. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):78-82]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.14.

 

Keywords: flavour strawberry, some Neurotransmitter, Brain.

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Molecular characterization of Salmonella species isolated from some meat products

 

Ibrahim E. Eldesouky1*, Manar O. Eissa2, Hisham S. Nada1, Amal M. Abdel Satar2

 

1Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University 33516, Egypt.

2Animal Health Research Institute, Kafr Elsheikh, Egypt.

*Corresponding author`s E. mail: Ibrahim543@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out for determining the prevalence of Salmonella Enterica as well as screening of virulence genes associated with isolated serotypes from commercial meat product samples by PCR. A total of 200 samples (luncheon, sausage, beef burger, hotdog, kofta meat, chicken meat, basterma and beef) of meat products were collected from different supermarkets and restaurant in Kafr- EL-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. Samples were aseptically processed for the isolation of Salmonella by conventional isolation methods. Microbial investigation resulted in the overall isolation percentage of S. Enterica was 8.5%. Based on cultural biochemical and serological characteristics, seven different serovars were identified. S. enteritidis was the predominant one (47%) followed by S. typhimurium (23.52%), S. infantis, S. haifa, S. virchow, S. muenster and S. montevideo (5.88 % each). All Salmonella isolates were screened for the presence of virulence associated genes by PCR. All Salmonella isolates were positive for the invA gene. Fimbrial H (fimH), hyper-invasive locus (hilA), enterotoxin (stn) genes were detected in 88.23%, 64.70%, and 41.17% respectively. The present study suggested that invA and fimH virulence genes are much conserved in S. Enterica isolated from meat products and could use independently as a gene marker for the rapid detection of the virulent strains of S. Enterica.

[Ibrahim E. Eldesouky, Manar O. Eissa, Hisham S. Nada, Amal M. Abdel Satar. Molecular characterization of Salmonella species isolated from some meat products. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):83-89]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.15.

 

Key word: S. Enterica, Meat products, Virulence genes

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A review on medicinal plants and herbs of Uttrakhand (India): its traditional, ethanomedicinal and antimicrobial potential

 

Ajeet Singh1* and Navneet2

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, Uttrakhand India (249404) Contact mob: 08791539165. *ajeetchoudharygkv@gmail.com

 

Abstract: India has a rich heritage of knowledge on plant based drugs both for exploit in preventive and curative medicine. Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Uttarakhand (India) by providing products for both food and medicine. Their primary health care system is depending on traditional knowledge of medical practices and medicinal herbs. It has a wealthy knowledge of traditional system of medicine since time immemorial. The results of various herbal researchers also indicated that scientific studies carried out on medicinal plants having traditional claims of effectiveness might deserve successful results. These plants could serve as useful source of many types of ailments and new antimicrobial agents. In this progress many medicinal plants e.g. Terminalia arjuna, Kaempferia rotunda, Olea europaea, Lagenaria vulgaris, Nepeta ciliaris, Viola odorata, Cyperus rotundus, Onosma bracteatum, Barleria prionitis, Citrus maxima, Tinospora cardifolia and Asparagus racemosus etc are significantly utilized by the local peoples of Uttarakhand. There is urgent need to document the medicinal and aromatic plants associated traditional knowledge which is vulnerable to minimize. Present study is an attempt to document the traditional system of medicine; used by the native communities of Uttarakhand, India and underlines the importance of traditional knowledge associated with medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs used for the treatment of different diseases.

[Ajeet Singh and Navneet. A review on medicinal plants and herbs of Uttrakhand (India): its traditional, ethanomedicinal and antimicrobial potential. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):90-107]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.16.

 

Key words- Medicinal plants, Uttarakhand (India), ethanobotanical use, antimicrobial potential

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Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Citrus limon L. essential oil and its effect on some blood parameters in Moghani sheep

 

Ali Mojtahedin1, Reza Seyedsharifi1, Azadeh Boustan2

 

1.  Assistant Professor in Animal Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2.  Assistant Professor in Animal Breeding, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

a_mojtahedin@uma.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Background and objectives: Plant food additives have received widespread attention in the recent years. Plants have different components such as essential oil. Citrus family is known as antioxidant resource. Citrus limon among citrus family contains limonoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Regarding to this point that there are few researches about using Citrus limon essential oil in ruminant nutrition, the aims of this study were the evaluation of, antioxidant activity of Citrus limon and the effect of different levels of this essential oil on some blood parameters of Moghani sheep. Materials and methods: In this study, 6 lactating Moghani sheep were allocated to 3 × 3 Latin square design with three diets in twenty-one day periods, seventeen days for adaptation and four days for sampling. Dietary treatments included: Treatment 1: control diet, treatment 2: control diet with 150 mg essential oil per day and treatments 3: control diet with 300 mg essential oil per day. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of the essential oil, sustainable elimination of free radicals by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used. Blood profiles included glucose, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total protein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were also measured. Results: The antioxidant activity of essential oils at doses of 27.5, 55, 110, 220 and 480 mg/ml were 5, 8, 21, 49 and 85 percent, respectively. In this study, experimental treatments did not affect glucose, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total protein, low density lipoprotein were, while increased the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. Cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein were decreased by our treatments significantly (P <0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of this research, the evaluation of antioxidant effect of Citrus limon using DPPH method showed that the antioxidant effect of Citrus limon in free radical removal is strong. In addition, this essential oil has decreasing effect on the blood plasma lipids.

[Ali Mojtahedin, Reza Seyedsharifi, Azadeh Boustan. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Citrus limon L. essential oil and its effect on some blood parameters in Moghani sheep. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):108-113]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.17.

 

Keywords: Citrus limon, Antioxidant activity, Blood parameters, Sheep

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Simulation of Nitrate Transport in Soil Using HYDRUS-1D

 

Atefeh Sayadi Shahraki1, Zahra Izadpanah1, Abdolrahim hooshmand1

 

1. Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

sayadi.atefeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In recent years, nitrogen fertilizer consumption in agriculture, accumulation and movement of salts in soils and modeling their movement have received extensive attention, But in using these substances, there should be a balance between the production increase and the quality of agricultural products, in this phanamena, undesirable effects, such as environmental pollution and soil and ground water contamination maybe occur. Sugar cane is a perennial plant during its period of rapid growth is the need for water and nitrogen fertilizer. The purpose of this paper is to simulate nitrate in soils under sugarcane planting using the HYDRUS- 1D model. The results show can be seen that the model could provide good estimates of nitrate in the soil under sugarcane cultivation.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):114-117]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.18.

