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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

纽约科学杂志

Volume 3 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 15); May 1, 2010, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: newyorksci@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

1

ASSESSING THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE AND COWPEA SEEDS STORED USING LOCAL PLANT BIOCIDES

 

C.I. DURUIGBO

Department of Crop Science And Technology Federal University of Technology P.M.B1526 Owerri. Cduruigbo@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Investigations were conducted to assess the viability of maize and cowpea seeds stored using five local plant Biocides namely: Neem powder (Azadiracter indica) Black pepper (Piper guinensis), pepperfruit seed powder (Denittia tripetata), soya bean oil (Glycine max) and palm oil (Eleais guinensis). Dried seeds of maize and cowpea (12%. M.c) was stored, for 12 weeks using the various plant materials in an airtight plastic containers. The experiment was run using the Randomized complete block design. Seed samples stored with the plant materials were tested for viability for twelve weeks. Results indicated that significant differences exist (p= 0.05) on the mean seed germination percentages for the various plant materials and seed types. Highest percentage of germinated seeds was observed in the treatment using neem powder, which gave (95%) germination for maize and (85%) germination for cowpea. This was followed by the pepper fruit seed powder, which gave (80%) germination for maize (90%) germination for cowpea. The least germination counts was obtained in the seeds stored with soya bean oil, which gave (25%) germination for maize and (15%) for cowpea at (p= 0.05) while seeds stored with palm oil gave (20%) germination for maize and 15% germination counts for cowpea respectively. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):1-3]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.01

 

Keywords: Seed Viability, Maize, Cowpea, Plant biocides.

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2

Establishment of the Unified Field Theory

 

Author: Sun Chunwu

No. 59, Xihu Town, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, PRC. Post code: 225008

Tel: 0514-82822538; E-mail: yzscw@163.com

 

Abstract: There are many problems on natural science disturbing scientists. Einstein focused on finding fields of unified gravity, electromagnetic force, strong force and weak force, so he could not take the lead to create the Unified Field Theory to analyze which one is of bigger mass, and what had integrated all these forces to evolve new substances. As a result, the author tries to create the Unified Field Theory, its graphics and formulas in the purpose of correctly getting to know the causes in Nature and the ability of after-movement energy-change so as to benefit the mankind. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):4-9]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.02

 

Key words: Unified Field Theory; Oval charts and formulas; Application of the Unified Field Theory

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3

Effect of Coal fly ash On Growth, Biochemistry, Cytology and Heavy Metal Content of Allium cepa L.

 

T.Nararayan Swamy1, Nilakantha Dash2, Gayatri Nahak1, Bandita Deo3 and R.K.Sahu1

1. Department of Botany, B.J.B (A) College, Bhubaneswar-751014, Orissa, India

2. Department of Chemistry, Panchayat College, Dharmagada, Kalahandi, Orissa, India

3. Regional Plant Resource Center, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar, Orissa,India

sahurajani@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: To assess possible impacts of fly ash on edible crops, this investigation examined the changes in growth, biochemistry, cytology, heavy metal content of Allium Cepa. Results of field experiments reveals that fly ash applied to soil at the rate of 5 T/H increased germination, shoot height, Leaf number, Root number, Root length number of bulbs, peroxidase Activity, cell division process etc. Further it was not genotoxic in the Allium micronucleus test.The observed beneficial effects of fly ash on crop growth & its yield performance may be attributed to its contents of plant nutrients especially the trace elements in poor or marginally deficient soil. Because of the presence of heavy metals in the edible parts, it may be concluded that fly ash can be used in agriculture as soil amendment with caution. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):10-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.03

 

Key words: Fly ash, Onion, Growth, Biochemistry, Cytology, Soil and Heavy metal

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4

Physicochemical parameters of Adsorbents from locally sorted H3PO4 and ZnCl2 modified Agricultural wastes.

