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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
Volume 16 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 130), 25, 2018
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1601

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in HCl solution by plant extract of Biden pilosa

 

S.J. Olusegun 1, 3, T. S. Joshua 2, M.O. Bodunrin 1, 4 and S. Aribo 1

 

1Corrosion and Electrochemical Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

2Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Itakpe Campus, Nigeria.

3Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

4DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, African Materials Science and Engineering Network (AMSEN), University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

arewasegun@gmail.com, arewasegun@ufmg.br

 

Abstract: The viability of using biden pilosa (BP) as corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid environment was investigated. Mild steel substrates that were prepared following standard procedures were exposed at varied temperatures (303, 313, 323 and 333K). Compound identification and corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extract were evaluated using gas chromatography (GC), gravimetric analysis and Tafel extrapolation techniques. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy was used to establish the corrosion inhibition mechanisms. The results obtained from GC analysis show that four active compounds (Oleic acid, Trans-13-Octadecenoic acid, 3-hydroxyproply ester and cis-13-Octadecenal) were present in the extract. Corrosion rates obtained from weight loss and Tafel extrapolation were in accordance with each other. The extract exhibited 97% inhibition efficiency at 303 K but inhibition efficiency decreased with increasing temperature indicating physiosorption as the main adsorption mechanism. The protection of the mild steel substrate in BP extract containing environment was confirmed by SEM analysis.

[S.J. Olusegun, T. S. Joshua, M.O. Bodunrin and S. Aribo. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in HCl solution by plant extract of Biden pilosa. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):1-8]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.01.

 

Keywords: Mild steel; Biden pilosa; Tafel extrapolation; Weight loss; SEM; GC-MS

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[Nat Sci 2018;16(1):9-22]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.02.

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Recent Techniques in Management of lumbosacral Region Tumours: A Prospective Comparative Study

 

Awad M. Hegab, Mostafa A. Rabee, Mohamed H. Shahba

 

Department of Neurosurgery, Al-Azhar University Hospital, Damietta, Egypt.

Dr.awadhegab@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The lumbosacral plexus consists of the ventral rami from the L2 to S3 nerve roots, with some additions from the L1 and S4 nerve roots as well. The standard treatment for spinal cord compression is urgent surgically decompressive laminectomy over the affected level with resection as much as possible of the exposed tumor to relieve the cord compression. We aim to correlate the impact of preoperative clinical picture, duration of symptoms, and the pathological nature of the lumbo-sacral spine tumors on the outcome of Comparative study Different modalities of management. Patients and Methods: During the period between 2015 and 2017, thirty cases were studied and surgically managed in Al-Azhar University Hospital, Damietta. Cases were selected for surgery if they were diagnosed as having a symptomatizing lumbosacral lesion. Results: Thirty patients were included in the current study; the commonest lesion in this study was ependymoma eight patients (27%), astrocytoma six patients (20%), and meningioma five patients (17%). Nerve sheath tumor comprised five cases (17%) with the hemangioblastomas three cases (10%), epidermoid one case (3%), and ependymoma of the filum terminale two cases (6%). The mean age of the included patients was 38.96±15.42. The mean duration of lesions was 13.66±10.93. Conclusions: Using motor evoked potential recordings very reliable technique in monitoring the upper motor neuron without synapses, and is extremely helpful during removal of the anterior and lateral aspects of the tumor. Improved electrical conductivity after tumor removal is associated with a good prognostic postoperative course.

[Awad M. Hegab, Mostafa A. Rabee, Mohamed H. Shahba. Recent Techniques in Management of lumbosacral Region Tumours: A Prospective Comparative Study. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):23-27]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.03.

 

Keywords: Lambosacral, lesion, astrocytoma, ependymoma

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Effect of different environmental factors increasing severity of Alternaria leaf blight in Carrot (Daucus carota L.)

 

Muhammad Mubashar Zafar1*, Muhammad Naeem2, Hafiz Muhammad Arslan Abid3, Muhammad Arsalan Manzoor2, Muhammad Adnan Siddique2, Annum Javaid Shah2, Muhammad Ahmad2, Pervaiz Iqbal4

 

1Department of PB & G, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan.

2Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

3Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan

4Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan

*Corresponding author’s email: m.mubasharzafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted for the efficient management of Alternaria blight of carrot with proper prediction and forecasting of environmental parameters. For this purpose, five carrot varieties viz. Gold Mines, Red Core, Deep Red, Mah Rani and Long Red were sown under Randomized Complete Block Design with P×P 15cm and R×R was 45cm distance with three replications. Diseased samples were taken from infected field and brought to Plant Pathology lab for isolation of fungus. For isolation of Alternaria dauci, PDA media was used. After isolation, culture was purified and multiplied to prepare inoculum. The disease was established in healthy carrot crop after inoculation. Afterwards, characterization of environmental factors favorable for the development of Alternaria blight of carrot was determined. The environmental factors determined were maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed. The results concluded that all environmental factors significantly contributed in a positive manner to favor the increasing trend of disease incidence. With increase in one degree of maximum temperature, disease incidence increased by 1.85% on gold mine, 1.21% on red core, 0.8% on deep red, 1.31% on mah rani and 0.82% on long red. Furthermore, minimum temperature increasing at the rate of one degree, the disease incidence was increased by 1.91% on gold mine, 1.25% on red core, 0.85% on deep red, 1.43% on mah rani and 0.89% on long red. Regarding the relative humidity, every one percent increase increases the disease incidence by 0.4% on gold mine, 0.23% on red core, 0.17% on deep red, 0.34% on mah rani and 0.17% on long red. On every one millimeter increase in rainfall, the disease incidence increased by 20.4% on gold mine, 12.63% on red core, 9.09% on deep red, 16.42% on mah rani and 8.58% on long red. With every one kilometer per hour increase in wind speed, the disease incidence was increased by 4.02% on gold mine, 2.33% on red core, 1.7% on deep red, 3.4% on mah rani and 1.75% on long red.

[Muhammad Mubashar Zafar, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Muhammad Arslan Abid, Muhammad Arsalan Manzoor, Muhammad Adnan Siddique, Annum Javaid Shah, Muhammad Ahmad, Pervaiz Iqbal. Effect of different environmental factors increasing severity of Alternaria leaf blight in Carrot (Daucus carota L.). Nat Sci 2018;16(1):28-33]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.04.

 

Key words: Daucus carota, Alternaria leaf blight (ALB), Potato dextrose agar (PDA)

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Ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with anti - cycliccitrullinated peptide antibodies

 

Hesham Abd Elwahab1, Younis El-said Abd Hafez2, Ali R. Ali3, Shrouk M. Elkady4.

 

1Professorand Head of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Professor and Head of Ophthalmology Department, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3Lecturer of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

4Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

E-mail: shrouk_elkady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory  autoimmune disease that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. It is associated with extra-articular manifestations including potentially sight-threatening inflammatory eye disease. Objective: To outline the ocular manifestations in RA and to assess their correlation with anti-CCP antibody and RF. Methods: 50 consecutive patients with RA were included in the present study. All patients met 2010 ACR/ EULAR Classification criteria for early arthritis. The examination of eyes were done to estimate eye manifestations and to interpretation of the related findings. The findings were statistically analyses. Results: 19(38%) patients out of the 50 patients included in the present study had ocular manifestations due to current rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 eyes had ocular involvement (14 patients were bilateral manifestation and only 5 patients were unilateral manifestation). Ocular manifestations were significantly increased in females (94.7%) with more prevalence in older patients. The mean duration of rheu­matoid arthritis was 6.7±2.3 years in patients with ocular manifestations and was 4.7 ± 3.7years in without ocular manifestations (P= 0.040). The most common manifestation was dry eye (13 patients, 26%). There were six (12%) patients had filamentary keratitis, five (10%) patients had episcleritis and two (4%) patients had scleritis. Corneal deposits were present in 6% of the patients. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis, glaucoma and retinal vasculitis was present in 4% of the studied group each (two patients). However, visual acuity was decreased in 22% of the RA patients The most frequent ocular manifestations found in RA patients positive for anti-CCP antibodies and RF (P= 0.006 and 0.019 respectively). Conclusions: Ocular involvement is common in RA, the most common ocular manifestation is dry eye. Patients at risk for development of ocular manifestations include longer disease duration, female sex, disease activity and anti-CCP and RF positivity. In addition, using HCQ and steroids drugs contributes to eye pathology in RA. Collaborative efforts between the ophthalmologists and rheumatologists are essential to early detect and effectively manage any ocular complications that may arise in RA patients.

[Hesham Abd Elwahab, Younis El-said Abd Hafez, Ali R. Ali, Shrouk M. Elkady. Ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with anti - cycliccitrullinated peptide antibodies. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):34-40]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.05.

 

Keywords: Ocular manifestations; Rheumatoid arthritis; Anti-CCP antibodies; Rheumatoid factor

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Abrahamson's Repair in the Management of Ventral Hernia 

 

Mohamed A. Radwan; Yaser A. Amer and Tarek M. Abd Alsamed

 

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Aseradem313@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Abdominal wall hernias are among the most common of all surgical problems. Ventral hernia is one of the common hernias in middle-aged females, incisional hernia results from failure of line of closure of abdominal incision. No incision in the abdomen is immune to the development of incisional hernias. Jack Abrahamson the modifier and the developer of the shoelace darn repair started using this technique on 1973. The Shoelace operation is a simple but effective darn technique for the repair of ventral hernias. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate shoelace darn in the repair of ventral hernias and to compare it to open mesh repair. Patients and methods: A prospective observational study of 100 cases of ventral hernia was carried out in Kafr Al-Sheikh General Hospital to find the place of shoelace darn in the repair of ventral hernias and to compare it to open mesh repair from where recurrence and complications 2 years after surgery. All the patients in the study were subjected to demographic data, complaints and history of present illness, laboratory investigations, electrocardiography and Management of 100 cases of ventral hernia by analyzing 2 operative methods: a shoelace darn repair and non-absorbable open mesh repair; 50 cases were managed by shoelace darn repair (group A) and 50 cases were managed by mesh repair (group B). Results: Statistical analysis revealed that there were no statistical significant differences between both groups as regards age, sex, clinical presentation, the site of previous incision, sites of incisional hernia and widths of the defects preoperatively according to SWR classification, size and number and reducibility of hernias, pulmonary complications, wound complications, intestinal complications, retention of urine, chronic pain and recurrence. But, there was a statistical significant difference between both groups as regards operative time. Blood loss was more obvious during surgical procedure for group B than for group A. Statistical analysis revealed that there were statistical high significant differences between both groups as regards post-operative hospital stay and drain removal and total amount of fluid drained. Conclusion: The shoelace darn repair is quick, easy, extra-peritoneal method that simply returns the unopened hernial sac and its content to the abdominal cavity, and thus avoids the tedious and perhaps risky dissection of the adherent loops of the bowel on the inner surface of the sac required in the re-suture and in the mesh repair. So, shoelace darn repair have got a good place in managing abdominal ventral hernias.

[Mohamed A. Radwan; Yaser A. Amer and Tarek M. Abd Alsamed. Abrahamson's Repair in the Management of Ventral Hernia. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):41-51]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.06.