 

Keywords: Simulation; Nitrate; Transport; HYDRUS-1D

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Frequency distribution of hypocalcaemia (calcium deficiency) in male and female population of district Gilgit and adjacent areas

 

Sharista1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan1, Abdul Latif2, Tika Khan1

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan

2Government City Hospital Kashrote, Gilgit, Pakistan

 

Abstract: Calcium is a very important mineral in human body and plays important role in the optimum functioning of the heart, hormone release, relaxation of muscles and regulation of blood pressure. Globally 13% to 18% of women between the ages of 14 to 34 years suffer from calcium deficiency. This study is unique and conducted for the first time in the history of Gilgit Baltistan. Calcium level in 100 (69 females (54 married and 15 unmarried) and 31 male)) individuals was assessed using micro lab machine ML 300. Results revealed significant level difference across gender with 4.9 mg/dL to 10.0 mg/dL (average 7.87 mg/dL) in female and 5.6 mg/dL-10.2 mg/dL (average 8.7 mg/dL) in male. Average calcium level in single female was 8.2 mg/dL while average calcium level in married female was 7.8mg/dL. Female (71 %) had calcium level below normal while 1.4 % female had calcium level above normal. 38.7 % male had calcium level below normal while 19.3 % male had calcium level above normal. Average calcium level of women having less than 3 children was 7.8 mg/dL while for the women having 3 or more than 3 children average calcium level was 7.3 mg/dL. Correlation coefficient between calcium level and age of the individual was -0.11876 indicating that with increase in age, calcium level decreases. Average calcium level of individuals (including both males and females) who have exposure to sun and those who do not have exposure to sun were 8.8 mg/dL and 7.6mg/dL respectively.

[Sharista, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Abdul Latif, Tika Khan. Frequency distribution of hypocalcaemia (calcium deficiency) in male and female population of district Gilgit and adjacent areas. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):118-122]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.19.

 

Key words: Calcium deficiency, Hypocalcaemia, Gilgit, Vitamin D deficiency, Prevalence

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The use of potassium and antioxidants to improve water use efficiency, yield and quality in potatoes

1- Evaluation of surface irrigation using gated pipes techniques in potato crop

 

Abdel-Ati Y.Y. 1, Abdelreheem, H. A.2, Haithan Elham Mohamed Zaki1, Ahmed Yousry Tammam2

 

1Faculty of Agricultures, Minia University, Minia Egypt

2Water Management Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Egypt

dr.hassanahmed_999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out at Mallawy, Water Requirements Research Station –Minia Governorate - Egypt. The present research was carried out to study the effect of irrigation systems, potassium sources and salicylic acid on water use efficiency, yield, saving of water and economic evaluation for potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum). The experiments were included two irrigation systems (a) (surface irrigation a1 & improving surface by gated pipes a2) and four sub treatments, potassium sulfate 200 kg/ fed (b1), potassium nitrate 200 kg/fed (b2) without potassium treatment (control b3), potassium sulfate 200 kg / fed + salicylic acid with concentration 200 ppm spray on plant (b4) and potassium nitrate + salicylic acid with concentration 200 ppm spray (b5) on plant with four replications so that experiment was arranged in split plot design. The treatments of irrigation systems were randomly distributed in the main plots. While, the potassium and salicylic acid treatments were randomly distributed in sub plot. Results indicated that the planting potato crop by gated pipes with potassium fertilization96 kg/K2O leads to an increase in productivity with rate equals 19.94 %, more water saving about by 25.62% per year, rising the total irrigation’s efficiency to 72.87 %. It also saving water by about 31307419.60 million m3/area (Average area cultivated by potato in Egypt) compared with the traditional method in this region. The results indicated also from the economic view point that, the gated pipes with rate 96 kg/K2O + SA200 ppm / fed recorded the highest values of field and crop water use efficiencies (6.40 and 10.62 kg/m3) respectively. The highest values of total income, production, net return of each and water irrigation (L.E /m3) and economic efficiency were gained with it. Therefore, the economics of irrigation water becomes very important for planting irrigation management project where the over irrigation practices by farmers usually lead to low irrigation efficiency, water logging and high losses of water. It could be recommended to application gated pipes with rate 96 kg/K2O + SA 200 ppm / fed to produce high yield of potato with less amount of water applied under El Minia province conditions and other corresponding conditions.

[Abdel-Ati Y.Y., Abdelreheem, H. A., Haithan Elham Mohamed Zaki, Ahmed Yousry Tammam. The use of potassium and antioxidants to improve water use efficiency, yield and quality in potatoes.1- Evaluation of surface irrigation using gated pipes techniques in potato crop. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):123-133]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.20.

 

Keywords: Development surface irrigation; gated pipes; surface irrigation; water relationship; economic evaluation

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Effect of Monosodium Glutamate administration on Gastric Mucosa of Adult Male Albino Rat: A Histological, Immuno-histochemical and Histomorphometric Study

 

Manal Mohammad Morsy, Gamal Hamed El-Sayed Hassanein, Azza Ismael Farag

 

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University,44519, Egypt

gamalhs@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is worldwide food additive commonly used as a flavor enhancer. Although its consumption can be regarded as harmless, yet histo-pathological changes in the gastric mucosa were described with prolonged consumption of MSG. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of MSG on the gastric mucosa. Thirty adult male albino rats (n=30) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=15 rats): Group A (Control); each rat daily received 2ml distilled water and Group B (Treated); each rat daily received MSG at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water. One set of sections were stained with H&E, Mallory trichrome stain and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain and another set were immuno-histochemically-stained to detect the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The gastric mucosa of MSG-treated rats revealed atrophic changes with ulcer formation and shedding of surface epithelium into the gastric lumen bases. The area of mucous neck cells showed many cells with a strong brown positive PCNA expression. Quantitatively, as compared to control group, the gastric mucosa revealed reduced thickness, widening of gastric glands and gastric pits and increased PCNA positive cells in MSG-treated group. Therefore, very low doses of MSG could produce histo-pathological changes in the gastric mucosa of rats and its safety as food additive in humans must be reconsidered.

[Morsy MM, El-Sayed Hassanein GH, Farag AI. Effect of Monosodium Glutamate administration on the Gastric Mucosa of Adult Male Albino Rat: A Histological, Immuno-histochemical and Histomorphometric Study. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):134-141]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.21.