 

Itodo A.U.1, Abdulrahman F.W.2, Hassan L.G3, Maigandi S.A.4, Itodo H.U5

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

4Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

itodoson2002@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: In this research, we add to database, using available technology to see the possibility of adding value to four different abundant Agricultural wastes by generating activated carbon. The % yield for the one way and (two steps) schemes ranges from 22.222 0.01-30.00.12% (17.3330.05-22.6670.09%) for the Sheanut shell (SS) activated carbon. Estimations of activation yield based on the weight of already pyrolized samples gave up to 40.00.07, 59.331.1,and 43.3330.09 % yields for Groundnut shell (GS),Poultry wastes (PW),and Poultry droppings (PD) carbons respectively for the two way scheme. Low conductivity values (< 28.74S/cm) is an indication that sorbate removal by generated sorbents could be predominantly physisorption other than ion exchange or chemisorption. Other parameters estimated are % burnoff, Porosity, pH, ash and moisture contents. Bulk densities based on dry weight and swollen states were also presented. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):17-24]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.04

 

Key words: Physicochemical, Adsorbents, Activated carbon, Agricultural wastes

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5

Application of Methylene Blue and Iodine Adsorption in the Measurement of Specific Surface Area by four Acid and Salt Treated Activated Carbons.

 

Itodo A.U.1, Abdulrahman F.W.2, Hassan L.G3, Maigandi S.A.4, Itodo H.U5

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

4Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

itodoson2002@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: In order to further characterize the adsorptive nature of locally sorted activated carbon in technologically deficient Laboratories, this team utilizes the application of Methylene blue and Iodine number adsorption to estimate surface area and activated carbon performance. Mesopores structural parameters (SMB) in 10-3km2kg-1 was estimated to range between 14.545-15.100,13.548-14.011,12.313-13.970 and 14.275-14.551 for the Groundnut shells(GS),Sheanut shells (SS),Poultry droppings (PD) and Poultry waste (PW) sorbents respectively. Their corresponding degree of activation and micropores level was presented as IAN (in mlM iodine per gramme of activated carbon) following the range of 2.156-2.171,2.174-2.191,2.163-2.193 and 2.157-2.168.The data were only slightly lower than those of commercial reference carbon (SMB =15.62710-3km2kg-1 and IAN= 2.230 mlM/g) and of wide difference to those of their respective pyrolized materials. Methylene blue sorption efficiency (%RE) was also estimated. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):25-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.05

 

Key words : Methylene Blue, Iodine number, Surface area, Activated carbon

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6

Effect of Temperature and Desiccation on Seed Viability of Lepidium sativum L.

 

Debarati Mukhopadhyay*, S.S. Parihar, J. S. Chauhan1, Preeti, Sunil Chandra Joshi

Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 India

1Department of Seed Science & Technology, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar-246174Uttrakhand India

Email: debarati129@gmail.com 

 

Abstract: Lepidium sativum L. is an important medicinal plant of India. Germination studies revealed that seeds do not exhibit dormancy as germination was fastest in 250C compared to 15, 20, 25, 20/30 (alternate temperature of 20and 300C, 200C for 16 hrs and 300C for 8 hrs) and 300C. No significant difference in germination percentage was observed in 15, 20, 25, 20/300C however germination percentage was significantly reduced when incubating temperature exceeded 300C, suggesting thermo inhibition of germination. Seeds with different moisture content viz. 2, 5, 8, 10 and 12% stored under ambient storage and tested for viability at 3 months interval revealed that seeds with 10 and 12% moisture content lost viability within 3 months while no reduction in germination was observed up to 6 months in seeds with moisture content 2, 5 and 8%. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):34-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.06

 

Keywords: Lepidium sativum; germination; desiccation sensitivity; moisture content.

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7

Ethnobotanic study around Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

 

Nahayo Alphonse1,*, Bigendako M. J.2, Fawcett, K.3, Gu Yansheng1

1. China University of Geosciences, School of Environmental Studies, Wuhan, Hubei, 388 Lumo Road, 430074, P.R.China, nahayalfa@gmail.com, +86 27 59839745; yansheng_gu@yahoo.com.cn

2. Research Institute of Science and Technology, IRST, Butare, Rwanda; jbigendako@hotmail.com

3. Karisoke Research Center, Ruhengeri, Rwanda; karisoke@rwanda1.com

 

Abstract: This study attempts to make a survey through a questionnaire addressed to traditional healers on medicinal plants used in Rwandan traditional medicine around Volcanoes National Park, in the area covering the former sectors of Gataraga, