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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 15 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 121), April 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1504

 

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CONTENTS   

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The Possible Protective Effect OF Panax Ginseng on Gentamicin- Induced Nephrotoxicity of the Adult Albino Rats: (Morphological and Ultrastructural study)

 

Ashraf A. Mohamed (MD), Alaa S. Al-Sagheer (MD) and Mohamed D. Sleem Anatomy

 

Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

drdmerdash@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Aminoglycosides are natural or semi-synthetic antibiotics with a heterocyclic structure formed by two or more amino-sugars linked by glycoside bonds to an aminocyclitol ring. The aminoglycosides group include gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin. These drugs are used primarily to treat infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria. Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of gentamicin administration on rat kidney and the possible protective effect of ginseng against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Sixty male adult albino rats, were divided into 5 groups. Group I (control group) served as control and was given1 ml isotonic saline solution/day intraperitoneally (I.P.) for 10 days; Group II (ginseng group) was given 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water orally for 10 days; Group III (gentamicin group) was given 100 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally for 10 days; Group IV was given 100 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally, simultaneously with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water orally for 10 days; Group V was given 100 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally for 10 days followed by 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water orally for another 10 days thereafter. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and the kidneys were excised and then subdivided into two parts for light and electron microscopic examination. Results: In group III, weight of the animals decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea and creatinine as compared to the controls (group I). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in the glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubules and distal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group IV), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body weight along with improvement in renal function tests, there was significant improvement in the histological picture towards the normal. When ginseng was given after gentamicin there were more improvement in the body weight of animals and renal function tests, with significant improvement in the histological picture towards the normal. Conclusion: the results of the current study showed that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.

[Ashraf A. Mohamed, Alaa S. Al-Sagheer and Mohamed D. Sleem Anatomy and Anatomy and the Possible Protective Effect OF Panax Ginseng on Gentamicin- Induced Nephrotoxicity of the Adult Albino Rats: (Morphological and Ultrastructural study). Nat Sci 2017;15(4):1-12]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.01.

 

Keywords: Gentamicin, ginseng, nephroprotective role, nephrotoxicity, serum urea, serum creatinine

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Effect of Nicotine on the Testis of Adult Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Effect of Vitamin E.
 

Mohamed Abdel Haye Autifi M.D, Alaa Sayed Elsagheir M.D and Mohammed Abde Lataif Almandouh

 

Human Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, AL-Azhar University, Egypt.

dr_abo7afsa32@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The harmful effects of nicotine on male fertility have been reported in experimental and clinical studies. However, the protective effect of vitamin E against this toxicity and the reversibility of nicotine induced testicular toxicity after its withdrawal is still a matter of controversy. Aim of the Work: to examine the effect of nicotine administration on albino rat testis and to study the potential role of nicotine withdrawal and vitamin E on the amelioration of the nicotine effect on the testis. Materials and Methods: forty male albino rats were maintained for 30 days as follows: Group 1, control group, group 2, nicotine group [1mg/kg/day, intrapertonial (IP)], Group 3, nicotine withdrawal [1mg/kg/day, intrapertonial (IP)] then scarified 30 days after the last dose, group 4, nicotine + vitamin E [100mg/kg/day (IP)]. At the end of experimental study, testicular tissues and blood samples were taken for histological and laboratory studies. Results: Comparing with the control it was found that, simultaneous administration of vit. E with nicotine and nicotine withdrawal show edprotective effect against Histotoxicity and laboratory results of nicotine, through increase in the thickness of germinal epithelium with significant increase in the size of the seminiferous tubules, spermcount& significant increase in serum testosterone level. Conclusion: The present results seem to be rather surprising in view of the fact that nicotine could destroy testicular tissues in short time duration while nicotine withdrawal and vit. E could produce partial protection. Further studies are necessary to illuminate the other dark sides of nicotine on infertility in human and to discover others protective agents against its toxicity.

[Mohamed Abdel Haye Autifi, Alaa Sayed Elsagheir and Mohammed AbdeLataif Almandouh. Effect of Nicotine on the Testis of Adult Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Effect of Vitamin E. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):13-19]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.02.

 

Key Words: Nicotine, Testes, α-tocopherol, Fertility.

