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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 15 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 123), June 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1506

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

Correlation between the Serum Alkaline Phosphatase and the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris

 

Abou Emira I.1, El-Tahan M.2, El-Shorbagy M.3, Yassin I.4, Mohy El-Din M.4

 

1Cardiology Resident at Dar El-Shefaa Hospital, Egypt

2Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3Professor of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

4Lecturer of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

ibraheemaboemera@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The principal objective of this study is to assess correlation between the serum alkaline phosphatase level and the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic stable angina. Patients and methods: This study (prospective) included finally 200 patients who presented to Dar Alshefaa hospital _Cairo _ Egypt, for elective coronary angiography within the time period from November 2015 to August 2016. At the beginning of the study 270 patients then 70 patients were excluded from the study for various causes (50 patients HCV,15 had CKD, 3 patients HBV, and 2 patients had obstructive jaundice). Results: The mean age of the study group was 57.020±9.475years and 46 patients (23 %) were females. In our study population, 126 patients (63%) were suffering from diabetes mellitus (all type II), 142(71%) had arterial hypertension, and 129 (64.5%) were smokers. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the study group was 32.895±5.671kg/m2. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification of Angina (CCS) class was: II in 89 patients (44.50%), III in 111 patients (55.50%) According to (LVEF) we divided study patients into three groups: -

A.   Patients with (LVEF) (>50%) was noticed in 99 patients 49.5%.

B.   Patients with midrange (LVEF)(40-49%) was noticed in 78 patients (39%).

C.   Patients with heart failure with reduced (LVEF) (<40%) was noticed in 23 patients (11.5%). According to serum alkaline phosphatase level we divided study patients in to 3 groups:

A.   95 patients (47.50%) with low normal ALP level(<63 IU/L).

B.   75 patients (37.50%) with midrange ALP level (63-78 IU/l).

C.   30 patients (15%) with high normal ALP level (>78 IU/L). According to Gensini score we divided study patients in to 4 groups:

A.   31 patients (15.50%) were having score zero according to Gensini score.

B.   64 patients (32%) were having mild CAD with score ranging from 1to 15 on Gensini score.

C.   75 patients (37.5%) were having moderate CAD with score ranging from 16 to 30 on Gensini score.

D.   30 patients (15%) were having severe CAD with score more than 30 on Gensini score.

On comparing three groups according to serum ALP level, there was a significant relation between serum ALP level and GENSINI score. Conclusion: There was significant correlation between serum ALP and HTN, DM, smoking positive ECG findings LVEF, presence of SWMA, LVEDD, LVESD, patient C.A. score, patient serum creatinine level, patient serum creatinine level. There was significant correlation between Gensini score and HTN, DM, smoking positive ECG findings LVEF, presence of SWMA, LVEDD, LVESD patient C.A. score. There was a significant relation between serum ALP level and Gensini score.

[Abou Emira I., El-Tahan M., El-Shorbagy M., Yassin I., Mohy El-Din M. Correlation between the Serum Alkaline Phosphatase and the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):1-17]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.01.

 

Keywords: Correlation; Serum; Alkaline Phosphatase; Coronary Artery; Disease; Patient; Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris

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Brucellosis: Zoonotic Importance, Prevention And Control

 

Yewubnesh Asnake1, Askale Abrhaley2 and Fufa Abuna1

 

1 Addis Ababa University, College Of Veterinary Medicine And Agirculture, Debere Zeit, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, P.O. Box 34

2 College Of Veterinary Medicine And Animal Science, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.O. BOX 196

Corresponding Author: Yewubnesh Asnake, Email Address: yewbaasnake@gmail.com

 

Summary: Brucellosis is especially caused by Brucella melitensis. It remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases that can seriously affect the wellbeing of animals and humans. The disease is caused by diverse Brucella species of which Brucella abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis are highly pathogenic for humans. The possible sources of infections include all infected tissues, aborted fetuses, fetal fluids, vaginal discharges, cultures and potentially contaminated materials. The natural aspects of the pathogenesis of the diseases lies on the presence of the bacteria in the cells and employing various methods to survive in the phagocytic cells. The diseases can be transmitted from infected host to susceptible animals by direct and indirect contacts. But the most common mode of transmission is sexual contact. Public health importance of brucellosis is much related to the infected animal species from which human transmission occurs. It can cause considerable losses in cattle as a result of abortion and reduction in milk yield. Most literature addresses control of B. Abortus infection by vaccinating young female animals. The most rational approach for preventing human brucellosis is the control and elimination of the diseases in animal reservoir and health education of the public working at high risk area.

[Yewubnesh Asnake, Askale Abrhaley and Fufa Abuna. Brucellosis: Zoonotic Importance, Prevention And Control. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):18-30]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.02.

 

Keywords: Brucellosis, Control, Prevention, Zoonotic Importance

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Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as targeted therapy in breast cancer: Review

 

Mazin A. A. Najm, Khulood H. Oudah*

 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt

E-mail: * Corresponding authors: Mazinsajad@yahoo.com, khyasemin890@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Understanding the biology of this tumor is a prerequisite for selecting an appropriate treatment. Cell cycle alterations are seen in many cancers such as breast cancer. Newly popular targeted agent in breast cancer are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) which are agents inhibiting the function of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is a member of protein kinase family. It plays an important role in regulating various events of eukaryotic cell division cycle. Accumulated evidences indicated that over expression of CDKs should cause the abnormal regulation of cell-cycle, which would be directly associated with hyper proliferation in cancer cells. They are categorized as selective and non-selective inhibitors of CDK. CDKIs have been tried as monotherapy andcombination therapy. In this review, we present the structure, functions and activation of CDKs by cyclin binding with special focus on recent advances in the development of different CDKI in breast cancer.

[Mazin A. A. Najm, Khulood H. Oudah. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as targeted therapy in breast cancer: Review. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):31-35]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.03.

 

Keywords: Breast cancer, CDKs, Cell cycle, CDK 4/6 Inhibitors

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Research and Development of Energy Saving in Buildings of USA

 

Alireza Nohesara

 

MSc in Mechanical Engineering, Field of Energy Conversion, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. alirezanohesara@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study was investigation research and development methods and implementation of them in United States of America. The United States is the second-largest energy consumer through the world. The building sector is one of the major energy-consuming sectors in USA; which energy consumption of the buildings in the country represents about 27% of the total energy consumption. Therefore, some NGos helped the USA government to implement an excellent plan to energy conservation in buildings section and individual domestic consumers controlled half of energy consumption. NGOs expanded best practices in building design, construction and made retrofitting result in homes that are profoundly more energy conserving than average new homes that includes insulation and energy-efficient windows and lighting. Part of results of this research showed that smart ways to construct homes such that minimal resources are used to cooling and heating the house in summer and winter respectively can significantly reduce energy costs.

[Alireza Nohesara. Research and Development of Energy Saving in Buildings of USA. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):36-41]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.04.

 

Keywords: Energy Saving, Buildings of USA, Mechanical Engineering

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An investigation about the effect of Gold & Oil prices and Inflation rate on demand of Life Insurance using Copula

 

Dr. Roya Darabi1, Melika Firouzi2

 

1.Assistant Professor in Accountant, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch

2.PHD student in Finance Management in Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch and MSc in Actuarial Science, ECO college of Insurance, Allameh tabataba’i university

melika-firouzi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we’ve tried to observe and investigate effect of oil and gold's price and inflation rate on amount of demand for life insurance and then studying these effects mathematically and by copula model. A copula is a function that links univariate marginal to their full multivariate distribution. Copulas were introduced in 1959 in the context of probabilistic metric spaces. Copula models are becoming increasingly popular for modeling dependencies between random variables. The ranges of their recent applications include such fields as analysis of extremes in financial assets and returns, failure of paired organs in health science, and human mortality in insurance. Volatility of oil & gold's price and also the change of inflation rate affects countries economic market. The parameters have been evaluated and then copula function has been drawn for each one “gold and life insurance, oil and life insurance, inflation and life insurance”. It is considered the most effect on "amount of demand for life insurance" has been made by inflation rate and by gold and oil in order.

[Darabi R, Firouzi M. An investigation about the effect of Gold & Oil prices and Inflation rate on demand of Life Insurance using Copula. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):42-58]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.05.