 

Key Words: Anterior abdominal wall, ventral hernia, mesh repair hernioplasty, Shoelace Darn repair, Abrahamson's repair

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Operational System and Catch Composition of Charberjal (Fixed Net) in Tetulia River and its Impact on Fisheries Biodiversity in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh

 

Md. Moazzem Hossain1, Masum Billah2, Md. Belal Hossen3, Md. Hafijur Rahman4

 

1Department of Fisheries Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

2Department of Aquaculture, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

3Department of Fisheries Biology and Genetics, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

4Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

Email: moazzem@pstu.ac.bd

 

Abstract: An investigation was carried out to acquire the knowledge regarding charberjal operation system in Tetulia River and its impact on fisheries biodiversity in the coastal region of Bangladesh over a period of 6 months between July and December 2016. Combination of questionnaire interview, focus group discussions and crosscheck interviews were accomplished with key informants during data collection. Charberjal is operated in the shoreline of rivers, submerged chars and inundated agriculture land including tiny canals all over the coastal region of Bangladesh. A total of 80 species including finfish, freshwater prawn, crabs and mollusk was recorded under 22 families including 38 SIS and 26 threatened species during the study period. The recorded species was 60 finfish, 14 prawn, 4 mollusk and 2 crabs. Among the finfish rui, bata, mullet, khorsula and poa were the dominant species while aire, boal, bacha, ramsosh and tengra were the foremost species among catfish. Moreover, Macrobrachium rosenbargii was the most prevailing species among fresh water prawn while bele, phasa, puti, shol, dimua chingri and SIS were the most leading species among others. All types and all size of fish, prawn, mollusk and crustaceans and their larvae are trapped by this net during operation due to use small mesh size net and the trapped fishes die just after drying up of the shore and mixed with soil. As a result, huge number of commercially important fish larvae, eggs and fish fry are accidentally destroyed by charberjal operation system in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Due to lack of knowledge and indiscernible competition among the fishermen for fishing, they use this type of illegal and destroying fishing net for fishing which decline the fisheries biodiversity in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Charberjal is very harmful and has severe impact to destroy fisheries biodiversity including threatened species in the coastal region as well as all over the country.

[Md. Moazzem Hossain, Masum Billah, Md. Belal Hossen, Md. Hafijur Rahman. Operational System and Catch Composition of Charberjal (Fixed Net) in Tetulia River and its Impact on Fisheries Biodiversity in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):52-61]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.07.

 

Keywords: Charberjal operation system; coastal region; biodiversity; catch composition

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Hysteroscopy in the Evaluation of Recurrent Miscarriage

 

Prof. Dr. Asem Anwar Abdo Mousa, Prof. Dr. Fahd Abdelal Al Omda, and Mustafa Rabie Mohamed El-Sharkawy

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

mustafa21up@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: assessment of prevalence and types of uterine defects through hysteroscopy. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 100 non-pregnant patients with a history of three or more consecutive unexplained first and second trimester miscarriages before 20 weeks were recruited from clinic. A written informed consent was obtained from all patients before participation. Results: 71 % of patients have normal hysteroscopic findings, while 29% of patients showing abnormal findings with 16% congenital anomalies and 13% acquired, the most common anomaly was septate uterus in 11% of patients. Conclusion: It appears that hysteroscopy is a most useful tool in the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage that can be performed safely and efficiently without anesthesia in most cases. The prevalence of uterine anomalies in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages is 29%, septate uterus was the most common anomaly and for this reason uterine anomalies should be systematically assessed in patients with previous unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

[Asem Anwar Abdo Mousa, Fahd Abdelal Al Omda, and Mustafa Rabie Mohamed El-Sharkawy. Hysteroscopy in the Evaluation of Recurrent Miscarriage. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):62-69]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.08.

 

Keywords: Hysteroscopy, recurrent miscarriage

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Topic: Study of Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Oil, Protein and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

 

1Aqsa Tahir, 2Dr. Ahsan Iqbal, 3Rabia Saif, 3Saira Sattar, 4Razia Sultana, 4Rabia Zafar, 5Saba Zulfiqar, 5Nawal Zafar

 

1,2,3,4,5, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

5 Cereals and Pulses Section, AARI, Faisalabad

aqsatahir24@yahoo.com

                               

Abstract: Sunflower became a major oilseed crop in Pakistan. Pakistan is facing a shortage of edible oil. Need to improve the oil and seed yield of sunflower. Correlation study is necessary to find out the relationship between two traits. Path analysis tells about the direct and indirect effect of different traits on yield and on yield related traits. This helps to further improve our genetic material to obtain high yield. Present study is aimed to find out the relationship of different yield related traits with oil and protein contents and to know how different traits including oil and protein contents directly or indirectly effects the yield. The results of present study explained that different traits can be used for direct and indirect selection of high yielding sunflower lines. It can be concluded that presence of adequate genetic variability in any research material makes it valuable for future breeding programs aimed at improvement of sunflower yield. This review will help to the researchers that the study of what type of traits have in their interest to improve considerably the yield of sunflower.

[ Aqsa Tahir,  Dr. Ahsan Iqbal,  Rabia Saif,  Saira Sattar,  Razia Sultana,  Rabia Zafar,  Saba Zulfiqar,  Nawal Zafar. Topic: Study of Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Oil, Protein and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Nat Sci 2018;16(1):70-83]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.09.

 

Keywords: Topic; Study; Correlation; Path Coefficient; Analysis; oil; Protein; Yield; Trait; Sunflower; Helianthus annuus L

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Relationship between Serum Free T4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels in Preterm Neonates and Respiratory Distress Syndrome

 

Mohamed Mohamed El Mazahy1, Lotfy Abd Al Fattah Al Sehaimy1, Mahmoud Farag Salem2, Alshaymaa Mohamed Mohamed Hamad1

 

1Pediatric Department, Damitta Faculty of Medicine, Al Azher University, Damitta, Egypt.

2Clinical Pathology Department, Damitta Faculty of Medicine, Al Azher University, Damitta, Egypt.

herooo990388@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and objectives: Worldwide 15 million babies are born preterm every year. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the most common respiratory complications of prematurity and its incidence inversely proportional to gestational age and birth weight. Despite the proven efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids in preventing RDS, they are not effective at preventing all cases of RDS and are limited by the time required to exert an effect on lung maturation and surfactant production before preterm birth. So the use of thyroid hormones has the potential to stimulate surfactant release and reduce respiratory morbidity in preterm infants with RDS. Methods: In This In case control study we measure the serum free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 60 preterm neonates in Al-Azhar University Hospital in New Damietta during 1st postnatal 24 hours to demonstrate the relationship between their levels and RDS. Results: We found in this study that there was no relation between TSH serum levels and both the occurrence and the severity of RDS, however; there was a significant negative correlation between FT4 serum levels and both the occurrence and the severity of RDS. The study also revealed significant decrease in FT4 in the RDS subgroup with lower gestational age compared to the RDS subgroup with higher gestational age. Conclusion: There is significant negative correlation between the occurrence and severity of RDS and the serum level of free thyroxin (FT4) but there is no correlation between the occurrence and severity of RDS and the serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in preterm neonates.

[Mohamed Mohamed El Mazahy, Lotfy Abd Al Fattah Al Sehaimy, Mahmoud Farag Salem, Alshaymaa Mohamed Mohamed Hamad. Relationship between Serum Free T4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels in Preterm Neonates and Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):84-95]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.10.

 

Key words: Prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

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Clinical Outcome of Telovelar Approach to Fourth Ventricular Tumors

 

Marwan Abd Al-Hakam, Mohamed H. Shaba, Mohamed S. Ali, Mohamed El-Gibaly A.

 

