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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 15 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 129), December 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1512

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Microalgae as an alternative source for biodiesel and biogas production – A mini review

 

Khaled N. M. Elsayed1, 3; Anja Noke2; Ahmed M Abdelrahman1; Gerd Klöck2

 

1 Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen, Germany

2 Institute of Environmental Biology and Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences, 28199 Bremen, Germany.

3 Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, 62511 Beni-Suef, Egypt.

k.elsayed@jacobs-university.de, elyamany_bns@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The incredible increase in world population, which could reach 9 billion by 2050, and the rapid progress of globalization in recent decades have put pressure on the food and energy sectors. The resources currently available for energy production are insufficient to meet future demand. These facts are pushing governments and scientific organizations all over the world to search for alternative renewable energy sources. Microalgae present an ideal, resurgent resource for the production of biofuel, especially biodiesel and biogas, because their lipid productivity is greater than that of other terrestrial food crops. However, from a biotechnological point of view, the use of microalgae requires further investigation and development to be economically viable, particularly in regard to cost and biomass production. The most important step in the use of microalgae for biofuel production is strain selection. The optimal strain must be able to withstand outdoor conditions and survive seasonality. From a practical perspective, only a few microalgae species have been investigated for pharmaceutical and industrial applications.

[Khaled N. M. Elsayed; Anja Noke; Ahmed M Abdelrahman; Gerd Klöck. Microalgae as an alternative source for biodiesel and biogas production – A mini review. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):1-16]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.01.

 

Key words: Energy crises, Biodiesel, Biogas, Microalgae, Strain selection, Genetic engineering, Mutagenesis

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Effect of using treated drainage water by modified clay on some plant and soil properties

 

Mohamed E. A. Elsayed1, Wafaa A. A. Abdelaal1, Ayman A. Ahmed2

 

1 Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Egypt

eid1592003@yahoo.com, melsayed637@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Shortage of irrigation water sources in Egypt brings out the issue of managing all the available water resources and to re-use the non-conventional water resources such as agricultural drainage water. In this study, treatment of agricultural drainage water by adsorption onto kaolinite or kaolinite–humic complex was carried out by using fixed bed column model. Total Organic Carbon, heavy metals, EC, pH, major cations and anions were determined before and after treatment process. Agricultural drainage water purification occurred with flow rate of 70 ml/hour for each 10 g of adsorbent. Results showed that the kaolinite-humic complex was better in treatment of agricultural drainage water than kaolinite. Pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of irrigation with treated and non-treated agricultural drainage water on some Jew's Mallow plant properties and soil’s chemical and physical properties. Plant and soil analysis showed great deterioration changes in plant and soil properties due to irrigation with treated agricultural drainage water. The results showed that drainage water treatment with modified clay had a significant reduction of total dissolved solids, heavy metals and organic contaminants which in turn enhanced chemical properties of treated agricultural drainage water as well as growth and health features of plants.

[Mohamed E. A. Elsayed, Wafaa A. A. Abdelaal, Ayman A. Ahmed. Effect of using treated drainage water by modified clay on some plant and soil properties. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):17-25]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.02.

 

Key words: Adsorption; Agricultural drainage water; Humic acid; kaolinite

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Relationship between maternal serum vitamin D deficiency, maternal serum calcium level and primary caesarean section

 

Abdelrazik A. A1, Khalaf M.S.2, Ismail M.S.2, Elshorbagy M.S.3

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University. Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Clinical and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University. Cairo, Egypt.

ahmed.a.razik@icloud.com

 

Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency might be responsible for poor muscular performance causing dysfunctional labor, while a rise in intracellular calcium has been proven as a primary trigger for human myometrial contractions. Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between maternal vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) deficiency, maternal serum calcium level and primary cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study. 75 women who delivered by primary cesarean section after 37 weeks of gestation were taken as cases and another 75 women who delivered vaginally were taken as controls. All patients were subjected to measurement of serum 25(OH)D, and serum calcium within 72 hours following giving birth. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed when the serum 25(OH)D level was ≤15 ng/ml and this was compared between cases and controls. Results: 33% of women who had primary caesarean section had serum [25(OH)D] less than 15 ng/ml, compared with only 15% of women who delivered vaginally (p = 0.007). In multi-variable logistic regression analysis controlling for maternal age, fetal weight, parity, education level, drank milk in pregnancy, prenatal multivitamin supplements, and infant gender, women with vitamin D deficiency (< 15 ng/ml) were almost 3 times as likely to have a primary cesarean section as women without deficiency (p = 0.048; adjusted odds ratio 2.835, 95% confidence interval 1.701-7.95). In addition, there were no statistical significant differences between median maternal serum calcium levels in women who had caesareans and women who delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of primary cesarean section.

[Abdelrazik A. A, Khalaf M.S., Ismail M.S., Elshorbagy M.S. Relationship between maternal serum vitamin D deficiency, maternal serum calcium level and primary caesarean section. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):26-31]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.03.

 

Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency, serum calcium, caesarean section

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Comparative Study Between Bony Fusion Either Central Or Lateral Only And In Association With Transpedicular Screw Fixation In Management Of Lumbar Spondylodiscitis.

 

Shehaib Mohammed Alkhadrawy1, Hamdey Mohammed Behairy1 and Abdel Azim Labib Elhoseny Sadaka2

 

1Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Neurosurgery Specialist at Ministry of Health, Egypt