 

Keywords: Stomach; gastric mucosa; flavor enhancer; monosodium glutamate; food additives

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Comparative Study between Bacteriological and Serological tests in determining Streptococcal Throat Infection among School Children

 

Mohamed A. Fareid

 

Botany and Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

* Present address: Basic Science Dept., Health Colleges, H’ail University, Saudi Kingdom.

mohamedfareid73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children and responsible for 20-30 % of bacterial pharyngitis. A cross sectional study was conducted on 535 children aged 4-15 years with throat infection, during the period from October 2015 to May 2016 at Ha’il Provence, Saudi Kingdom. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire. Throat swabs were collected and processed with the standard microbiological techniques to isolate GAS. Females accounted for 57.2 % more than male 37.3 %. Sixty-two percent of the infected children were in 4-10 years old. The number and percentage of group A β-hemolytic streptococci for patient and healthy were the most common. It recorded 99 (55 %) and 55 (15.49 %), respectively. Statistically, there is no significance difference between the culture and ASO titer in determining of Streptococcal throat infection (p > 0.05). Also, our study found that the sensitivity and specificity of ASO and CRP for predicting throat infections was 46.85, 92.72, 90.9 and 76.6 % respectively. Statistically, there was a significant correlation between ASOT and CRP test in determining of streptococcal throat infection (r = 0.919, p = 0.027).

[Mohamed A. Fareid. Comparative Study between Bacteriological and Serological tests in determining Streptococcal Throat Infection among School Children. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):142-149]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.22.

 

Keywords: Bacteriological, Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO), Streptococcal infections, GAS.

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Assessment of Left Atrial Function by Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Hypertensive Patients

 

Mohsen Salama, Abd El haleem Abo Elmagd, Mohamed El gammal, Mostafa Ismail, Ahmed Nasrah

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

dr_honey778@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: We investigated left atrial (LA) function in relation to hypertension using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in subjects with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, while accounting for LA enlargement and LV mass and diastolic function. Objective: To assessment of left atrial function by speckle-Tracking in hypertensive patient. Material and method: We performed standard 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography and LA volumetric measurements and STE strain imaging in hypertensive patients (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg, or use of antihypertensive drugs, n = 55) and age- and sex-matched normotensive subjects (n = 25). We measured the peak LA velocity, strain, and strain rate during systole and early and late diastole, respectively. We investigated the associations of interests in the presence or absence of LA enlargement (LA volume index ≥28 mL/m2). Hypertensive and normotensive subjects had similar LV ejection fraction and LA diameter. However, hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects had enlarged LV and impaired diastolic function, and had increased LA volumetric measurements and decreased LA emptying fractions. Hypertensive patients also had impaired LA function, as measured by STE velocity, strain, and strain rate in general and in the absence of LA enlargement (P < 0.0001). The differences in LA STE strain rate during LV systole and LA contraction between hypertension and norm tension in the absence of LA enlargement remained statistically significant (P < 0.001), after adjustment for age, sex, and LV mass index and E/E’. Result: Hypertension is associated with impaired LA function, as assessed by STE strain imaging technique, even before LA enlargement develops and after LV remodeling is accounted for.

[Mohsen Salama, Abd El haleem Abo Elmagd, Mohamed El gammal, Mostafa Ismail, Ahmed Nasrah. Assessment of Left Atrial Function by Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Hypertensive Patients. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):150-153]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.23.

 

Keywords: Assessment; Atrial; Function; Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography; Hypertensive Patients

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Effect of some whey protein fractions on functional properties of ice milk

 

El-Abd, M.M. 1; Fatma, M.M. Salama 1, Zeidan, M.A. 2 and Enas, A. Baker 2

 

1Dairy Department.Faculty of Agriculture. Cairo Univ. Egypt.

2Food Tech. Res. Inst., Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

E-mail: en.asali@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: functional properties of ice milk or ice cream mixes highly affected the quality and acceptability of final product. Mix ingredients are one of the important factors beside processing steps (methodology), which Cleary affect the functional properties of mixes. It well established that substituting milk solid not fat (MSNF) with whey protein concentrate enhanced the functional properties (hydration, gelling, surface active properties) of ice cream mixes. This research aimed to study the role of the two major whey protein fraction β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) and alfa-lactalbumin (α-LA) to enhanced the functional properties of ice milk mixes. Materials and Methods: Ice milk treatments were manufactured with partial replacing skim milk powder with differentwhey protein fractions and evaluated for physical, rheological and organoleptic properties. Results: Effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC), β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) and alfa-lactalbumin (α-LA) as a partial substitution (5%) of milk solid not fat (MSNF) on the functional properties of ice milk was studied, keeping control without substitution. Obtained results showed that no effect of addition on acidity. While the specific gravity was affected in both mixes and resultant ice milk containing whey protein fractions (β-LG and α-LA) and therefore the weight per gallon. overrun percent was higher than control in both WPC and -LG ice milk but lower in α-LA treatment. Freezing point and melting resistance also were affected by the incorporation of different whey protein and fractions.

[El-Abd, M.M.; Fatma M.M. Salama; Zeidan M.A. and Enas A. Baker. Effect of some whey protein fractions on functional properties of ice milk. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):154-157]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.24.

 

Keywords: Ice milk, whey protein fractions, functional properties

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Compartaive Studies on Pathogenic Staphylococci Isolated From Human and Food of Animal Origin

 

Salwa M. Helmy1, Etab M. AboRemela1, Wafaa M. Hassan2 and Naglaa F. Bedir1

 

1Microbiology Dept. Fac. of Vet. Med. Kafr El-Sheikh Univ. Egypt

2Anim. Res. Inst. Dokki- Cairo –Egypt

naglaafawzy76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried-out on a total of 480 random samples that, were collected in the study. From human 300 samples were collected that includes, 100 samples from anterior nares of patients with pneumonia and bronchitis and 100 pus samples from wounds and abscesses and 100 samples from throat. Also, 180 samples from the food of animal origin 120 samples were collected from milk, 30 samples from kareish cheese and 30 samples from roomy cheese. This study aimed to study whether the strains groups reflected a host- or tissue-adaptation and whether there is a predisposition of certain cap or agr types to colonise or infect certain ruminant hosts, and to evaluate the spread of resistance to methicillin and to the most commonly used antibiotics in the treatment of mastitis in ruminants. Our study concluded that, the Staph. aureus causes a great economic losses in human and milk industry, the the incidence of staph aureus in human samples (Pus, nasal swabs and throat swabs) of a higher incidences than that of the animal origin samples (milk, kareesh cheese and roomy cheese). Also, the best methods for detection of staph aureus enterotoxins genes in the samples of human or animal origin. Our results on antibiotic sensitivity test, cleared that, the staph. aureus is more sensitive to the oxacillin, chloramphenicol, Amoxcillin + Clavulnic acid, levofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin.