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Evaluation of Faecal Lactoferrin as a Diagnostic Marker in Egyptian Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Ulcerative Colitis and Colorectal Carcinoma

 

A. M. Elshafei1, M. H. Elnadry1, M. B. Ismaiel2, S. A. Sayied Ali3, and O. M. Abdel-Razek1

 

Tropical Medicine Department1, Clinical Pathology Department2 and Pathology Department3, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

dr_osama2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Elevated LF has been used as a marker of active IBD and for monitoring patients for response to treatment. Some studies report a high sensitivity of LF for active IBD in comparison with IBS. Aims: To investigate the utility of faecal lactoferrin as a marker of inflammation in patients with UC, IBS and CRC. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 60 persons who fulfilling the designed inclusion criteria and classified into five groups, Group I include 10 healthy persons, Group II: 10 patients known to have IBS, Group III: 15 patients known to have UC in remission, Group IV: 15 patients known to have UC in active state, Group V:10 patients known to have colorectal carcinoma. Fecal Lactoferrin level was measured in all patients using a highly sensitive enzyme – linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The mean lactoferrin concentration (μg//ml) was 0.5 23 for IBS patients, 23 4800 for UC patients, 2.5 62 for CRC patients and 0,5 7.1 for healthy controls. Lactoferrin levels were significantly higher in UC patients compared with IBS/healthy controls (P < 0.001). The mean lactoferrin concentrations were significantly higher in active UC patients compared with inactive patients (P =0.02). The mean lactoferrin concentrations were significantly higher in CRC group compared to control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of lactoferrin in distinguishing active UC from IBS/healthy controls were 96.7% and 100%, 100% and 90.9% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of lactoferrin in distinguishing CRC from control group 93.3%, and 100%, 100% and 90,9% respectively. Conclusions: Fecal Lactoferrin is useful to differentiate between UC and IBS and can be used as an adjuvant to blood parameters to determine patients who have ongoing colorectal carcinoma.

[A. M. Elshafei, M. H. Elnadry, M. B. Ismaiel, S. A. Sayied Ali, and O. M. Abdel-Razek. Evaluation of Faecal Lactoferrin as a Diagnostic Marker in Egyptian Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Ulcerative Colitis and Colorectal Carcinoma. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):20-27]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.03.

 

Keywords: Evaluation; Faecal Lactoferrin; Diagnostic Marker; Egyptian; Patient; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Ulcerative Colitis; Colorectal Carcinoma

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Evaluation of Acute myocardial infarction size in Winter and Summer

 

Behnam Sadighi1, Elham Khanlarzadeh2, Karim Basiri Sofiani3, Ebrahim Mashhadi3, Leila Azizkhani4

 

1- General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2- Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

3- Emergency Medicine Department, Emam Reza hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4- Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kordestan University of medical sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

leila433@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in winter is well known, and several explanatory mechanisms have been suggested based on increased blood pressure, hematological changes and respiratory infections. Exposure to cold causes a vasoconstriction and a tachycardia, both resulting in a rise of blood pressure and cardiac work and that increase risk of AMI. The aim of this study was Evaluation of Acute myocardial infarction size in Winter and Summer. Methods: In a cross-Sectional and descriptive-analytical study that performed in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 150 patients with AMI that admitted and were under treatment in the duration 2014 to 2016 at Emam Reza hospital selected and evaluated. Necessary information such as age, sex, clinical sign, history of disease and smoking, echo cardiographs finding, angiography, mortality, admitted season (Winter and Summer) collected and evaluated. Patients divided in 2 groups in the base of season. Results: 94 of patient were male and 56 of patients were female. Mean of age in male patients was 59.7712.88 years. And in female patients was 63.1713.25 year. Mean of age in female patients was significantly higher (P=0.007). Significant different was not found between mean of CPK in patients of 4 groups. Significant difference was not round between mean of CK-MB in patients of 2 groups. Significant difference was not found between mean of CTNI. Significant difference was not found in 2 groups. Conclusion: In this study Significant difference between 2 groups of patients. AMI have season of uniform season distribution. Mortality of AMI in the patients studied was 31 cases (20.7%) (16 males and 15 females) (P=0.236), that 17 of them were from the summer group and 14 from the winter group, which shows no significant difference between the rate of MI-induced mortality during hospitalization among patients of the two groups of summer and winter (P=0.633).

[Sadighi B, KhanlarzadehE, Basiri Sofiani K, Mashhadi E, Azizkhani L. Evaluation of Acute myocardial infarction size in Winter and Summer. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):28-30]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.04.