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, New Damietta, Egypt

dr_maro2011_2015@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The cerebellomedullary fissure as a corridor for exposure of the fourth ventricle without vermian splitting is enjoying increasing application as a technique for exposure, to avoid the com-plications related to vermian splitting. The purpose of this study is to describe the operative findings and the results in 25 fourth ventricular tumours removed via telovelar approach. The impact of the pathological nature of the lesion on the degree of tumour removal is also discussed. Methods: Telovelar approach to the fourth ventricle was used in 25 consecutive patients. The charts were reviewed retrospectively. The pathological changes in the tela choroidea and inferior medullary velum, degree of tumour removal, and the clinical outcome are described. Findings: The tela choroidea was thinned out and streched over the tumour surface in 10 cases (large tumours). In epidermoid and dermoid cysts (3 cases), the tela choroidea was amalgamated with the tumour capsule. The inferior medullary velum was infiltrated by the tumour and was not detected as a separate layer in 6 cases (3 cases vermian astrocytomas and 3 cases medulloblastomas). The inferior medullary velum was thinned out and stretched as a neural tissue sheet over the tumour surface in 10 cases (4 ependymomas, 2 meningiomas, 2 epidermoids, one dermoid and one choroid plexus papilloma). Total removal was achieved in 11 out of 16 patients (68.75%). Subtotal removal was achieved in the remaining patients (31.25%); three epen-dymomas, one medulloblastoma, and one anaplastic astrocytoma. Cerebellar mutism was not observed in any patient and there was no mortality. Interpretation. Despite the panoramic view provided by the telovelar approach, the pathological nature of the lesion and vital neural tissue infiltration are limiting factors for total tumour removal. Total removal of tumours focally attached to critical areas in the fourth ventricle should not be attempted at the expense of patient’s morbidity and mortality. To achieve optimum outcome, near total excision is acceptable in cases where complete removal may endanger function or life.

[Marwan Abd Al-Hakam, Mohamed H. Shaba, Mohamed S. Ali, Mohamed El-Gibaly A. Clinical Outcome of Telovelar Approach to Fourth Ventricular Tumors. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):96-100]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.11.

 

Keywords: Cerebellar mutism; cerebellar tonsil; fourth ventricle; inferior medullary velum; tela choroidea.

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The anti-stress ability of Morinda Officialis extracts in mice

Cheng-Hui Lin1,5, Yu-Hsiang Kuan2,5, Chi-Ting Horng 3,4,*

1Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shang Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
3Department of Ophthalmology, Fooying University Hospital, Pingtung Taiwan
4Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan
5These authors contributed equally to the paper
E-mail: h56041@gmail.com; Telephone: 866-8-8323146

 

Abstract: Purpose: To explore the abilities of Morinda officinalis of oligosaccharides (MW-97) to endure under stress in mice. Methods: 40 SD male mice were subjected to various stressors on a daily basis over 15-day period and the image system was used to observe the spontaneous motor activity. Meanwhile, we got the pathogenic section of adrenal glands and the WBC counts and the relative percentage in peripheral blood. Moreover, the serum levels of stress hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: Chronic stress results in diffuse hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and atrophy of the adrenal medulla in mice, which suggested that stress-adaption failure of the adrenal gland occurred, while adrenal gland of the mice with MW-97(100 mg/kg, ip) prior to each stressor for 15 days did not result in any pathologic changes. Moreover, chronic stress also significantly reduced WBC counts and relative WBC percentages in the peripheral blood, including the percent of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Furthermore, MW-97 (25 and 100 mg/kg) may reverse the above changes and raise WBC counts, along with the relative WBC percentages significantly. In the meanwhile, we found that the serum testosterone decreased and corticosterone increase apparently in chronically stressed SD mice. However, MW-97 should also significantly decline the serum corticosterone level and raise the concentration of serum testosterone level. At the same time, we found that MW-97 had no effects on the spontaneous motor activity in the stressed mice. Conclusion: We strongly suggested that MW-97 may enhance the immunity antistress ability under chronic stress. However, it had no any excitatory or inhibitory effects on the CNS. Therefore, oligosaccharide from Morinda officinalis could be used for an anti-stress drug which is safe for human.
[Cheng-Hui Lin, Yu-Hsiang Kuan, Chi-Ting Horng. The anti-stress ability of Morinda Officialis extracts in mice. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):101-109]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.12.