[Salwa M. Helmy, Etab M. AboRemela, Wafaa M. Hassan and Naglaa F. Bedir. Compartaive Studies on Pathogenic Stapgylococci Isolated From Human and Food of Animal Origin. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):158-164]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 25. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.25.

 

Keywords: Staphylococci, Human, Food of Animal

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Macro-invertebrates as Indicator of Water Quality of Egbe Reservoir, Egbe-Ekiti, Nigeria.

 

1Omoboye, H. Y. and 2Edward, J. B.

 

1Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, South West, Nigeria.

2Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, South West, Nigeria.

yettyabioye@yahoo.com  and helenabioye@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study of the macro-invertebrates and physico-chemical parameters was conducted in Egbe-Reservoir from May – July, 2009. Physico-chemical parameters of the water samples were determined using standard methods. Sampling of macro-invertebrates was done by Kick sampling method and the macro-invertebrates found were identified under light microscope using 10x - 40x magnification. The Macro-invertebrates obtained from the reservoir composed; Melanoids tuberculata which has 53.3% by number of total macro-invertebrates, Biophalaria pfeifferi 6.7%, Lymnae natalensis 22.5%, Leeches 13.3%, Earthworm with 2.5% and Dragon fly larvae with 1.7% by number of total macro-invertebrates. The result showed variation in the physico-chemical parameters at different sampling stations in the reservoir. Temperature ranged from 27.2 to 29.7oC, pH ranged from 4.7 – 8.7, Alkalinity ranged from 5.1 - 14.1 mgCaCO3/L, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD5 ranged from 2.2 – 6.6 mg/L, Total Suspended Solids, 0.04 – 0.06 mg/L and Total Dissolved Solids, 0.37 – 0.62 mg/L. Statistical analysis of the result showed that there were significant correlations between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen. Also, there was a significant correlation between Earthworm and pH. The water of Egbe Reservoir was found to be fairly clean and good for consumption from the result recorded during the period of study. It must however be well treated before consumption. The physico-chemical parameters was also found to influence the distribution of macro-invertebrates of the reservoir, hence, they could be used as bio-indicators.

[Omoboye, H. Y. and Edward, J. B. Macro-invertebrates as Indicator of Water Quality of Egbe Reservoir, Egbe-Ekiti, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):165-172]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 26. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.26.

 

Keywords: macro-invertebrate, indicator, water quality, Physico-chemical parameters.

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Left ventricular hypertrophy among hypertensive patients with diminished glomerular filtration rate

 

Mohammed Najib, Abd El RahmanAli, Essam Khalil, Tamer Yousif

 

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

tameryousifyousif@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Purpose: To study the left ventricular mass by ECHO in a groups of hypertensive patients with reduction of kidney function, free of CV diseases. Aim of Work: To assess the prevalence of LVH among hypertensive patients with diminished renal function. We evaluated the relationship between reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and LVH diagnosed with echocardiography (ECHO). Methods: The study was performed at Shiekh Zayed hospital in cooperation with Al Azhar University hospital, during the study period from 1/10/2015 to 1/11/2016 on group of patients who are known to be hypertensive(defined according to the European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines were included in this study, according to glomerular filtration rate patients will divided into group with normal GFR (control group), and group with mild to moderate reduction of GFR, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS program and ANOVA. Results: The current study showed that there was a significant statistical difference between the 3 groups Regarding LVMI. We found that LVMI showed a progressive rise with increase in severity of renal failure. Conclusion: High prevalence of LVH in patients with mild or moderate renal dysfunction. The progressive increase of LVH prevalence and left ventricular mass are likely to contribute to the high prevalence of cardiovascular events of this population.

[Mohammed Najib, Abd El RahmanAli, Essam Khalil, Tamer Yousif. Left ventricular hypertrophy among hypertensive patients with diminished glomerular filtration rate. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):173-182]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 27. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.27.

 

Keywords: Left ventricular; hypertrophy; patient; glomerular filtration rate

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Assessment of Zinc and Copper level in Seminal plasma of Infertile Male

 

Mohamed Y Shaheen1, Magdy Z El-Ghannam1, Hesham S Abd El-Samea1, Nahla A2 and Ahmed S El-Sheikh1

 

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Fellow of biochemistry at Emergency Hospital, Mansoura University, Egypt

Ahmed_sa_sh2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Human semen contains high concentrations of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The presence of abnormal levels of these trace elements may affect sperm production, maturation, motility and fertilizing ability. Objective: Evaluate seminal plasma levels of zinc and copper and to correlate their concentrations with various semen parameters among fertile and infertile male subjects. Subjects and Methods: This is a case control study done on 50 infertile men who were attended to Damietta University Hospital seeking for infertility medical advice, during the period from February to September 2016. Another 50 fertile males matched for ages were included in the study as a control group. An informed consent was taken from all subjects participating in this study. All subjects included in this study were subjected to: Full history taking, Clinical examination and Laboratory investigation in the form of (Semen analysis by conventional method and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA), Estimation of zinc and copper level in seminal plasma by spectrophotometric method. Results: There were high statistical significant differences between infertile and control groups as regard to normal morphology of sperms % (p<0.001), less statistical significant differences as regard to total motility(PR+NP) % (p=0.015) and no statistical significant differences as regard to volume of seminal fluid (ml) nor count of sperms (million/ml). The control group has higher level of seminal Zinc than infertile group with statistical significant differences between them (P value < 0.048). The control group has lower level of seminal Copper than infertile group with statistical significant differences between them (P value < 0.026). The control group has higher level of seminal Zn/Cu Ratio than infertile group with high statistical significant differences between them (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Adequate seminal plasma concentration of Zn and Cu are required for normal sperm function and that high toxic concentration of these elements in seminal plasma is apparently related to defective morphology and /or motility in infertile males.

[Mohamed Y Shaheen, Magdy Z El-Ghannam, Hesham S Abd El-Samea, Nahla A and Ahmed S El-Sheikh. Assessment of Zinc and Copper level in Seminal plasma of Infertile Male. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):183-186]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 28. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.28.

 

Keywords: Male infertility, seminal plasma, spermatogenesis, sperm count, Zinc, Copper

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Management of neglected fracture neck femur in children

 

Ahmed Abdel Hamid Shamma1, Ali Mohamed El Geoshy2, Mohammed Gamal Hussiny 3

 

1Prof. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Prof. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

ahmedgamalpost@gmail.com 

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate management of neglected fracture neck femur in children. Design: Prospective study with retrospective analysis. Setting and Timing: Department of orthopedic surgery in Al-Azhar university Hospitals from Sept. 2014 till Sept. 2016. Patient and Methods: All the patients collected from outpatient clinic of the hospital. The study is based on 5 patients including males and females having neglected fracture neck femur more than one month. A femoral neck fracture was considered neglected when no proper medical treatment was instituted for at least 1 month following the fracture. Intervention: Modified Pauwels intertrochanteric valgus osteotomy. Main Outcome Measurements: Fracture healing, neck-shaft angle, a vascular necrosis, and functional outcome. Results: Patients were followed for 9months. All patients had union of their fracture within an average of 16.6 weeks (12–20 weeks) and of the osteotomy site within 8.2 weeks (7–9 weeks). Postoperatively, an average of 125.4 degree neck-shaft angle was achieved (range 125–160 degrees). The average preoperative neck-shaft angle was 105.2 degrees (range 92–120 degrees) and on the normal hip side it was 129 degrees (range 127–132 degrees). Significant improvement in the neck-shaft angle was seen compared with the preoperative angle (P, 0.001) and normal hip angle (P, 0.05). Using Ratliff’s criteria, 4 patients (80%) were graded as a good result and 1 patient (20%) was graded as a fair result. Conclusion: Modified Pauwels’ intertrochanteric valgus osteotomy creates a biomechanical environment conducive to healing of a neglected femoral neck nonunion in a child while simultaneously correcting an associated coxavara. The procedure also seems to have a biological role in helping restore viability to a noncollapsed femoral head with avascular necrosis.

[Ahmed Abdel Hamid Shamma, Ali Mohamed El Geoshy, Mohammed Gamal Hussiny. Management of neglected fracture neck femur in children. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):187-191]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 29. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.29.

 

Keywords: neglected, fracture, neck, femur, children

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Evaluation of serum iron level among epileptic children

 

Mohamed I. Omar1; Sherief M. AL-shazly1; Mohie El-Din T. Mohamed1; Ahmed E. El Gayar2 and Ahmed M. Taha1

 

1Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Ahmedtaha112016@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Iron in epileptic patients can show some abnormalities. Studies showed controversial results as regards serum iron. Objective: Evaluation of the serum iron level among epileptic children. Patients and Methods: Eighty children included in the study were classified into 2 equal groups, i.e. patient group and control group matched for age, sex and level of education. Each child was subjected to careful history taking, clinical examination, and investigations (routine laboratory investigations, serum iron levels, electroencephalogram and brain magnetic resonance imaging). Results: There was a statistically significant increase of positive family history in epileptic group. There were statistically significant decreases of RBCs, hemoglobin, and significant increase of WBCs in epileptic group. There was a statistically significant decrease of iron in epileptic children. There was a proportional correlation between serum iron from one side and each of hemoglobin, RBCs, HCT% and MCV. Conclusion: there was an association between decreased serum iron levels and epilepsy in children.

[Mohamed I. Omar; Sherief M. AL-shazly; Mohie El-Din T. Mohamed; Ahmed E. El Gayar and Ahmed M. Taha. Evaluation of serum iron level among epileptic children. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):192-196]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 30. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.30.

 

Keywords: Epilepsy, Iron, hemoglobin, children

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Study the role of MRI & electrophysiological study in evaluation of cases of neck pain radiated to upper limb

 

Essam Mahdy Ibraheem; Hossam Abd El-Monem Ali; Talal Abdallah Mohammed and Ahmed Said Metwalley

 

Neurology Department; Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

ahmedsaidmetwalley@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: there was no consensus on the ideal and most sensitive method for diagnosis of the cause of neck pain radiating to the upper arm. Aim of the work: to study the role of magnetic resonance imaging & electrophysiological study in patients presented with pain in the neck radiated to upper limb, in the light of clinical findings as a standard. Patients and methods: The present study included 30 patients, selected from Neurology Department; Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine (New Damietta). They were selected during the period from March 2016- October 2016. All were submitted to full history taking, clinical examination with stress on neurological part of examination, electrodiagnostic studies, EMG, somatosensory evoked potential of median nerve and MRI cervical spine. Results: EMG sensitivity in relation to clinical motor affection was 94.4%, the specificity was 41.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 70.83%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 83.3% and overall accuracy was 73.3%. The sensitivity of EMG in relation to sensory affection was 95.2%, the specificity was 55.6%, PPV was 83.3%, NPV was 83.3% and overall accuracy was 83.3%. The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to clinical motor affection was 83.3%, the specificity was 91.7%, PPV was 57.8%, NPV was 25.0% and overall accuracy was 53.3%. The sensitivity of MRI in relation to sensory affection was 85.7%, the specificity was 11.1%, PPV was 69.2%, NPV was 25.0% and overall accuracy was 63.3%. Both techniques revealed affection in 20 subjects (66.7%) and there was disagreement between both Techniques in 10 subjects (33.3%). MRI showed positive root affection in 6 out of 10 disagreed subjects; of these 6 subjects only 1 subject (16.7%) had clinical motor and clinical sensory affection. EMG showed positive affection in 4 out of 10 disagreed subjects; of these 4 subjects 3 subjects (75.0%) had clinical motor and clinical sensory affection. Conclusion: Electrodiagnostic studies are superior to magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cervical radiculopathies based on clinical results. In addition, both techniques revealed concordance in diagnosis in about 66.7% of patients. When there is a discrepancy between both techniques, electrodiagnostic studies correlate more efficiently than MRI with clinical results.

[Essam Mahdy Ibraheem; Hossam Abd El-Monem Ali; Talal Abdallah Mohammed and Ahmed Said Metwalley. Study the role of MRI & electrophysiological study in evaluation of cases of neck pain radiated to upper limb. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):197-204]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 31. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.31.

 

Keywords: electrodiagnostic, magnetic resonance imaging, radiculopathy

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Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by Serratia marcescens strains isolated from different sources in Egypt

 

El-Batal A. I.1*; El-Hendawy H. H.2 and Faraag A. H.3

 

1 Drug Radiation Research Department, Biotechnology Division, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

2,3 Botany and Microbiology Department. Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

professor.ahmed85@googlemail.com

 

Abstract: Nine red pigmented bacterial isolate which different environmental sources and preliminary identified as S. marcescens in previous studies were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing to confirm identification and to know the phylogenetic relationships between these sequences and those available for S. marcescens in gene databank. The obtained results revealed that these isolates are closely related to each other and to S. marcescens with more than 94% similarity. Silver nanoparticles synthesized by S. marcescens isolate WSE were found to have maximum absorbance at 412 nm, their size distribution was determined by dynamics light scattering (DLS) and the average particle size was found to be 11.5 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles with a mean particle diameter of 10.72 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the silver nanoparticles recorded 2θ value corresponding to silver nanocrystal. Characterization of the nanosilver was also carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

[El-Batal A. I.; El-Hendawy H. H. and Faraag A. H. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by Serratia marcescens strains isolated from different sources in Egypt. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):205-215]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 32. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.32.