 

Keywords: AMI, Season Distribution, Morality

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Value of Video-Urodynamic Studies in the diagnosis of Patients with Neurogenic Bladder and Urinary Sphincter Dysfunction

 

Yossof Mostafa Yossof, Sayed Mohammed Eleweedy, Mostafa Ezzeldeen AbdelMagid, Sabri Mahmoud Khalid

 

Urology department, Faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Yoam82@yahoo.com, yossofmostafa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: The aims of this study is to: (a) analyze the morph functional features of the lower urinary tract observed during Videourodynamic examination in patients with neurogenic bladder (b) investigate the role of the Videourodynamic examination in the clinical management of these patients; and (c) demonstrate the relationship between morphological and functional variables. Patients and methods: A prospective review of 120 patients with congenital or acquired lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Of these patients, 80 had complete computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies and constitute the study population. The patients included in the study were submitted to full history taking, focused neurological examination, laboratory investigation and Videourodynamic studies. Patients were categorized by the radiographically determined level or levels of injury into suprapontine, subpontine suprasacral, sacral and subsacral and multilevel. Results: 80 patients, there were 9 (11.2%) with suprapontine, 16(20%) subpontine suprasacral, 45(56.2%) sacral & subsacral and (12.5%) multilevel. Videourodynamic studies showed DO was present more frequently in lesions of multilevel (50%) in comparison with suprasacral lesions (43.7%) and sacral lesions (26.6%). We also found Acontractile detrusor in sacral & subsacral lesions (51%), suprasacral lesions (37.5%) and multilevel lesions (20%). High DLPP was present more frequently in patients with multilevel lesions (50%) followed by suprapontine lesions (44%), sacral & subsacral (15%) and subpontine suprasacral lesions (13%). Low compliance was found in 60%, 42%, 37% and 33% of patients with multilevel, sacral & subsacral, subpontine suprasacral and suprapontine injuries respectively. Conclusion: Our findings revealed no association between the level of the lesion and other parameters (clinical presentation, BCR, compliance, high DLPP, and urodynamic diagnosis) so Management of the urinary tract in patients with neurogenic bladder must be based on Videourodynamic Findings.

[Yossof Mostafa Yossof, Sayed Mohammed Eleweedy, Mostafa Ezzeldeen AbdelMagid, Sabri Mahmoud Khalid. Value of Video-Urodynamic Studies in the diagnosis of Patients with Neurogenic Bladder and Urinary Sphincter Dysfunction. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):31-35]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.05.

 

Keywords: Value; Video-Urodynamic; Patient; Neurogenic Bladder; Urinary Sphincter Dysfunction

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Comparison between Metformin and Clomiphene Citrate Therapy for Treatment of Anovulatory Infertility in Cases of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

Prof. Mohammad Samir Fouad1, Dr. Mohammad Mohammad El Khouly 1, Prof. Ahmed Fathi Abd Al-Aziz2 and Adel Nagah Mohammad3

 

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt.

2 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt.

3 Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Banha Teaching Hospital, Egypt.

adelnagah@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. Aim of the Work: The aim of work is to compare the efficacy of Metformin and Clomiphene citrate therapies in treatment of anovulation in infertile patients with PCOS and to determine which of them is better as a first line medication. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 300 women with PCOS who were recruited from outpatient clinic of Banha Teaching Hospital. Results: Clomiphene citrate achieved a cumulative rate of ovulation of 51.7% while Metformin achieved 48.7%. So, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups as regard cumulative rate of ovulation (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study are comparable to previous reported studies revealed that both CC and Metformin are effective in treatment of infertility in PCOS patients. One limiting step of the present study is the small number of included subjects. Recommendations: It is advised to design larger prospective studies to compare the effects of both drugs in the future.

[Mohammad Samir Fouad, Mohammad Mohammad El Khouly, Ahmed Fathi Abd Al-Aziz and Adel Nagah Mohammad. Comparison between Metformin and Clomiphene Citrate Therapy for Treatment of Anovulatory Infertility in Cases of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):36-42]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.06.