 

Keywords: copula function, copula, Gamma distribution, GCC (Gulf Corporation Council)

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Review on Avian Salmnellosis and its Impact

 

Getinet Ayalew1, Ayalew Negash2, Maradona Birhanu3

 

1University of Gondar, Collage of Natural Science, Department of Biotechnology.

Gondar, Ethiopia, B.O.B. 196.

2Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia,

3Department of animal health, Alage Agricultural TVET College, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Ethiopia

quine2003@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Avian Salmonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by different species of Salmonella. The common causative agent in poultry is Salmonella Pullorum, galinarum, Arizona, Typhimurium and enteridtis which cause Pullorum, fowl typhoid, paraclonal infection and paratyphoid disease respectively. Pullorum disease can cause severe clinical illness in young chicken. Salmonella Arizona can affect turkeys. Salmonella Typhimurium can affect wide range of hosts including humans. Avian salmonellosis can be transmitted with the mode of transmission; horizontally and vertically. It can also be transmitted to humans by feeding contaminated poultry products like meat and egg. The pathogenesis is due to the bacteria invades the gastro intestinal tract of birds and cause inflammation of the intestine. The bacteria are phagocytized by macrophages and through the blood stream and the lymphatic system it can spread to the reticuloendothelial cells like liver and spleen where multiplication can takes place. Salmonellosis can be diagnosed by culturing and identification of the bacteria by using serological test like Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Nicropcy indicates Pathological lesion is found on the tissue of liver, kidney, spleen, intestine and ovary. Treatment of avian salmonellosis is not satisfactory because the drug cannot eliminate the agent from the body. Once birds are infected they remain carrier and shed the bacteria throughout their life. Prevention of salmonellosis can be done by controlling movement of rodents, birds and peoples to the farm, strict sanitation and vaccination of birds. Avian salmonellosis has zoonotic importance. Its zoonotic impact can be reduced by applying Hazard Analysis Critical control point system and hygienic feeding and drinking methods with effective public education to reduce the risk. Salmonelosis in poultry causes heavy economic loss through mortality and reduced production. This review paper gives an overview on avian salmonellosis.

[Getinet A, Ayalew N, Maradona B. Review on Avian Salmonellosis and its Impacts. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):59-67]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.06.

 

Keywords: Salmonella, Avian salmonellosis, Zoonosis, human, salmonella

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The impact of Conventional and Spiritual Reminiscence in a Group Manner by Seniors on their Confidence in Nursing Homes

 

Ayoob Faridi1, Jahangir Maghsoodi2, Zahra Ghazavi3, Habibollah Hoseini3

 

1. MSc in Gerontological nursing, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2. Assistant Professor and Faculty member in Nursing and Midwifery School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3. MSc and Faculty member in Nursing and Midwifery School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: Background: Due to the growing elderly population, identifying the risk factors and proper planning to enhance the confidence of this segment of society seems essential. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of conventional and spiritual reminiscence in a group form on self-esteem by seniors in nursing homes in Isfahan was done in 2015. This study was a randomized, double and three-stage group. In this study, 64 elderly people living in nursing homes in Isfahan randomly selected and randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups were replaced. The two experimental and control groups dedicated to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) responded. Then the researcher under the experimental group for 8 sessions (2 sessions per week for 4 weeks) to normal and spiritual reminiscence to the group's practices. Immediately after the intervention and one month after both experimental and control groups dedicated to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) responded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18. Results: ANOVA showed that average scores of confidence in the stages before, immediately after and one month after the intervention groups were significantly different (p<0.05). Scheffe analysis showed that mean scores of confident seniors groups before, immediately after and one month after intervention significantly different (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of reminiscence and spiritual importance of the elderly in the conventional group approved. More interaction with peers and discuss with them and to share memories by the elderly could be useful in increasing their self-confidence. According to the survey results, the use of conventional and spiritual reminiscence program to enhance the confidence of the elderly is recommended.

[Ayoob Faridi, Jahangir Maghsoodi, Zahra Ghazavi, Habibollah Hoseini. The impact of Conventional and Spiritual Reminiscence in a Group Manner by Seniors on their Confidence in Nursing Homes. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):68-73]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.07.

 

Keywords: Typical reminiscence, spiritual reminiscence, the elderly, confidence, Isfahan

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Comparative Valuation of Ultrastructural and Immunoscreening Studies on the Two Food Colorants 'E100 and E110'-Triggering Testicular and Prostate Alterations in Mouse

 

Mohamed A. Ismail and Hanaa R. Aboelwafa*

 

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt, 11341

hanaa_aboelwafa@yahoo.com, hanaarezk@edu.asu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background: The synthetic food colorant E110 (Sunset Yellow; SY) caused argument due to its toxic effects. Usage of E110 is not restricted as a food dye, but it is found in drugs just for coloring. E100 (Curcumin; CU) is a natural dye utilized as a spice and traditional medicine. Aim of the work: The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of E110 and E100-triggered testicular and prostate alterations using transmission electron microscopy, weighing of prostate lobes and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Material and methods: Thirty mice were divided into control, SY-gavage E110 (30 mg/kg b.wt./day) and CU-received E100 (37 mg/kg b.wt.) groups. Results: The current study showed testicular ultrastructural deteriorations of SY-group, included thickening of basal laminae and degenerative changes of germ, Sertoli, and Leydig cells. Also, a significant decrease (P≤0.05) of total prostate gland weights and three cases with a positive band on the application of PSA, indicating prostate cancer in a significant difference (P≤0.05) were recorded. But the testes of CU-group illustrated relatively normal basal laminae, germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells, besides negative results on the application of PSA, and no marked variations of total prostate weight, scoring insignificant effect (P≥0.05) in comparable to control group. Conclusion: The present ultrastructural and immunoscreening comparative studies emphasize that, there is a need to forbid the usage of the synthetic colorant E110 in foodstuffs and drugs due to its cytotoxic effects on the testes and prostate glands. Also, the current results reinforced the inclusion of the natural dye E100 in our daily diet due to its potential safety on the testes and prostate glands.

[Mohamed A. Ismail and Hanaa R. Aboelwafa. Ultrastructural and Immunoscreening Comparative Valuation between the Two Food Colorants 'E100 and E110'-Triggering Testicular and Prostate Alterations in Mouse. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):74-87]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.08.

 

Kew words: E100, E110, Prostate, PSA, Testes, Ultrastructure

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Hepatitis B Surface Antigenaemia and Risk Factors of Transmission among Students of Kogi State University in Anyigba, North Central Nigeria

 

Cornelius Arome Omatola1, Joy Ani Ukamaka1, Godwin Ashem Agieni1, Martin-luther Oseni Okolo1, Patience Omebije Adejo1, Meshach Maunta Maina2, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho1

 

1Department of Microbiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, P.M.B.1008, Kogi State, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

omatolac@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Hepatitis B virus infection remains a serious health related threat especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV infection among students of Kogi State University in Anyigba, Nigeria. Sera samples obtained from 200 consented students were screened for HBsAg using the commercial ABON® test kit manufactured in China. Information on student’s socio-demographic risk factors was collected using structured questionnaire. Twelve (6%) of the students tested positive to HBsAg with the highest seropositivity rate in students within the ages of 31-35 years and student’s age was not found to be statistically associated with HBV infection (p > 0.05). More males 7(6.73%) than their females 5(5.20%) counterparts were positive to HBsAg although, hepatitis B viral infection was not significantly associated with gender. Factors such as multiple sexual partnerships, being married, intravenous drug use and frequent intake of alcohol were associated with higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity. However, none of these was statistically related to HBV infection. The pattern of HBV infection in this study buttresses the need for a rigorous health education of the general public on the modes of prevention with particular emphasis on abstinence among sexually active group.

[Omatola CA, Agieni AG, Okolo MO, Adejo PO, Maina MM, Mofolorunsho CK, Ukamaka JA. Hepatitis B Surface Antigenaemia and Risk Factors of Transmission among Students of Kogi State University in Anyigba, North Central Nigeria. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):88-94]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.09.

 

Keywords: HBsAg, Prevalence, Risk factors, Student, Nigeria.

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Effect of CPPU and GA3 on fruiting and fruit quality of Washington navel orange

 

Hifny H. A., Khalifa S.M., Hamdy, A. E. and Abd El-wahed. A.N.

 

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

abdelwahed_abdelwahed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Washington navel orange is a parthenocarpic cultivar thus decrease yield and fruit quality since they are playing the main role in production and exporting potential. The present study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 2014 and 2015 on 13 years Washington navel orange trees grown in a sandy soil in a private orchard at Housh Eisa, El- Behera Governorate, Egypt. The effect of CPPU and GA3 applied at full bloom on Washington navel orange trees was studied. The results showed that foliar spraying of trees with CPPU at 4 ppm + GA3 at 30 ppm at full bloom significantly increased of fruit set, retained fruits percentage and yield (kg/ tree), fruit physical parameters such as fruit weight (g), fruit size (cm3) fruit length, fruit diameter (cm) and fruit juice while fruit drop percentage was decreased percentage in comparison to other treatments and control. Fruit biochemical characteristics such as TSS, total acidity, TSS/acid ratio and V.C were also positively affected by using this treatment compared with other treatments and control. It could be recommended that spraying Washington navel orange trees with CPPU at 4 ppm and GA3 at 30 ppm at full bloom gave the highest values of yield (kg) /tree, fruit physical and chemical properties.

[Hifny H. A., Khalifa S.M., Hamdy, A. E. and Abd El-wahed. A.N. Effect of CPPU and GA3 on fruiting and fruit quality of Washington navel orange. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):95-102]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.10.

 

Key words: citrus, Sitofix, foliar application, full bloom stage, retained fruits, vitamin C

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Molecular characterization of recently isolated highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Egypt

 

Saleh M.M1, Selim A2, Shahera A.A. 3, El -Shahidy M.S.3 and El-Trabilli M.M3

 

1Animal Health Research Institute, Mansura, Dakahlia, Egypt

2National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3 Department of virology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Suez-Canal University

Mostafasaleh2017@hotmail.com zanatyali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in Egypt. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat and have caused multiple human infections. Merging the epidemiological and genetic data is important to understand the transmission, persistence and evolution of the virus. This work describes the molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 5 isolates collected from 2015, 2016. In this study, sequence analysis of five HPAI H5N1 viruses of chicken during 2015 and 2016 revealed that were highly pathogenic due to the presence of multiple basic amino acids in the cleavage site through sequence of full HA gene. Also, we found that it belonging to clade 2.2.1 (3 samples) and 2.2.1.1. (2 samples). Our samples showed double mutation at HA residues 134 deletion and I167T which increased viral binding affinity to alpha 2, 6 SA receptor and infectivity in the human lower respiratory tract.

[Saleh M.M, Selim A, Shahera A.A., El -Shahidy M.S. and El-Trabilli M.M. Molecular characterization of recently isolated highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Egypt. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):103-109]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.11.

 

Keywords: Avian Influenza, H5N1, Sequencing, Phylogenetic tree, Egypt

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Production of Mushroom Based Food Condiment and Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus

 

*Okafor, D.C1; Onuegbu, N.C. 1; Ibeabuchi, J.C. 1; Eluchie, C.N. 1; Njideka N.E1;.1 Alagbaoso, S.O. 1;Emeakaroha, M.2 and Dike A.K. 1

 

1Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, P. M. B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2Dept. of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, P. M. B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author email: okafordamaris@gmail.com; phone: +2348037837771

 