 

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, mean particle diameter, Serratia marcescens, BLAST.

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First record of Physiphora demandata (Fabricius, 1798) (Diptera: Ulidiidae) from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Layla A.H. Al-Shareef and Mashel M.F. Almazyad

 

Faculty of Science-Al Faisaliah, King Abdulaziz University, Ministry of Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Layladr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae) present almost worldwide, with more than half of the species and 75% of the genera in the Neotropical Region. The fauna of the Arabian Peninsula contains almost exclusively species of the genus Physiphora Fallén (Kameneva and Korneyev, 2010). One species was recorded previously from Yemen by Hendel (1913). In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia two species of Ulidiidae, Physiphoraalceae (Preyssler) and Physiphorasmaragdina (Loew) were recognized and the Saudi Arabian genera and species are keyed by Al-Dhafer and El-Hawagry (2016).

[Layla A.H. Al-Shareef and Mashel M.F. Almazyad. First record of Physiphorademandata (Fabricius, 1798) (Diptera: Ulidiidae) from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):216-217]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 33. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.33.

 

Keywords: record; Physiphora demandata; Jeddah; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Comparative study between ultrasound guided and nerve stimulator guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in lower limb surgeries

 

Hazem Abd-Allah Mohammed Ali, Anis Mekhaimer Abd-Elhady, Magdy Ahmed Abd-Elmoenem and Ali Ahmed Mahmoud Mahareak

 

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

tabibhazem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Peripheral nerve block (PNB’s) involves the anesthesia of an area of the body without necessarily affecting the patient level of consciousness. The use of ultrasound (US) is the first major change in regional anesthesia practice since the introduction of neuro stimulation for nerve location. There has been an increased interest in performing lower extremity PNB’s because of the potential complications associated with neuraxial blockade. The aim of the work was to compare efficacy of US guided femoral nerve (3in1 technique) & sciatic nerve (lateral popliteal approach) blocks(FSNB’s) with nerve stimulator (NS) guided blocks regarding the block performance time, onset of the block, time needed to start the surgery, block quality, duration of analgesia, incidence of complications and patient discomfort during the block. Seventy patients scheduled for lower limb surgeries (mainly below knee)were included in the present study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: Group I: Electric nerve stimulator guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. Group II: Ultrasound guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. Sensory block was assessed using Pinprick test in the middle of the dermatomal distribution of each nerve, motor block was assessed using Bromage scale, degree of the block was assessed using a three-level scale, Patient satisfaction was assessed using 10mm in length numerical analogue scale (NAS), success rate and the incidence of complications (hematoma, parathesia or vascular puncture) were documented. No significant differences were found between both groups as regard to demographic data, hemodynamic changes, arterial O2 saturation, respiratory rate, site of operation and success rate. On the other hand there were significant differences found between both groups as regard to block performance time, onset time of sensory and motor block, duration of block, time of complete sensory and motor block, success rate, patient discomfort and complications. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks decrease onset time of sensory and motor block, time to start surgery, patient discomfort and complications. Beside to it increases the duration of the block.

[Hazem Abd-Allah Mohammed Ali, Anis Mekhaimer Abd-Elhady, Magdy Ahmed Abd-Elmoenem and Ali Ahmed Mahmoud Mahareak. Comparative study between ultrasound guided and nerve stimulator guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in lower limb surgeries. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):218-223]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 34. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.34.

 

Key words: Ultrasound, Electric nerve stimulator, sciatic nerve block, femoral nerve block.

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Relation between Level of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Semen Quality in Male Infertility

 

Ahmed M. A. Tahoun, Tarek M. Emran, Amr M. Al-Kharasawy and Ahmed A. Abo Nar

 

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

drahmed_nar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Male infertility continues to be a clinical challenge of increasing significance. While male factors such as decreased semen quality are responsible for more than 25% of all infertility issues. Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals, and although ROS are required for critical aspects of sperm function, excessive levels of ROS can negatively impact sperm quality. The seminal plasma is endowed with many enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants which protect the spermatozoa against oxidative stress. Objective: Assessing the relation between the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and semen quality in male infertility. Subjects and Methods: The semen samples were obtained from 50 male partners of infertile couples who were attended to Damietta University Hospital seeking for infertility medical advices who were aged 23-40 years. Another 40 fertile males matched for age was included in the study as a control group. All subjects participating in this study were analyzed for medical history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations including semen analysis by conventional method and computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) and determination of TAC in seminal plasma by spectrophotometric method. Results: The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was found to be significantly lower in the infertile patients than in the fertile donors. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the TAC and all the seminogram parameters such as the sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology. The best cutoff to distinguish between fertile controls and infertilemen was ≤1.51 mmol/L. At this level, specificity was 87.5% and sensitivity 78%. Conclusions: The reduced seminal TAC levels were associated with impairment of the sperm concentration, motility and morphology and related to the male infertility. So, the TAC may be used as a biomarker for assessing the oxidative stress in sperms.

[Ahmed M. A. Tahoun, Tarek M. Emran, Amr M. Al-Kharasawy and Ahmed A. Abo Nar. Relation between Level of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Semen Quality in Male Infertility. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):224-228]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 35. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.35.