 

Key words: PCOS, hyperandrogenism, Clomiphene citrate, Metformin, insulin resistance

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Prevalence of AA amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with disease duration for more than five years

 

Ahmed Abd EL Rahman El Atreby1, Hassan Mohamed Bassiouni1, Khaled Abd-Elmonaem Zaki1 and Hassan Abou-gabal2

 

1Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine-Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Egypt.

atr.1000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Secondary amyloidosis is a serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Symptoms are late to occur, so that screening is in order, most notably in patients with long-standing RA. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of amyloidosis in RA patients by abdominal fat aspiration biopsy (AFAB) and to identify factors associated with subclinical amyloidosis. Methods: We prospectively studied 30 consecutive patients with RA (23 women and 7 men) Clinical and laboratory findings, imaging study results, and treatment were recorded for each patient. AFAB was performed routinely. Amyloid deposits were identified by polarized light microscopy after Congo red staining. Results: The prevalence of subclinical amyloidosis was 13.3 % by AFAB. Factors associated with subclinical amyloidosis were a longer disease duration (P=0.0000), extra articular manifestations (P=0.002554), DAS28 score (P=0.00492), hemoglobin level (P=0.00071) and Serum amyloid A (P=0.0000). Amyloidosis was not associated with age, sex, RA duration, joint deformities, van der heijde radiological score, rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The prevalence of subclinical amyloidosis by AFAB is (13.3%). A simple screening tool such as AFAB should be used, particularly in patients with risk factors. Subclinical amyloidosis requires close monitoring to ensure the early detection and treatment of symptomatic amyloidosis.

[Ahmed Abd EL Rahman El Atreby, Hassan Mohamed Bassiouni, Khaled Abd-Elmonaem Zaki and Hassan Abou-gabal. Prevalence of AA amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with disease duration for more than five years. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):43-49]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.07.

 

Keywords: Prevalence; amyloidosis; rheumatoid arthritis; patient; disease

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Correction of moderate to severe varus deformity in osteoarthritic knee during total knee replacement using soft tissue release technique

 

Mahmoud Abd Allah Zayed; Mahmoud Mabrouk Said; Yasser Ali Elbatrawy; Abd Elhamid Abd Elaziz Attallah; Yaser Elsayed Hassan and Ibrahim Mohamed Ibrahim

 

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

drhimo80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the period between junuary, 2013 and september, 2016, this study was conducted on 20 patients with 23 knees who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty due to varus osteoarthritis with tibio- femoral angle 10˚ or more. The group of patients included 8 males (40%) and 12 (60%) females with mean age at the time of surgery of (59.39) years old (range from 55 to 75 years), 8 patients had the right knee replaced, 9 patients had the left one, while 3 patients had bilateral total knee replacement, all prostheses used in this study were cemented, fixed bearing and posterior stabilized. The average knee society score improved from (10.17) preoperatively to (86.52) postoperatively and improvement of the functional knee score from (24.35) preoperatively to (73.26) postoperatively.

[Mahmoud Abd Allah Zayed; Mahmoud Mabrouk Said; Yasser Ali Elbatrawy; Abd Elhamid Abd Elaziz Attallah; Yaser Elsayed Hassan and Ibrahim Mohamed Ibrahim. Correction of moderate to severe varus deformity in osteoarthritic knee during total knee replacement using soft tissue release technique. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):50-57]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.08.

 

Key words: Varus deformity, knee, osteophyte, Tibio- femoral angle

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Effect of maternal body mass index on Labour Prognosis in Nulliparous Women

 

Prof. Abdel Monem Mohamed Zakaria1, Dr. Farid Ahmed Kassab1 and Esam Rizk Mahmoud2

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2 Resident at Shebin El-Kanater Central Hospital, Egypt.

amriae@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of structural fetal abnormalities. Moreover, pregnancy outcomes deteriorate in a linear manner as BMI increases from “normal” to obese. The list of complications during pregnancy for overweight and obese women is substantial, including heightened risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, blood clots, infections and preterm delivery. Many of these conditions create further risks and complications. For example, diabetes during pregnancy increases the likelihood of pre-eclampsia, pre-term birth, caesarean section and postoperative infections. In the case of hypertension, pregnant women with high BMIs are also more likely to experience more severe forms of hypertensive complications. Many pregnancy-related complications require that women undergo an increased level of maternal and fetal monitoring and given their weight there is the potential for poor ultrasound visualization of the baby and consequent difficulties in fetal surveillance and screening for anomalies. This study, like any other observational study of its kind suffers from several limitations. firstly, the ideal time to record the baseline height and weight of a pregnant woman is before she has started gaining weight due to gestation taking into consideration that pre-pregnancy weight was known from the patients own words and history taking. Secondly, our study used data collected over 6 months; a short duration which should be extended in later studies and researches to show the longstanding impact of obesity on the patient. The third limitation was the lack of standard definitions of overweight and obesity which makes comparison of findings across studies difficult.

[Abdel Monem Mohamed Zakaria, Farid Ahmed Kassab and Esam Rizk Mahmoud. Effect of maternal body mass index on labour prognosis in nulliparous women. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):58-63]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.09.

 

Key words: Maternal obesity, Nulliparous; Maternal Body Mass, Pregnancy.

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Developing Stochastic Model For Forecasting Malaria Cases In Addis Zemen, South Gondar, Ethiopia: A Time Series Analysis

 

Bantie Getnet, Salie Ayalew

 

Department of Statistics, University of Gondar, Ethiopia

Email addresses: bantiegetnet@gmail.com (Bantie Getnet), salie.ayalew55@gmail.com (Salie Ayalew)

 

Abstract: Malaria is a serious public health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. Early prediction of malaria cases is very important for its control and intervention. This study aimed for developing stochastic model for forecasting malaria cases in Addis Zemen, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Data of monthly malaria cases from January 2007 to June 2016 were obtained from Addis Zemen health center, south Gondar, Ethiopia. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, is typically applied to forecast the malaria cases; it can take into account changing trends, seasonal variation, and random disturbances in time series. Generalized Autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models are the prevalent tools used to deal with time series heteroscedasticity. In this study, based on the data of the malaria cases, the researcher establish the seasonal ARIMA (1, 1, 1) (2, 1, 1)12 model and GARCH (1, 1) model, which can be used to forecast the malaria cases successfully in Addis-Zemen. Although both two families of models could reasonably forecast the malaria cases, the GARCH model demonstrated better goodness-of-fit than the SARIMA model. The seasonal trend of malaria cases is predicted to have lower monthly malaria cases in January and higher malaria cases in October. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first study to establish the ARIMA model and GARCH model for forecasting the monthly malaria cases in Addis-Zemen.

[Bantie Getnet, Salie Ayalew. Developing Stochastic Model For Forecasting Malaria Cases In Addis Zemen, South Gondar, Ethiopia: A Time Series Analysis. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):64-77]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.10.

 

Key Words: malaria cases, time series, ARIMA models, ARCH-GARCH models TOC \o "1-5" \h \z \u

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Study of the adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Fe(II) and Cd(II) by using modified natural clay

 

A. T. Kandil1, Maha.M.Ali2,. Hanan H. Mohamed1, A. M. K. El Saadi3 and Sahar. A. Othman2

 

[1]Dept. of chemistry, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.

2 Central laboratory, National Water Research Center, Egypt.

3 Drainage Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Egypt.

Saharabdelaziz_712@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The removal of heavy metals (Cu+2, Pb+2, Fe+2, and Cd+2) onto modified clay using batch-adsorption technique has been studied. The influence of concentration, on the adsorption process has also been studied. The natural clay obtained from New Valley in Egypt was crushed into powder and passed through 200 mesh sieve and then modified with sodium acetate. It rinsed and dried up. Results show that removal efficiency reached within about 120 minutes. The increase in contact time did not show significant change in equilibrium concentration. The adsorption isotherm fitted well by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and adsorption increase by increasing temperature, and decrease by decreasing pH.

[A. T. Kandil, Maha M. Ali. Hanan H. Mohamed, A. M. K. El Saadi and Sahar. A. Othman. Study of the adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Fe(II) and Cd(II) by using modified natural clay. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):78-83]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.11.

 

Key words: Adsorption, Natural clay, Modified clay, Contact time, Adsorption isotherm

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Exploiting Microbial Communities Associated with Marine Fish: An Indispensable Approach to Sustainable Aquaculture

 

Ifeoma Laeticia Okoliegbe1, Leera Solomon2 and Asiton-a Asifamabia Dick2

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, East-West Road, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology,

Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt

laetymaria@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Improved aquaculture and fisheries has the capacity of increasing a country’s gross domestic product, providing employment and food for the teeming population. The review is on exploiting microbial communities associated with marine fish: an indispensable approach to sustainable aquaculture. Disease outbreaks, high cost of diets and poor nutrition among others are serious bottlenecks to aquaculture. The intestinal microbial communities of fish are related to its health status. Imbalances caused by shifts in microbial species abundances can lead to disease outbreaks in fishes and subsequent proliferation of pathogens. To maintain fish health and adequate productivity, bio-based options favouring the ability of hosts’ native intestinal microbiota to suppress pathogens must be adopted. Such options include probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotic and biocontrol agents. The principle underlying the afore-mentioned options is increasing the abundance and activity of host beneficial bacteria. However, one or group of microbes which are non-native to the host but known to effectively colonize the host intestines can also be used to achieve synergistic effects, thus improving aquaculture productivity. Probiotics have been shown to suppress proliferation, reproduction and stress tolerance in fish. Intestinal microbes can produce digestive enzymes which can be stepped up and used for industrial production. The enzymes can be added to fish feed to enhance digestion, thus ensuring better digestion of feed components, improving productivity and reduction of pollution of ponds.