Email: abdelazimlabib1982@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Objective: The present work was designed to compare between bony fusion either central or lateral only and in association with transpedicular screw fixation in management of spondylodiscitis. Background: Spinal infections are an uncommon but important clinical problem that often requires aggressive medical therapy, and sometimes even surgery. Several terms can be found in the scientific literature describing infection of the spine, namely discitis, spondylodiscitis, spondylitis, vertebral pyogenic osteomyelitis, and pyogenic spinal infection, creating confusion in the literature nomenclature. Current data show that in most cases, the infection involves both the disc space (discitis) and the adjacent vertebral body, suggesting that these radiological findings represent the different stages of the same disease. Therefore, spinal infections are now more correctly considered as a spectrum of diseases that include spondylitis, discitis. Materials and methods: This is a prospective non controlled non randomized study which included 40 patients with lumbar or lumbosacral spondylodiscitis who were treated between August 2015 and February 2017 and were followed up until July 2017. The study included 31 male (77.5%) and 9 female (22.5%), male: female ratio 3.4:1 and the mean age was 50 ± 4 years, ranging from 22 to 62 years. Among the 40 surgically-treated patients, 20 patients were managed by posterior surgical approach for bony fusion either central (14) or lateral (6) only and 20 patients were managed by posterior surgical approach for bony fusion in association with transpedicular screw-rod fixation. Results: In comparing the instrumentation and non instrumentation group regarding safety and effectiveness parameters; there was significant difference (p-value <0.01) between the instrumentation and non instrumentation group in the mean values of CRP in the end of follow up period with 3.8 ±.8 for the instrumentation and 4.8 ±.4 for the non instrumentation group, also all frankle scale showed significant difference (p- value <0.01) in favor of the instrumentation group. The hospital stay was shorter in the instrumentation group with a mean of 10.5 ± 3.7 days and 21.7 ± 16.0 for the non instrumentation (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between patient with previous spinal surgery as a risk factor and patient with systemic illness regarding safety and effectiveness parameters. There was significant difference (p <0.05) between instrumentation and non instrumentation group in patient with Refractoriness to medication/severe pain as an indication for surgery in the mean days of hospital stay, with a mean of 9.4 ± 2.4 days for the instrumentation group and 16.0 ± 11.3 days for the non instrumentation group. In comparing different surgical approaches regarding safety and effectiveness parameters; there was significant difference (p- value <0.05) between the central or lateral bony fusion only group and the other (central or lateral bony fusion in association with transpedicular screws) group in the means of blood loss and operative time, but there was no significant difference regarding the complications and VAS, Barthel index, Frankel scale in the follow up periods. Conclusion: The majority of early stage spondylodiscitis responds well to conservative treatment. Surgical intervention Success was obtained in both groups especially The excellent results were with instrumentation group. instrumentation can relieve pain, improve sagittal balance and neurologic function, and finally result in early ambulation,. If the debridement of infected tissue is complete, instrumentation shows neither persistence nor recurrence of secondary infection and does not prolong the usage of antibiotics and hospitalization.

[Shehaib Mohammed Alkhadrawy, Hamdey Mohammed Behairy  and Abdel Azim Labib Elhoseny Sadaka. Comparative Study Between Bony Fusion Either Central Or Lateral Only And In Association With Transpedicular Screw Fixation In Management Of Lumbar Spondylodiscitis. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):32-44]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.04.

 

Key Words: spondylodiscitis, lumbar spine.

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Dermoscopic Criteria of Nail Changes in Onychomycosis

 

Essam Bakr Abdel Aal1, Hamed Mohamed Ahmed Abdo1 and Eman Ahmed Mohammed Abd El-Fattah Al-Sharkawy2

 

1 Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine - Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Dermatology Specialist, Benha Educational Hospital, Ministry of Health, Egypt

emansharkwy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders (50 % cases). Accurate diagnosis is important since the treatment can be long-standing and expensive and may be accompanied by severe adverse effects. The diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion along with KOH examination followed by culture of the sample. This method may be uncomfortable and even painful for the patient and may vary significantly when performed by an experienced mycologist with proper sampling technique. Digital dermoscopy, also called onychoscopy is a complementary tool which aids in the diagnosis of nail diseases more quickly and can also be used for monitoring the evolution, therapeutic response and prognosis of these diseases. Objectives: To describe dermoscopic nail changes in onycomycosis, aiming to help clinicians to easily diagnose onychomycosis. Methods: 30 patients were included in this study. Each patient was subjected to: 1) Full history taking, 2) Clinical examination, 3) Mycological study (direct microscopy: 20% KOH/40% DMSO to verify presence of fungi and culture: on SDA to identify suspected fungi, 4) Digital photographic imaging for the diseased nail and 5) Dermoscopic imaging for the diseased nail. Results: There were 4 confirmatory dermoscopic features to diagnose onycomycosis: Longitudinal striations, spikes, distal irregular termination (and/or) aurora borealis. There was significant difference between clinical types of onychomycosis regarding longitudinal striations (p= 0.001*) and spikes (p=0.01*), defining that longitudinal striations and spikes are more common in DLSO, TDO. It was noticeable that P value for aurora borealis is 0.05. Positive cultures yielded yeast species in 12 (40.0%), mixed (yeast and mold) in 6 (20.0%), mold species in 4 (13.3%) and dermatophyte species in 2 (6.7%).

[Essam Bakr Abdel Aal, Hamed Mohamed Ahmed Abdo  and Eman Ahmed Mohammed Abd El-Fattah Al-Sharkawy. Dermoscopic Criteria of Nail Changes in Onychomycosis. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):45-60]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.05.

 

Keywords: Dermoscopic; Criteria; Nail Change; Onychomycosis

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Radioactive mineralization of granitic rocks and their surrounding stream sediments at Gabal Rei El-Garrah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

El Mezayen, A. M1., El Balakssy, S. S2., Abdel Ghani, I. M2 and El Setouhy, M. S2.

 

1Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Egypt.

2Nuclear Materials Authority, P. O. Box 530 El Maadi, Cairo, Egypt.

E-mail: mostafa24264@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Gabal Rei El-Garrah area lies in the CED of Egypt south Qena-Safaga road just east the western boundary between the basement rocks and the sedimentary cover. Based on field relations and observations, the rock types in the study area comprise metavolcanics, older granitoids, younger gabbros, monzogranites, quartz-feldspar porphyry dykes and syenogranites. The basement rock units of Rei El-Garrah area, exhibiting high, moderate and low relief, are dissected by several Wadis. The main wadis are Wadi Rei El-Garrah, Wadi El-Missikat, Wadi El-Markh and Wadi El-Gidami. The direction of these wadis are coincident with the large scale faults and covered mainly by stream sediments. It is worthy to mention that, there is a notable difference between Lab and field radiometric measurements. Generally, eU, eTh, Ra (eU) and K contents of tonalite and granodiorite are lower their corresponding international contents where monzogranites and syenogranites have higher cocenterations. The variation between eU, eTh contents and eTh/eU ratios of the older granitoids and younger granites show positive correlation between eU and eTh indicating that magmatic processes played an important role in the concentration of radioelements while there is ill-defined relation between eU, eTh and eTh/eU ratios, suggesting that, the distribution of radioelements not only magmatic but also due to hydrothermal redistribution of radioelements. The studied stream sediments in different wadis are enriched in thorium than uranium thought the studied stream sediments contain uranium contents more than worldwide averages. The common heavy minerals related to high radioactivity obtained from the studied stream sediments and granitic rocks in Rei El-Garrah area could be classified into two groups (radioactive and radioelement bearing minerals). The radioactive minerals include thorite and uranothorite while the U-bearing minerals are represented by zircon and allanite.

[El Mezayen, A. M ., El Balakssy, S. S ., Abdel Ghani, I. M  and El Setouhy, M. S. Radioactive mineralization of granitic rocks and their surrounding stream sediments at Gabal Rei El-Garrah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):61-78]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.06.

 

Keywords: Radioactive; mineralization; granitic rock; stream; sediment; Gabal Rei El-Garrah area; Central Eastern Desert; Egypt

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In vitro, Appraisal and abatement of drainage wastewater pollution in light of utilizing fly ash

 

Lubna A. Ibrahim1, H.A.A El Gammal2 and Belal N.A. Mahran1

 

1 Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring, National Water Research Center, Egypt.

2National Water Research Center, Egypt.

elgammalhussein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An examination was conducted to assess and provides spatial variation in drainage water quality parameters along Janag drain, Kafr El–Zayat area, El-Gharbia Governorate, Egypt, with respect to Law 48 of 1982 and its modification in 2013. Abatement of inorganic and organic pollutants using fly ash as well as to investigate the removal efficiency of fly ash based adsorption. Collected and treated water samples were analyzed to determine chemical and microbiological parameters. Fly ash filters were prepared by two approaches and the effects of flow rate on removal efficiency have been studied. The results indicated that the mixed drainage samples showed significant variation for all water quality parameters studied except pH with respect to drainage, industrial and sewage wastewater. BOD, COD, TN, TP and total Coliforms are higher than the permissible limits for drainage water. The results of treatment by fly ash briquette bed proved that fly ash was capable of reducing BOD, COD, TN and TP by 77%, 90%, 59% and 100 %, respectively at flow rate 0.5 l/min to lower than the recommended limits. The chlorine dose required for purifying water treated with fly ash approaches was 9 to 12 mg/l, respectively. Further studies required in situ for treating wastewater before discharge into fresh water bodies using fly ash briquette bed approach.

[Lubna A. Ibrahim, H.A.A El Gammal and Belal N.A. Mahran. In vitro, Appraisal and abatement of drainage wastewater pollution in light of utilizing fly ash. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):79-89]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.07.

 

Key words: Fly ash; drainage; industrial; domestic; water quality; Adsorption.

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Molecular studies on antibiotic resistant genes of Aeromonas species isolated from fish

 

Ashraf, A. Abd El Tawab1, Ahmed, A. A. Maarouf2, Fatma, I. El Hofy1, Amany, O. Salimand2 and Emad, E. A. El Mougy3

 

1Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

2Animal Health Research "Benha branch". Agriculture Research Center, Egypt.

3Veterinary Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

dr_mohamedebrahim3988@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted on 225 diseased fish samples, 125 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 100 Cat fish (Claris gariepinus), collected from different fish markets at Kaliobia Governorate during the period from January (2016) to May (2017) for inspection of Aeromonas strains. Samples were collected from apparently pathognomic lesions in muscle, kidney, liver, intestine and spleen after clinical and postmortem examination for bacteriological examination. The results revealed that, 125 Aeromonas species were isolated from examined samples where A. hydrophila and A. caviae were the only species isolated. 114 (91.2 %) A. hydrophila strains, 63 (50.4%) and 51 (40.8%) were isolated from C. gariepinus and O. niloticus fishes respectively. Meanwhile, 11(8.8 %) A. caviae strains, 7 (5.6%) and 4 (3.2%) from C. gariepinus and O. niloticus fishes respectively. Aeromonas strains were highly resistant for ampicillin; methicillin; penicillin-G; vancomycin; oxacillin; amoxicillin, cefotaxime; oxytetracycline; erythromycin and streptomycin. Meanwhile, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and florphenicol were the most proper antibiotics with the highest in vitro efficiency against them. PCR results for antibiotic resistant genes in isolated Aeromonas strains showed that, they were detected in most studied strains, where, blaTEM gene was detected in all 10 A. hydrophila studied strains and in 5 out of 6 A. caviae; tetA (A) gene in 9 out of 10 A.hydrophila and in 5 out of 6 A. caviae; sul1gene in 8 out of 10 A. hydrophila and in 4 out of 6 A. caviaeand aadA1gene in 7 out of 10 A.hydrophila and in 3 out of 6 A. caviae.

[Ashraf, A. Abd El Tawab, Ahmed, A. A. Maarouf, Fatma, I. El Hofy, Amany, O. Salimand and Emad, E. A. El Mougy. Molecular studies on antibiotic resistant genes of Aeromonas species isolated from fish. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):90-97]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.08.

 

Key words: Fish, bacteriological evaluation, Aeromonas species, antibiotic resistant genes

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Geotechnical and Radiometric Studies for New Alamein City, Egypt

 

Ahmed, M., Saad1, Essam M. Esmail2, Osama, M., Draz2, and Belal, M, Abdou1

 

1Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Subsurface Geology Dept. Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

geo.belalabdou11315@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research involves geotechnical and radiometric studies for New Alamein - Egypt. The study area lies in the northern portion of the Western Desert between Latitudes 30o44" and 30o38" North and Longitudes 28o51" and 28o48" East, on the North-Western coast of Egypt (Fig.1). The main objective of the current study is to evaluate the foundation materials and soil bearing capacity of the study area. The geotechnical properties of the foundation materials, including grain size distribution, specific gravity and direct shear test, Atterberg limits (liquid, plastic, shrinkage limits and plasticity index), Free swell test and swell pressure. Grain size parameters are Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) and Curvature Coefficient (Cc) used as principles classification of soil. Uniformity coefficient (Cu) values are ranging from (1.39mm) to (20.40 mm) with an average (10.90mm) and Curvature Coefficient (Cc) values are ranging from (0.20mm) to (4.62mm). Grain size parameters indicate poorly-graded soil, and that from the standpoint of classification engineering geology. Specific gravity ranges from (2.40 to 2.85). The free swell of studied samples varies between 20% (low expensive) and 210% ( very high expensive soil). Aterberg limits and consistency of cohesive soil indicate that, the studied samples are semi plastic or solid, extremely stiff and vary between intermediate and very high plasticity. This paper also presents radiometric studies to detect the level of radiation safety.

[Ahmed, M., Saad, Essam M. Esmail, Osama, M., Draz and Belal, M, Abdou. Geotechnical and Radiometric Studies for New Alamein City, Egypt. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):98-110]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.09.

 

Key words: Geotechnical, Radiometric, New Alamein City, Western Desert.

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Serum magnesium in children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control

 

Nadia Y. Ismail1, Sabry M. Ghanem1, Ahmed F. Abd-Elaziz2, Abd-Alraouf M. Abd-Alraouf1

 

1Department of pediatrics, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

drabdelrauf@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is highly prevalent endocrinal disorder. with incidence of around 8/100,000 per year in Egyptian children under the age of 15 years. Evidence indicate that Magnesium (Mg) plays an important role in prevalence of T1DM. and its complications. Thus we aimed to find out the effect of T1DM. on serum Mg level. Methods: We included 50 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes at Pediatric outpatient clinic, Al-Hussein University Hospital and El-Sahel Teaching Hospital, and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals in a case-control study. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, random blood suger, serum urea, and creatinine level and CBC. Results: Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.91 ± 0.22 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.08 ± 0.19 mg/dL in control children). Hypomagnesemia was detected in 26% of diabetic children compared to 8% of control children. Significant negative correlation between serum Mg and HbA1c was detected. (p=0.000 r=-0.703). also negative correlations between Mg and each of age and duration of DM. (p=0.016; r=-0.339); (p=0.000; r=-0.339) respectively. Conclusion: patients with T1DM more liable to develop hypomagnesemia specially with poor glycemic control.

[Nadia Y. Ismail, Sabry M. Ghanem, Ahmed F. Abd-Elaziz, Abd-Alraouf M. Abd-Alraouf. Serum magnesium in children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):111-115]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.10.

 

Keywords: serum magnesium, children, type 1 diabetes, glycemic control.

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Formation Evaluation of the Ras Qattara Reservoir in “Shams” Field, North Western Desert, Egypt

 

Abd El Khalik, M.¹, Fathy, M.², and Tahoun, M.E.²

 

¹ Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

²Khalda Petroleum Company, Cairo, Egypt.

mahmoud.tahoun@khalda-eg.com

 

Abstract: The Late to Middle Jurassic Ras Qattara Formation acts as a hydrocarbon reservoir in the subsurface in the Western Desert, Egypt. The present work is devoted to study the subsurface setting and reservoir characteristics of the study area to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentiality of the Jurassic rocks in Shams field, The first objective of this paper is to do seismic interpretation of twenty 2D seismic sections and construct 3D structure model to delineate the geometry and the detailed structural features affecting Ras Qattara reservoirs in Shams field. The second objective is to evaluate the Ras Qattara reservoir through the analysis of lithofacies types and determination of the different reservoir parameters characterizing the pay zone. These were carried out by using the available well log data to spotlight the promising locations for further development and exploration.

Six wells (Shms-1x, Shms-2x, Shms-4, Shms-6, Shms-7 and Shms-8) were utilized for this study. The interpretation of seismic lines and 3D structure model revealed five faults forming Shams field horst block, the trend of these faults is northwest–southeast. These faults represent the structural control for the hydrocarbon accumulation in Shams field. Ras Qattara facies map shows that the characterized by sandy facies which reflect fluvio-deltaic condition during sedimentation of Ras Qattara member. The results of neutron- density cross plots revealed that, the lithology of Ras Qattara reservoirs are mainly sandstone with some calcareous cement. The petrophysical data were illustrated vertically via the Litho- Saturation cross-plots and laterally through the iso-parametric maps; these were aimed to clarify the lateral variation of petrophysical parameters, reservoir thickness and suitable place for drilling new productive wells. Petrophysical analysis of these wells showed that Shams field is characterized by good reservoir parameters.

Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the Shams field may attain commercial hydrocarbon accumulation in Ras Qattara Formation, andthere is a good opportunity to drill more development and exploratory wells to enhance the productivity from Shams field.

[Abd El Khalik, M., Fathy, M., and Tahoun, M.E. Formation Evaluation of the Ras Qattara Reservoir in “Shams” Field, North Western Desert, Egypt. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):116-123]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.11.

 

Keywords: formation evaluation, ras qattara reservoir, “shams” field, north western desert, egypt.

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emporal Versus Nasal Anterior Transposition of the Inferior Oblique Muscle for Management of Dissociated Vertical Deviation with Inferior Oblique over Action

 

Mahmoud Saleh.MD

 

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

shahdmsaleh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Comparative study of anterior temporal transposition (ATIO) of the inferior oblique muscles versus anterior nasal transposition (ANT) in management dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) with inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA).

Methods: The study carried out on 40 eyes of 23 patients with DVD of at least 10 prism dioptres PD in the eye involved. The patients divided into two groups. Group I (20 eyes of 12 patients) managed by anterior temporal transposition (ATIO) of the inferior oblique muscles and Group II (20 eyes of 11patients) managed by anterior nasal transposition (ANT) of the inferior oblique muscles. All patients were followed for at least 6 months postoperatively. The size of preoperative and postoperative DVD, grade of the preoperative and postoperative IOOA, repeat surgeries and complications are recorded and evaluated.

Results: In group I the mean DVD was decreased in primary positions from 21.1±4.3 PD to 9.5 ±4.7 (P<0.001) and from 19.4±4.5 PD to 5.5 ±2.6 (P<0.001) in group II. Mean IOOA was decreased from +2.0 ±0.7 to +0.18±0.4 in group I (P<0.001) and from +2.5 ±0.7 to +0.1±0.5 (P<0.001) in group II. In group II, two patients developed hypotropia of 5 and 6 PD. Persistent IOOA (+1) was observed postoperatively in two eyes in each group. Limited elevations in abduction developed in 3 patients in group I.

Conclusion: Anterior transpositions of the inferior oblique muscles either temporal or nasal are effective for DVD treatment with inferior oblique muscle overaction. Anterior nasal transposition (ANT) is more statistically significant in correction DVD with less incidence of antielevation syndrome and recurrence of DVD. However, ANT may induce hypotropia.

[Mahmoud Saleh. Temporal Versus Nasal Anterior Transposition of the Inferior Oblique Muscle for Management of Dissociated Vertical Deviation with Inferior Oblique over Action. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):124-129]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.12.

 

Keyword: DVD, IOOA, ATIO and ANT.

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Integration of Renewable Energy Resources: A Survey©

 

Niaz Muhammad Khan1 , Jan Ali2 , Xingfei Song3

 

1.School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

naz.khan5059@yahoo.com

2.Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of information and Technology, Wah-cantt, Pakistan

j_alian@yahoo.com

3.School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

xingfei@njust.edu.cn

 

Abstracts: This survey: report includes a review of different schemes of integration of renewable energy resources. Which includes different objective, constraints and solutions are discussed. The research and technology is rapidly developing to solve the challenges of RES integration. Energy storage, voltage & current stability, and fluctuation in the system to be minimized. This survey report will help to describe the challenges and available solution, also address the new technologies and future directions.

[Niaz Muhammad Khan. Integration of Renewable Energy Resources: A Survey©. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):130-137]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.13.

 

Keywords: Micro grid, smart grid, large scale and small-scale integration, energy storage system (ESS), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), interconnected and island, RES (Renewable Energy Resources).

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Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Microbial Production of α-Terpineol

 

Nadia M. Awny1, I. A. Abou-Elkhair1, M. A. Abdelaleem2*, Fawzia M. Elnashaby2, Yasmeen A. Hasanien2

 

1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

*Abdelrazek_MD@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recently, several techniques have arisen to counteract the low yields of α-terpineol during the biotransformation process. The aim of this research is to study the role of gamma radiation in the increasing of α-terpineol yield. A native Penicillium italicum AUMC13045 that have ability to metabolize the orange oil was isolated, identified and irradiated. Irradiated fungal strains gave α-terpineol yield higher than no irradiated ones. The highest α-terpineol yield 91.79% obtained when the irradiated native Penicillium italicum AUMC13045 used for the bioconversion process.

[Nadia M. Awny, I. A. Abou-Elkhair, M. A. Abdelaleem, Fawzia M. Elnashaby, Yasmeen A. Hasanien. Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Microbial Production of α-Terpineol. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):138-145]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.14.

 

Keywords: Orang essential oil, α-terpineol, Gamma irradiation, Penicillium.

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Rate of Vaginal Delivery among Primigravida with Floating Head at Onset of Labor and Fetal Outcome

 

Prof. Dr. Asem Anwar Mousa1, Dr. El-Sayed Ahmed El-Desouky1, Basem Saad Abdel-Rahman Abo El-Azm1 and Ahmed Rezk El-Zayyat2

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

finebasem@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The criteria for diagnosing labor arrest disorders in the first and second stage of labor remains controversial. It is generally accepted that high fetal station in primigravidas in labor near term may indicate a threat to the normal progress of labor because of feto-pelvic disproportion or obstruction of the fetal passage by tumor or the placenta. The different causes of high fetal head are as follows: Cephelo pelvie disproportion, fetal malposition (deflexed head brow presentation occipito-posterior position), large fetal size, placenta previa, cord around fetal neck and uterine fibroid, inaccurate calculation of Expected date of delivery, full bladder may prevent the fetal head from entering the pelvis and therefore should be emptied before examination, polyhydramnious, multiple pregnancy, pendulous abdomen. In some cases there is no discernable cause of high fetal head. Careful clinical monitoring is needed to ensure that contractions do not exceed one every two minutes, or fetal hypoxia may result from restriction of the maternal afferent placental blood flow. A wide range of pain management methods are used by women during childbirth. Commonly, these include non-pharmacological interventions as immersion in water, relaxation techniques (yoga, music, audio), acupuncture, manual methods (massage, reflexology), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). And pharmacological interventions (inhaled analgesia, opioids, non-opioid drugs, local anesthetic nerve blocks, epidural and intra-thecal injections of local anesthetics or opioids, or both). Aim of The Work: The aim of this study is to determine the rate of vaginal deliveries in primigravida with floating head at onset of labor and early neonatal outcome. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 250 primigravidae with unengaged fetal head presented at term in active labor in the period between April 2016 and October 2017. Any solid indication for cesarean section whether in the mother or the fetus was excluded. These cases were given a full trial of labor and the progress of each was recorded on a partogram. The mode of delivery, the duration of labor (first and second stage), the weight of the new born and the Apgar score were all recorded. Also maternal morbidity and mortality were recorded. Epidural anesthesia was given to the patients on demand and the effect of it on the mode of delivery, the duration of the first and second stage and the Apgar score was reported. Results: we found that most of the patients included in the study delivered vaginally (82%) while only 18% delivered by cesarean section. The primigravida with unengaged fetal head at onset of labor, although at risk for C.S. most of them would deliver vaginally if they were given a full trial of labor and watched carefully. The length of the first and second stage of labor might be prolonged slightly in these patients. The need for oxytocin augmentation is also increased in these patients. The Apgar score at 1 minute and 5 minutes are also decreased in the new-born of these primigravidae. There were no differences in maternal morbidity among the primigravidas presented with unengaged fetal head and those presented with engaged fetal heads. The use of epidural anesthesia doesn’t affect the rate of C.S. although it may lengthen the duration of the first and second stage of labor. In addition to that; Apgar score is not affected by the use of epidural. Conclusions: The primigravida with unengaged fetal head at onset of labor, although at risk for C.S. most of them will deliver vaginally they are given a full trial of labor and watched carefully.

[Asem Anwar Mousa, El-Sayed Ahmed El-Desouky, Basem Saad Abdel-Rahman Abo El-Azm and Ahmed Rezk El-Zayyat. Rate of Vaginal Delivery among Primigravida with Floating Head at Onset of Labor and Fetal Outcome. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):146-153]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.15.

 

Keyword: Rate; Vaginal Delivery; Primigravida; Floating Head; Onset; Labor; Fetal Outcome

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Adsorption of Lead onto a Waste Biomaterial-Biochar

 

Yasser A. El-Damarawy1, Maher E. Saleh2#, Faiz F. Assaad1, Abel-Salam A. Abdel-Salam2, Refat A. Youssef1

 

1. Soils and Water Use Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; 2. Department of Soils and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, postal code 21545 El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt.

# Corresponding author: maher.saleh@alexu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse biochar (SCBB) as a waste bio-adsorbent material was obtained using slaw pyrolysis (at 500oC and 30 min residence time and limited oxygen conditions) for its feedstock. The resulted biochar had a recalcitrant features, total surface area 175.4 m2g-1, total pore volume (p/p0) 0.11 cm3 g-1, and CEC 86.96 mmol.kg-1. The adsorption capacity of the SCBB for lead ions (Pb2+) was studied at different initial Pb2+ solution concentrations (0.1 – 1.5 mM) in the form of lead nitrate. The maximum adsorption of Pb2+ was obtained at initial concentration 0.1 mM and the adsorption of Pb2+ attained equilibrium at about 15 min, with maximum removal percent of 97.0%. Pb2+ removal efficiency decreased gradually with the increase of initial metal concentration. Lead adsorption capacity increased with the increase of its concentration and almost a constant value was achieved at higher concentration. Adsorption of lead ions on the biochar was studied with various adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The equilibrium adsorption data was better fitted to Langmuir isotherm (R2 =0.9985). Kinetic modeling of Pb2+ was also studied by using Pseudo first and second orders, Intra-Particle Diffusion and Boyd Model. The adsorption kinetic data was better fitted to the Pseudo second order model for all tested concentrations (R2 ranged from 1.0 to 0.998).

[Yasser A. El-Damarawy, Maher E. Saleh, Faiz F. Assaad, Abel-Salam A. Abdel-Salam, Refat A. Youssef. Adsorption of Lead onto a Waste Biomaterial-Biochar. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):154-164]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.16.

 

Key words: Wastewater treatment, Adsorption Isotherm, Sugar cane bagasse biochar, Adsorption kinetics, Heavy metals.

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Effect of Head Covering on Phototherapy induced Hypocalcaemia in Icterus Newborns

 

Dr. Salah Abdrabbo Elsayed1; Dr. Hany Abdel Hady Elkhalegy1, Dr. Amr Mohamed Elkhrsawy2 and Dina Abdel Fattah Hassan1

 

1 Pediatrics Department, Damietta Medicine Faculty of, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2 Clinical Pathology Department, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

dinalina2017@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hyperbiliubinemia is one of the most common problems in newborns. Phototherapy is used to treat these patients. Hypocalcaemia is one important side effect of phototherapy. Phototherapy leads to inhibition of pineal gland by transcranial illumination resulting in a decline in melatonin level which leads to increased calcium absorption by bones. Aim: To assess that’s head covering having protective effect on Hypocalcaemia induced by phototherapy? Patients and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study at the neonatal intensive care unit at Al azhar university hospital Damietta, during the period from September 2015 to September 2016. The study included 50 full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia treated with phototherapy. Neonates were divided into two equal groups: Group A without hats and Group B with hats. The hat covers all the head including the occipital area ears to prevent passage of light. The hat was used from admission and for 48 hours of treatment with phototherapy. Total and Ionized Ca levels were measured on admission and after 48 hours of phototherapy. Results: We found significant difference between Total and Ionized Ca levels on admission and after 48 hours in group A (P=0.049) and (P=0.048). Hypocalcaemia was detected in 6 neonates (24%) in Group A without hats and in 3 neonates (12%) in Group B with hats. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (P=0.030). Conclusion: Phototherapy induced hypocalcaemia is an important side effect can be prevented by covering the heads during phototherapy. This is an effective, safe, non-invasive and cheap method.

[Salah Abdrabbo Elsayed; Hany Abdel Hady Elkhalegy, Amr Mohamed Elkhrsawy and Dina Abdel Fattah Hassan. Effect of Head Covering on Phototherapy induced Hypocalcaemia in Icterus Newborns. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):165-171]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.17.

 

Keywords: Neonates, Serum Calcium, Hat, Hyperbilirubinemia

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The Role of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Hepatocarcinogenesis in Cirrhotic Patients Infected With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus

 

Fathia El Sayed Asal MD1, Amal Said El Bendary MD2, Walaa Ahmed El Khalawany MD1, Sherief Abd-Elsalam MD1 and Basma Morsi Sheta, M.B.B.CH1

 

1Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University- Tanta- Egypt.

2Clinical Pathology department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University –Tanta- Egypt.

brooaa34@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and study Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis of HCC is of great importance in order to offer the possibility of curative treatment. several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been described in the VDR gene, and some polymorphisms are associated with tumor occurrence. In this study, we investigated the possible association between the VDR gene polymorphisms and HCC in Egyptian post hepatitis c cirrhotic patients. Patients and method: The study was carried out in Tropical Medicine Department in Tanta University Hospital on 50 individual, including 20 post hepatitis C cirrhotic patients with HCC, 20 post hepatitis C cirrhotic patients without HCC, 10 healthy individuals as control. All patients were subjected to history, clinical examination, image findings and laboratory investigations, Vitamin D receptor ( VDR) genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplication and restriction length fragment polymorphisms. Results: our results showed that: ApaI CC genotype was present in 70% in Hcc patients, 35% in cirrhotics, 40% in control. APaI CA genotype represent 20% of Hcc patients, 55% of cirrhotics, 20% of control, while AA genotype represent 10% of Hcc patients, 10% of cirrhotics and 40% of control. Conclusion: VDR ApaI polymorphismplays a role in the development of HCC among chronic hepatitis C patients.

[Fathia El Sayed Asal, Amal Said El Bendary, Walaa Ahmed El Khalawany, Sherief Abd-Elsalam and Basma Morsi Sheta. The Role of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Hepatocarcinogenesis in Cirrhotic Patients Infected With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):172-175]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.18.

 

Keywords: Role; Vitamin D; Receptor; Gene Polymorphism; Hepatocarcinogenesis; Cirrhotic Patient; Chronic Hepatitis; C Virus

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Effect of aqueous extracts of Grewia tenax fruit (guddaim) on hematological, histological and ultrastructure changes in mice intoxicated with formalin

 

Aglal A. Alzergy

 

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Omar Al Mukhtar University, AL Bayda Libya.

aglalalzergy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Eighty apparent healthy female albino Swiss mice 8-10 weeks old weighting 20-26 gm were divided into four groups. The first group was considered as a control and received distilled water only, the second group administered formalin (2.4ml/kg body weight) in drinking water for one week, the third group orally administered aqueous extract of Grewia tenax at dose level 800 mg/kg body weight once daily by oral gavage needle for one and two successive weeks. The fourth group Co- treated with formalin and aqueous extract of G. tenax. Blood samples were collected for hematological parameters; red blood corpuscles (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cells count (WBCs), percentage of granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes as well as, platelets count were estimated. Specimens of spleen were processed for histological studies by light microscopy. Some spleen specimens were also processed to be studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No abnormal signs in behavior and external features in control and G. tenax treated mice were noticed. Although obvious changes in behavior and external features included decrease in food intake, rough coat, fall hair around mount and hypoactivities were observed in few mice in formalin treated group, while aggressive fighting in few others was seen. The alterations in behavior and external features were less in mice administration G. tenax with formalin. No deaths were encountered in the control or treated mice during experimental period. Administration of G. tenax and formalin induced an improvement in the final body weight comparing to formalin only treated group. Treatment of mice with G. tenax for one week exhibited insignificant alterations in most hematological parameters. While, significant increase in RBCs and platelets counts were recorded. In contrast, administration of G. tenax for two weeks induced obvious disturbance in the hematological parameters. Also, disturbance in hematological parameters was recorded in formalin treated group. While, administration of G. tenax with formalin induced ameliorating changes and inhibited the decrease in Hb, RBCs and PCV compared to formalin only treated group. Also, an improvement in platelet count was demonstrated. No obvious histological alterations in spleen sections of mice treated with G. tenax for one week. While, administration of G. tenax fruit for two weeks induced some changes included hypocellularity in white pulp and red pulps, many necrotic cells in white pulp, edema and hemosedrine in red pulp. Spleen sections of mice treated with formalin showed many abnormal lesions included hyperplasia, disorganization of lymphoid follicles of white pulp, disappeared marginal zones, many dense nuclei, congestion and hemosedrine in red pulp. Mice Co-treated with formalin and G.tenax for one week revealed obvious alterations in the spleen including reduction of lymphoid follicles size with nearly normal cellularity, depletion of splenic cells in red pulp, some hemosidern granules and necrotic cells in both white and red pulps. TEM examination of the spleen sections of mice treated with G. tenax for one week did not reveal alterations. Ultrastructure of spleen of mice treated with formalin showed sever changes in splenocytes of white and red pulps included depletions of lymphocytes in white pulp, abnormal chromatin features, accumulation of dense materials in cytoplasm of some seplenocytes, marked congestion and increase granular leukocytes in red pulp. Also, some necrotic cells with pyknotic nuclei and few dense mitochondria with less distinct cristae, destructed organelles, destructed or less distinct cell membrane and vacuolated cytoplasm were seen. Spleen of mice Co-treated with formalin and G. tenax for one week revealed that G. tenax succeeded to lessened most abnormal ultrastructure alterations comparing to formalin only treated group. G. tenax succeeded to lessened most abnormalities on hematological, histological and ultrastructure levels in formalin intoxicated mice.

[Aglal A. Alzergy. Effect of aqueous extracts of Grewia tenax fruit (guddaim) on hematological, histological and ultrastructure changes in mice intoxicated with formalin. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):176-193]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.19.

 

Key words: Aqueous extract of Grewia tenax, Formalin, Hematological, Histological, Ultrastructure spleen and Female mice.

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Soil physical properties and wheat yield as affected by applying compost and inorganic nitrogen in conventional and no-tillage systems under calcareous soil

 

M. M. Harvey

 

Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agric., Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

E-mail: moheyharvey11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted along the two successive seasons of winter (2013/2014) and (2014/2015) at El-Nubaria Agricultural Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), El-Behera Governorate, Egypt. Aim was to evaluate the effect of tillage systems, application of compost and the levels of inorganic nitrogen on soil physical properties and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown on loamy calcareous soil. The experiment was factorial (3 factors) with 12 treatments and three replicates:1) two tillage systems conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT), 2) two compost application treatments without application C0 and 48 m3ha-1(C1) and 3) three levels of inorganic nitrogen: 0 (N0), 50% (N50) and 100% (N100) from recommended N dose. Conventional tillage and application of compost decreased the soil bulk density as well as increased the total porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity. Also CT along with applied compost increased the percentages of rapidly draining pores (RDP), slowly draining pores (SDP), water holding pores (WHP) and decreased fine capillary pores (FCP). All yield characters significantly increased at N100 along with application of compost under CT. Results also indicated that application of 50% recommended dose of mineral N combined with addition of compost under CT had positive effect on yield of wheat plant with non-significant trend with C0 x N100 under CT treatment. Thus, can be reduced the used amount of mineral fertilizer in soil and consequently the hazards of use many chemical fertilizers in soil and expenses of production will be reduced.

[M. M. Harvey. Soil physical properties and wheat yield as affected by applying compost and inorganic nitrogen in conventional and no-tillage systems under calcareous soil. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):194-204]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.20.

 

Keywords: calcareous soil, compost, inorganic nitrogen, tillage, wheat plant.

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Effect of NPK –fertilizers and humic acid applications on yield and quality of canola plant (Brassica napus L) grown in sandy soil

 

Yasser, M. Eledfawy

 

Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agric., Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Email: Yasser_eledfawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiment were carried out at Ismailia agriculture research station. Egypt during the two successive winter seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to investigate the effect of NPK- fertilizers rates (50, 75 and 100% of the recommended dose and humic acid at rates of 24kg/ha as soil application and 50mg/L as foliar spraying on growth, yield and quality of canola plant (Brassica napus L. serw 4) grown in sandy soil. The experiment were conducted at as factorial format based on randomized complete block design. The obtained results could be concluded that, all growth and yield characters as well as seed quality and chemical composition of canola plant were significantly increased by increasing NPK-fertilizers from 50 up to 100 % of the recommended dose. Also application of 100% NPK recorded the highest values in all characters under study. Foliar spraying followed by soil applications of humic acid led to significant increases in the mean values of plant height, dry weight, No. of pods/plant, No. of branches as well as seed and straw yields than the control. The results clearly demonstrate that the interaction effect between the different levels of NPK-fertilizers and humic acid application resulted in a significant effect in all growth and yield characters as well as seed quality of canola plant. Plants received 100% or 75 % NPK along with foliar spraying or soil application of humic acid produced higher plant height, yield and its components, NPK contents and their uptake than those received 50 % NPK-fertilizers in all cases. Also it can be concluded that 75 % of NPK –fertilizers with foliar application at 50 mg/L could recommended for optimum yield production of canola plant, thus it can be saved 25 % NPK- fertilizers and consequently reduce cost and environmental pollution.

[Yasser, M. Eledfawy. Effect of NPK –fertilizers and humic acid applications on yield and quality of canola plant (Brassica napus L) grown in sandy soil. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):205-211]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.21.

 

Keywords: canola plant, humic acid, NPK fertilizers, sandy soil

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Study of Risk Factors and Recurrence of Fetal Congenital Anomalies

 

Ibrahim Mohiy El-Maghraby1 (MD) & Gamal Mohamed Hashish2 (MD)

 

1 Fellow, Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Shibin El Kom Teaching Hospital, Egypt

2 Assistant Consultant & Head of Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Shibin El Kom Teaching Hospital, Egypt

Ibrahim_mohie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Congenital abnormalities (CA) represent one of the permanent problem for both of the family and the society. Worldwide, nearly three millions of offsprings yearly born with major congenital abnormalities which represent about 3% of total newborns around the world. Malformation of infants may lead to mortality, more than 70% of foeti can`t survive and die within the first month of life. There are many factors responsible for CA, but about 40-60% of the causes of congenital anomalies not known yet. Objective: this study aimed to study of risk factors and recurrence of fetal congenital anomalies. Patients and methods: This study was carried out in Kasr El Aini Hospital, High Risk Pregnancy department & Shibin El Kom Teaching Hospital on 1000 pregnant ladies who have fetal congenital anomalies in current pregnancy or those with history of congenital anomalies in previous siblings and 1000 women who have normal pregnancy with no fetal congenital anomalies from October 2016 to August 2017. Full detailed history and examination as well as Full ultrasound scan for assessment of Fetal viability, Position and presentation, Gestational age, Fetal weight, Placental site, Amniotic fluid and Fetal congenital anomalies. Results: there was statistically no significant difference (P>0.05) between cases and control groups regarding their age, parity and residence. Also, cases had more frequent medical and drug history, positive family history, as well as positive consanguineous compared to controls with statistically significant difference in between by using chi-square test (P<0.001). Additionally, Drug, radiation exposure and family history were considered the most significant independent predictors of congenital anomalies according to binary logistic regression model results. Conclusions: Estimation pregnancy during early stages by using sonography can detect the gestational age, twinning or multiple pregnancies, sex of foetus and early detection of fetal anomalies which in some adverse cases required termination of pregnancy.

[Ibrahim Mohiy El-Maghraby & Gamal Mohamed Hashish. Study of Risk Factors and Recurrence of Fetal Congenital Anomalies. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):212-218]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.22.

 

Keywords: congenital anomalies, foetal recurrence, risk factors, ultrasound scan.

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Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Diffuse Tractional Diabetic Macular Oedema

Mohamed I. EL-Kasaby, MD

Ophthalmology Department Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt
shahdmsaleh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To determine the efficacy of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for diffuse tractional macularoedema regarding postvitrectomy epiretinal membrane (ERM) development and visual outcomes. Patients and methods: This study was a prospective, institutional, interventional, comparative case series of consecutive eyes with diffuse tractional diabetic macular oedema at the Nour –EL-Hayat eye center (Cairo). Series of 40 eyes of 31patientsunderwent pars planavitrectomy with peeling of internal limiting membrane for diffuse tractional diabetic macular oedema during the study period. Patients who underwent surgery between January 2014 to March 2015 with a follow -up period of at least 6 months after the initial vitrectomy, the availability of good –quality SD OCT images obtained at the follow –up visits to determine the presence of an ERM. Results: At 6 months there was a median 200µ decrease from baseline in the central subfield thickness (P<0.005). The mean change in the central subfield macular thickness was -150µ (SD± 130.56). There was one case developed iatrogenic break during removal of posterior vitreous and treated by endodiathermy, of greatest importance, 1 eye developed a vitreous hemorrhage treated by conservative treatment after B scan was done, and 1 eye developed a retinal detachment. All complications were successfully managed. 15 out 40 eyes (37.5%) underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation within 6 months of pars plan a vitrectomy 9 out of 15 (60%) patients showed improvement. Conclusion: ILM peeling achieved higher anatomic success with a reduced need for additional surgical interventions and or event postoperative ERM formation that might result in subsequent visual loss.
[Mohamed I. EL-Kasaby. Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Diffuse Tractional Diabetic Macular Oedema. Nat Sci 2017;15(12):219-224]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj151217.23.

Keywords: Internal limiting membrane tractional diffuse macular oedema

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from October 31, 2017.

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