Abstract: Nutritional and anti nutritional properties of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and the production of mushroom based food condiment are discussed in this paper. Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was subjected to chemical analyses. The mushroom based food condiment was produced by mixing the flaked dry mushroom with ingredients (pepper, onions, salt, sugar, crayfish) at different levels of 100% (Pleurotus ostreatus): 0% (spice mix), 95% (Pleurotus ostreatus): 5% (spice mix) and 60% (Pleurotus ostreatus): 40% (spice mix). The proximate composition analysis showed that the moisture, protein and carbohydrate content were considerably high with values of 93.38% ± 0.01, 2.17% ± 0.01, 3.11% ± 0.02 respectively. The crude fiber, ash and fat content were also gotten as 0.63% ± 0.04, 0.45% ± 0.02, 0.26% ± 0.03 respectively. Pleurotus ostreatus contained essential minerals such as potassium, calcium and magnesium in substantial concentration with result values of 62.59mg/100g ± 0.01, 19.93mg/100g ± 0.02, 9.98mg/100g ± 0.02 respectively and other minerals such as Iron and Zinc with values of 3.40 mg/100g ± 0.01and 3.28 mg/100g ± 0.01 respectively. Vitamin composition showed that Niacin had the highest value of 6.98 mg/100g ± 0.01, while Pantothenic acid had a low value of 0.20 mg/100g ± 0.02. Other vitamin contents obtained were Thiamin 4.43 mg/100g ± 0.02, Riboflavin 4.31 mg/100g ± 0.09 and Vitamin D 3.57 mg/100g ± 0.02. Oxalate was the highest anti nutrient in the mushroom with a value of 3.20 mg/100g ± 0.02 while phytates, tannins and saponins were generally low with values of 0.19 mg/100g ± 0.01, 1.86 mg/100g ± 0.01 and 0.30 ± 0.01 respectively. Sensory evaluation was conducted on the different mushroom based food condiment samples with MW4 (80%:20%) having the best overall acceptability and MW1 (95:5) having the least.

[Okafor DC, Onuegbu NC, Ibeabuchi JC, Eluchie CN, Njideka NE, Alagbaoso SO, Emeakaroha M and Dike AK. Production of Mushroom Based Food Condiment and Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):110-121]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.12.

 

Keywords: Mushroom, condiment, Anti nutritional factors, Vitamins

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The Effects of Exhaustive Exercise on Some Physiological Variables in Handball Players

 

Dr. Nawaf Alshammari

 

Associate Professor, Ph. D College of Basiuwaitc Education, Kuwait

dr.nawaf_@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exhaustive exercise on some physiological variables in handball players. Materials and Methods: Male handball players (n=10) and male non-athlete control group (n=10) were included. All Subjects executed standardized exhaustive test. Blood samples were collected at rest (baseline) and immediately after the test. Pulse rate and performance time were recorded and serum concentration of lactate (accusport), cortisol and testosterone (ELISA) were measured. Results: Following exhaustive exercise, pulse rate, blood concentrations of lactate, cortisol and testosterone and performance time were significantly increased in both handball players and control groups (p< 0.01). However, there were lower pulse rate, lactate, and cortisol levels (p< 0.01), whereas higher testosterone concentration and performance time (p< 0.01) among the handball players when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that exhaustive exercise has a positive impact on fitness, anabolic state and performance ability.

[Dr. Nawaf Alshammari. The Effects of Exhaustive Exercise on Some Physiological Variables in Handball Players. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):122-125]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.13.

 

Keywords: Exhaustive exercise, pulse rate, lactate, cortisol, testosterone, performance time, Handball players

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Assessment of Pollution Sources on Rosetta Branch, Egypt

 

Ibrahim, A. M.1, Kamel, S. A.1, OMAR, A. S.2 and Madkour, H. A.2

 

1 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 National Institute of Oceanography, (Hurghada–Red Sea Branch), Egypt

Sherif_geology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present paper is to assessment of pollution sources on Rosetta Branch, Egypt. Water quality studies on Rosetta Branch were performed through the analyses of twenty three geographical station water samples collected periodically through February and June months to represent the two seasons of year 2012. For understanding the sources of river water pollution, assessing the water resources and establish long-term water quality data for controlling the polluted segments of the river, the program of water quality monitoring has been conducted for eight variables were employed, which are: dissolved oxygen (DO, mg L1), fecal coli form (MPN), pH, (BOD5, mg L1), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, mg L1), temperature (deviation from 20°C), and total dissolved solids (TDS, mg L1). Water Quality Index (WQI) along Rosetta Branch was determined. The worth case was found along El–Rahawy drain at the area between Abu Rawash City and Nekla Village. Physiochemical Parameters and biological characteristics Correlation Matrix were computed and the result of correlation matrix for the data shows some clear hydro-chemical relationships can be readily inferred.

[Ibrahim, A. M., Kamel, S. A., OMAR, A. S. and Madkour, H. A. Assessment of Pollution Sources on Rosetta Branch, Egypt. Nat Sci 2017;15(6):126-144]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150617.14.

 

Keyword: Pollution, Sources Rosetta, Branch

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