[Okoliegbe, I. L., Solomon, L. and Dick, A. A. Exploiting Microbial Communities Associated with Marine Fish: An Indispensable Approach to Sustainable Aquaculture. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):84-91]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.12.

 

Key words: Aquaculture, gross domestic product, employment, probiotics, biocontrol agents

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An In Vitro Acaricidal Efficacy Assesment Of Crude Methanolic And Ethanolic Extracts And Latex Secretion Of Cryptostegia Grandiflora Against Amblyomma And Ornithodorus Tick Species

 

Balichil Anagew 1, Mengestie Abebaw 1, Mebrie Zemene 2, Daneil Workneh 1

 

1 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.o.box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia,2 Lecturer at University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o.box 196

mengistab23@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Experimental study was carried out from February 2016 to April 2016 with the aim of in vitro acaricidal efficacy evaluation of C. grandiflora against Amblyomma and Ornithodorus species. The acaricidal activities of crude aqueous methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems and latex secretions of C. grandiflora were assessed against adults of Amblyomma and Ornithodorus species by using adult immersion test (AIT). Three concentrations of the crude extract (200 mg/ml (20%), 100 mg/ml (10%) and 50 mg/ml (5%) with three replicates for each were used. The result obtained from this study indicated that the crude stem ethanol and leaf methanolic extracts of C. grandiflora at higher concentration (200mg/ml) and latex secretion in its pure form used, were lethal to Amblyomma and Ornithodorus species of ticks and comparable to the positive control. The mean mortality rate was varied from 26.67% to 86.67% for crude extracts and 93.33% for pure latex secretion formulation at 24 hours after treatment. The mortality was increased with increasing concentrations (50 mg/ml (5%), 100 mg/ml (10%), (200 mg/ml (20%).The efficacy of extracts and latex against tested ticks was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a significance difference (p<0.05) in acaricidal efficacy between extracts and different concentrations tested. These results stipulated that leaf methanolic and stem ethanolic extracts, and latex secretion of C. grandiflora may serve as tick control even in their crude and pure secretion form, respectively. To apply on ticks, it should be essential to fractionate the extracts and test each component separately to determine the active compounds responsible for the killing effect of the potent extracts. The overall findings of the current study indicated that most of C. grandiflora extracts and its latex had potential acaricidal effect warranting further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Additional comprehensive research is highly recommended.

[Balichil A, Mengestie A, Mebrie Z, Daneil W. An In Vitro Acaricidal Efficacy Assesment Of Crude Methanolic And Ethanolic Extracts And Latex Secretion Of Cryptostegia Grandiflora Against Amblyomma And Ornithodorus Tick Species. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):92-104]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.13.

 

Keywords: Adult immersion test, Amblyomma species, Cryptostegia grandiflora, Extract, Ornithodorus species.

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14

A Review On Ebola Virus

 

Mengestie Abebaw 1, Balichil Anagew 1, Mebrie Zemene 2, Daneil Workneh 1

 

1 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia,2 Lecturer at University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o. Bbox 196.

manabebaw@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ebola virus disease caused by Ebola virus is a severe, often fatal illness in humans and non-human primates. The Zaire species of Ebola virus, the causative agent of the 2014-2015 West African epidemics, is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Although, the natural reservoir of EVD is not known, fruit bats are proposed to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. EVD is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, vomiting and diarrhea. People become infected through contact with infected animals, either in the process of slaughtering or through consumption of raw or undercooked meat and person to person transmission occur through direct contact with the blood, secretions or other bodily fluids of infected persons. Rapid diagnostic tests for Ebola virus infection are in use and are principally based upon the detection of specific RNA sequences by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in blood or other body fluids. Differential diagnoses should consider diseases such as Lassa fever, Malaria, influenza, Typhoid and Marburg virus disease. Currently, there is no specific treatment for Ebola virus disease and the mainstay of treatment is intensive supportive care. As there is no vaccine for the disease, the prevention and control is mainly based on appropriate precautions to break ways of transmission. The recent Ebola outbreak occurred in Western Africa is the most disastrous and has faced many challenges in its prevention and control. Although, Ethiopia is listed as medium risk country, there is no reported case of EVD until now and the government has established Ebola virus disease preparedness strengthening team. As recommendation, people should take care during contact with wild animals and, health care workers should use proper PPE while treating EVD patients to avoid spread of the disease.