 

Keywords: Male infertility, seminal plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress

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Comparative Study between Ilizarov Techniques and Induced Membrane Technique in Management of Bone Defects in the Tibia

 

Labib Yousry Abd El-latief, Muhammad Abd Elaal Morsy, Osama Gaber Abdallah

 

Orthopedic department, Faulty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

 

Abstract: Background: Tibia, as subcutaneous bone, is more exposed to fracture (62%) which often complex and may result in nonunion and bone loss. Reconstruction of critical size bone defects is often challenging and associated with lengthy healing or rehabilitation times and unpredictable union rates, or they use methods that are poorly tolerated. Current management options include intercalary bone transport and distraction osteogenesis, vascularized bone transfer, non-vascularized bone transfer, and recently, use of induced membranes has shown potential as an alternative reconstruction method for critical size bone defects. Objective: Comparison study between Ilizarov techniques (distraction histogenesis through bone transport) and induced membrane technique in management of bone defects of the tibia, in thirty patients in Al-Azhar University Hospitals (El Hussein and Bab El Sheryia Hospitals). Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study on thirty patients with tibial non-union with bone defect more than 4 centimeters, operated at Al-Azhar University Hospitals from September 2011 and March 2016. The bone defect in this current study due to traumatic bone loss, traumatic fracture complicated by infection, osteomyelitis, and tumors. The cases of the study were classified into two groups, group A which included fifteen patient managed by induced membrane technique and group B which included fifteen patient managed by bone trans port technique. All patients agreed to be included in this study. In this study evaluations the results of their using association for study and application of methods of Ilzarov (ASAMI) scoring system. Results: This study was carried over period of three years. In our study According to (ASAMI) score. In group A, 5 patients (33.3%) had excellent, 5 patients good (33.3%), and 5 patients (33.3%) had a poor radiological results. Regarding the functional ASAMI scoring system 3 patients (20 %) had excellent, 7 good (46.7%), and 5 patients (33.3%) of poor functional results. According to (ASAMI) score in group B, 10 patients (66.7%) had excellent radiological results, 4 patients good (26.7%), and one patient (6.7%) had a poor radiological results. Regarding the functional ASAMI scoring system 3 patients (20 %) had excellent, 11 good (73.3%), and one patient (6.7%) of poor functional results. Conclusion: Tibial bone defect can be managed by the induced membrane if complex procedures to reconstruct the soft tissue are excluded otherwise bone transport technique more reliable.

[Labib Yousry Abd El-latief, Muhammad Abd Elaal Morsy, Osama Gaber Abdallah. Comparative Study between Ilizarov Techniques and Induced Membrane Technique in Management of Bone Defects in the Tibia. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):229-237]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 36. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.36.

 

Keywords: Tibial bone defect, Induced membrane, Bone transport.

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Management of Tibial Fractures by percutaneous wiring or Minimally Invasive Reduction Osteosynthesis System

 

Adnan Abd Alalim Elsebaie1, Mohammad Abdel Monem Negm2, Tharwat Abdelghany3 and Ahmed Yousef Ahmed Abu Shahin4

 

1Professor at Department of orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Assistant Professor at Department of orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3 Assistant Professor at Department of orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Resident doctor at Department of orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Dr_ahmedshahin999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: This prospective study was done to evaluate the management of tibial fractures by a new system for percutaneous osteosynthesis with wires technique called MIROS (Minimally Invasive Reduction Osteosynthesis system). Objective: The aim is to study the management of tibial fractures by percutaneous fixation with MIROS (Minimally Invasive Reduction Osteosynthesis system). Patient and Methods: In this study we treated 10 patients percutaneously with MIROS system, on a prospective study, ages of our patients range between 21-75 years with a mean age 45 years, obviously because males are engaged more in vigorous activity, they are more susceptible to injury. It is demonstrated in our study that 60% of our patients were males while 40% were females. According to mode of injury, road traffic accidents continue to play a major role in causing disability. In our series it is responsible for more than 60% of cases, while the twisting trauma represented 20 % and 20% caused by fall from a height. Percutaneously using atransversewire (subchondral) to which are anchored intramedullary wires with two side clips, getting so that stable synthesis for its shape is precisely called" Synthesis Delta". Such a system puts you to make multiple combinations ranging from classical elastic fixation, the external fixation, in summary complex such as hybrid (internal and external) and is therefore considered a multi-purpose fixer. Results: All patients were followed up for a period of 12 weeks at least, with an average follow up time of 16 weeks. The longest follow up was 12 months. The results were as follows: 7 cases showed full union at a period of 8-12 weeks, 2 cases had valgus deformity, 3 cases showed delayed union at 12 weeks (1 case was diabetic and 2 cases were heavy smokers and 2 cases had pin tract infection. Conclusion: In conclusion from this prospective study and statistics show how the MIROS system has demonstrated safety in use, speed of surgery execution, rapid discharge of a patient with savings in costs for the hospital. This study needs for follow up and evaluation.

[Adnan Abd Alalim Elsebaie, Mohammad Abdel Monem Negm, Tharwat Abdelghany and Ahmed Yousef Ahmed Abu Shahin. Management of Tibial Fractures by percutaneous wiring or Minimally Invasive Reduction Osteosynthesis System. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):238-244]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 37. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.37.

 

Keywords: Management; Tibial; Fracture; percutaneous; wiring; Minimally Invasive Reduction; Osteosynthesis System

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Acute stroke and serum sodium level among a sample of Egyptian patients

 

Hussien Metwally1, Wael Hablas2, Emad Fawzy1, Mahrous Seddeek and Mostafa Meshref1

 

1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

mostafameshref1988@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Sodium level disorders are common electrolyte disorders encountered in patients of neurological disorders and acute stroke patients. Sodium imbalance (especially hyponatremia) and stroke are associated with poor outcome. However, outcome of hyponatremia in acute stroke is not well established and very few studies have been conducted in this regard and according to which the mortality ranges from 14%-44%. Objective: Detecting serum sodium level in acute stroke patients and its effect in the morbidity and mortality. Patients and methods: A prospective study was done over a period of five months that included established cases of stroke diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, examination and neuroimaging within the first twenty four hours of their symptoms, during the study period from January2016 to May 2016. Eighty-five acute stroke patients were evaluated for serum sodium levels. Also, patients were closely observed for evaluation of stroke severity and stroke outcome. Results: Out of eighty-five patients, twenty-six patients had hyponatremia and seven patients had hypernatremia. Sixteen patients died, who included nine patients with hyponatremia and seven patients with normonatremia. Conclusion: Close monitoring of serum sodium level must be done in all patients who are admitted with stroke, and efforts must be made to determine the cause of sodium level disturbance, in order to properly manage such patients thereby decreasing the mortality rate.

[Hussien Metwally, Wael Hablas, Emad Fawzy, Mahrous Seddeek and Mostafa Meshref. Acute stroke and serum sodium level among a sample of Egyptian patients. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):245-249]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 38. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.38.