Keyword: Morinda officinalis, anti-stress ability

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Investigation of Alternative Fuels Using Experimental and Computational Chemistry

 

Vincent Wu1, Si On Kim2, Simon Chen3, Winnie Chan3, Olivia Kusio4, Carmen Chen4, Melanie Chow5

 

1The Cooper Union, 30 Cooper Square New York, NY 10001

2Stuyvesant High School, 345 Chambers St New York, NY 10282

3Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

4Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544

5University of Chicago, 5801 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637

skim17@stuy.edu

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare and explore potential alternative fuels through the use of computer-aided simulation techniques and laboratory experiments. Environmental influence, efficiency, cost, and availability were also taken into account in order to find the best replacement for fossil fuels. Bond energy, semi-empirical and density functional theory calculations were compared to known experimental heats of combustion. The results showed that the RM1 E+RT method (Method 1) was the most accurate and precise for predicting heats of combustion. A decision matrix was used to tally up rankings of each method under several statistical measures, leaving RM1 E+RT with the lowest overall score, due to its consistently high ranking for each statistical method. The RM1 E+RT graphical comparison with given literature gross heat of combustion (GHC) data made it feasible to predict experimental heats of combustion through the use of a linear regression equation: y=0.95x-12.158, with x representing literature GHC values and y representing predicted GHC values. It had a coefficient of determination of 0.998, percent error of 0.0557%, standard deviation percent error of 0.0476%, average unsigned error of 257 kJ/mol and a standard deviation unsigned error of 164 kJ/mol. After analysis and investigation of select alternative fuels to determine the most practical one, it was decided that ethane and biodiesel were the strongest candidates due to their low toxicity and corrosivity.

[Vincent Wu, Si On Kim, Simon Chen, Winnie Chan, Olivia Kusio, Carmen Chen, Melanie Chow. Investigation of Alternative Fuels Using Experimental and Computational Chemistry. Nat Sci 2018;16(1):110-122]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.13.

 

Keywords: alternative fuel, experimental and computational chemistry

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Salicylic acid alleviates Lantana camara aqueous extract cyto-genotoxicity in Nigella sativa (black cumin)

 

A.A. El-Ghamery, M.M. Mansour and M.A. Mousa

 

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt

ma_mousa@azhar.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Lantana camara L. (2n = 44) is important species of family Verbenaceae and is commonly used in folk medicine in many countries. Root tip cells of Nigella sativa (black cumin) were separately treated with different concentrations (20-100 %) of aqueous plant extract for 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours and the results were recorded. The results showed that all concentrations of aqueous extracts significantly reduced the mitotic index and caused a disturbance in the frequencies of mitotic phases. The treatment with 100% of the extract for 24 hours was the most effective in reducing the mitotic activity and inducing the highest percentage of mitotic abnormalities. The different frequent types of abnormalities were irregular prophase, bridges, stickiness at different phases, disturbed chromosomes, forward and lagging chromosomes. In addition to other infrequent types such as micronucleus, bi-nucleate, fragments divided polar and ghost cells. Also, in this study salicylic was used to minimize or recover the cyto-genotoxic effect of Lantana camara extract. For this, three concentrations of SA (0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) for 6 and 12 hours were applied for the root tip cells of the tested plant treated with the plant extract concentration of 100% for 3 and 24 hours. This Post treatment with SA resulted in increasing MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities than that in treated root tips with plant extract. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is effective in alleviating the toxic effects of plant extract at all applied concentrations.

[A.A. El-Ghamery, M.M. Mansour and M.A. Mousa. Salicylic acid alleviates Lantana camara aqueous extract cyto-genotoxicity in Nigella sativa (black cumin). Nat Sci 2018;16(1):123-134]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160118.14.

 

Keywords: Lantana camara (L. camara), Salicylic acid (SA), Nigella sativa (N. sativa), mitotic activity (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CAs).

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from , starting from December 10, 2017. 

 All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Nature and Science, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com; naturesciencej@gmail.com 

 Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA. 347-321-7172; http://www.sciencepub.net

 

 doi prefix: 10.7537

Global Impact Factor: 0.232 (2012); 0.324 (2013); 0.432 (2014); 0.565 (2015)

InfoBase Index IBI Factor: 9.5 (2015)

ICV 2013: 7.87 (Index Copernicus); IF A2016: 6.52

, Root Indexing

Journal Index I2OR

 

 

 

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