[Mengestie Abebaw, Balichil Anagew, Mebrie Zemene, Daneil Workneh. A Review On Ebola Virus. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):105-113]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.14.

 

Key Words: Africa, Ebola, Ebola virus, epidemiology, challenges

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15

Role of MRI Versus Ultrasonography in Localization of Undescended Testicles

 

Mohammad Mostafa Sayed1, Sherief Kamal Hussein Eid2, Mohammed Ramadan Rihan3 and

Mohammed Gamal Moustafa Alashry4

 

1Assistant Professor of Radio-diagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (New Damietta), Egypt.

2 Lecturer of Radio-diagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (New Damietta), Egypt.

3 Lecturer of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (New Damietta), Egypt.

4 Resident of Radio-diagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (New Damietta), Egypt. dr_mohamed_mos@yahoo.com, drmohamedalashry1988@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Evaluate role of Ultrasonography versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging in localization of undescended testes. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 50 patients with age ranges from 3 months to 25 years presenting with undescended testes. Scrotal, pelvis and abdominal ultrasonography was done with superficial linear 7.5 MHZ and deep curved 3-5 MHZ transducers. MRI examination was done without contrast from the renal area above to the scrotal region below will be covered for localization undescended testes. Testes were classified according to location into three anatomic regions: intracanalicular, low intra-abdominal and high intra-abdominal. Laparoscopy was done for all cases as diagnostic and therapeutic tool and was considered as a golden standard. Results: Ultrasonography revealed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 45.71%, 91.67% and 64.41% respectively. MRI showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91.43%, 87.50% and 89.83% respectively in localization undescended testes. Conclusion: MRI is considered as an accurate examination for detection and localization of the undescended testes in comparing with ultrasonography. However, laparoscopy would be recommended as diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

[Mohammad Mostafa Sayed, Sherief Kamal Hussein Eid, Mohammed Ramadan Rihan and Mohammed Gamal Moustafa Alashry. Role of MRI Versus Ultrasonography in Localization of Undescended Testicles. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):114-123]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.15.

 

Key Words: (US) Ultrasonography- (MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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16

Functional Outcome of Patients Operated For Lumbar Canal Stenosis without Fusion Retrospective study

 

Prof Dr. Bahaa Kornah, Prof Dr. Mohammed Negm, Dr. Bahaa Khairy

 

Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

bahaamaklad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Study Design. A retrospective observational study of patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Objective. To determine whether the functional outcome of lumbar decompression without fusion using Oswestry Disability Index. Summary of Background Data Degenerative lumbar canal stenosis is the most common indication for spinal surgery in the mature patient population. Decompressive surgery is suggested to improve outcomes in patients with moderate to severe symptoms of lumbar canal stenosis. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is widely accepted quantitative index in determining functional status of lumbar spinal stenosis patients. Method. In our study, we assess functional outcome of thirty patients operated for degenerative lumbar canal stenosis whose underwent decompressive surgery without fusion in the period from May 2015 to July 2016 in Azhar university hospitals with minimum six month follow up and compare between pre-operative (ODI) and post-operative ODI. Result. The mean ODI to all patients pre-operative was 62% which declined post-operative to 28.5. Conclusion. Patients can expect a clinically meaningful improvement after lumbar decompression for symptomatic lumbar canal stenosis. Our patient population confirms significant positive development in quality of life in the short-term follow-ups. Simple open decompression without fusion in patients with lumbar canal stenosis verifies excellent outcome in patient’s satisfaction in comparison with pre-operative state.

[Bahaa Kornah, Mohammed Negm, and Bahaa Khairy. Functional Outcome of Patients Operated For Lumbar Canal Stenosis without Fusion Retrospective study. Nat Sci 2017;15(4):124-127]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150417.16.

 

Keywords: Functional Outcome; Patient; Operate; Lumbar; Canal Stenosis; Fusion; Retrospective study

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from February 27, 2017.

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