 

Keywords: Stroke – Sodium level – Hyponatremia

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Disabilities after interlocking tibial nailing

 

Eissa Ragheb Refaie1, Ahmed Ibrahim Akar2 and El Sayed Ali Mokhaimer3

 

1Prof. Of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine AL-Azhar University

2Assistant Prof. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University

3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine AL-Azhar University

Sayedali988.sa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Fracturetibia is common and many modalities for the treatment are available the most recent one is intramedullary nails with closed and reamed method; however other modalities like casting are still used. Objectives: To evaluate the complications of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing in closed diaphyseal fractures of tibia regarding the infection rate, time for union, malalignment and knee joint pain and stiffness. Design: Prospective study. Setting and Timing: Department of orthopedic surgery in Al-Azhar university Hospitals from Dec. 2014- Dec. 2016. Patient and Methods: All the patients admitted to the emergency department of the hospital and operated within 72 hours. The study is based on 30 patients including males and females having closed tibial diaphyseal fractures of skeletally mature persons (closed proximal and distal physes). Results: The thirty five (30) patients, were followed for a period of one year. The mean time for union was 17.4 weeks. Union rate was 90 %, delayed union in two patients (6.6 %). Non union in one patient (3.3%). Infection was noticed in three patients (10%). Knee joint pain in 8 patients (26.6%) all of them of mild grade and easily ignored. In addition to common peroneal nerve injury in 1 patient (3.3 %). Conclusion: From the study we concluded that closed intramedullary nailing of closed tibia diaphyseal fractures is advantageous because of early mobility, low risk of infection, good union rate, low risk of malalignment and low risk of significant knee joint pain.

[Eissa Ragheb Refaie, Ahmed Ibrahim Akar and El sayed Ali Mokhaimer. Disabilities after interlocking tibial nailing. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):250-253]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 39. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.39.

 

Keywords: Disability; interlocking; tibial; nailing

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The Effect of Tibial Slope and Size of the Intercondylar Notch on Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

 

Ahmed Abd-Elhamid Shamma, Tharwat Abd-Elghany Elsayed and Amr Ahmed Khattab

 

Orthopedic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

dr_3mour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the tibial slope and the size of the inter condylar notch on rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and to predict the athelets who more susceptible to ACL injuries. Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), which is located in the intercondylar notch of the femur, is one of the major stabilizing intra capsular ligaments in the knee joint. ACL is proximally attached to the postero-medial surface of the lateral femoral condyle and distally to the anterior part of the inter condylar eminence of the tibia. Injuries to the knee joint are common in athletes and the ACL is the most frequently ruptured ligament of the knee. The purpose of this prospective study is to establish a normal range for the notch width index and to correlate inter condylar notch size and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The normal intercondylar notch ratio is 0.231 +\- 0.044. The inter condylar notch width index for men is larger than that for women. ACL injuries have statistically significant inter condylar notch stenosis. The posterior tibial slope (PTS) plays a very important role in the kinematics and biomechanics of the knee joint. Increased medial PTS has been reported to be associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in teenagers and adult. Patient &Methods: We will follow about 50 cases complaining of knee pain and follow up them. We will divide them to two groups GROUP A; with ACL injuries GROUP B (controlled group); with intact ACL and we will measure the posterior tibial slope and notch index in both groups to compare the results in both groups. We will measure posterior tibial slope from lateral view of plain X ray and the notch index from coronal view of MRI. Patient Age: Adult > 15 years old Patient admitted to Al azhar university hospitals (El – Hussien and Sayed Galal Hospitals). Results: The group with ACL rupture had a statistically significantly increased PTS and a smaller NWI than controlled group. When a high PTS and / or a narrow NWI were defined as risk factors for ACL rupture, 80% of patient had at least one risk factor present, only 24% had both factors present. In both groups the PTS was negatively correlated to the NWI. PTS and NWI appear to be correlated to rupture of the ACL. From these results, either a steep PTS or a narrow NWI predisposes an individual to ACL injury. From these results, both PTS and NWI appear to be correlated with ACL rupture, When a high tibial slope (> 10.5) and /or a tighter notch (NWI< 0.22) were introduced as risk factors for ACL injury, 88% of the patients in the ruptured ACL group had one (52%) or two (36%) risk factors present, only 12% of (group 1) with ruptured ACL have normal values of posterior tibial slope and notch width index. Conclusion: It has been suggested that an increase posterior tibial slope (PTS) and a narrow notch width index (NWI) increase the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

[Ahmed Abd-Elhamid Shamma, Tharwat Abd-Elghany Elsayed and Amr Ahmed Khattab. The Effect of Tibial Slope and Size of the Intercondylar Notch on Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):254-260]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 40. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.40.

 

Keywords: Effect; Tibial Slope; Intercondylar; Notch; Rupture; Anterior Cruciate Ligament

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Histological Studies on the Changes of the Prostate in Albino rats at different Ages

 

Ahmed Nour-Elden Elkasaby, Ebraheim Mahrous Amer and Ahmed Eid Metwaly El-Naggar

 

Medical Histology Department – Faculty of Medicine – Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Dr_elnagar2020@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: There are age-related changes in the histological structure of the prostate from neonate to senescence. Objective: Was performed to throw more light on the histological and ultra structural changes in the prostate of male albino rats during different ages of development. Material and Methods: Forty healthy male albino rats were utilized in this study. Ten animals for each group. They were classified into four main groups according to their ages. Group 1, (weaning, ten animals aged 21 days); Group 2 (prepuberty, ten animals aged 45 days); Group 3 (adult, ten animals aged 3-4 months) and Group 4 (senile, ten animals aged 18-20 months). Animals were anaesthetized using ether inhalation, the prostate was immediately dissected out, and specimens from them were taken and processed for examination by light and electron microscopes. Results: Examination of weaning group showed that the prostate was formed of multiple empty Acini separated by minimal stromal tissue. Most of the acini were appeared with empty lumina. Examination of prepubertal group showed that the prostate was composed of multiple simple acini lined with tall columnar epithelial cells and most of them are filled with acidophilic secretion and separated from each other by connective tissue stroma. Examination of the adult group showed that the prostatic lobes were composed of many loosely packed acini with multiple papillary projection. Examination of senile prostatic lobes showed stratification of lining epithelium of prostatic acini. In addition, marked increase in papillary projections were noticed in some other focal areas. Conclusion: from the results of this study we found that there are age-related changes appeared in structure of the cells of the prostatic acini. Some areas of the prostatic acini revealed focal stratification of their lining epithelium and other areas showed increase of their papillary projections. So, the prostate is very liable to benign prostatic hypertrophy in men. These results are of great interest for those pathologists studying the development of the pathogenesis of benign and malignant growth of the prostate.

[Ahmed Nour-Elden Elkasaby, Ebraheim Mahrous Amer and Ahmed Eid Metwaly El-Naggar. Histological Studies on the Changes of the Prostate in Albino rats at different Ages. Nat Sci 2016;14(12):261-267]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 41. doi:10.7537/marsnsj141216.41.

 

Key words: Prostate, Age changes, Rat.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 2, 2016.

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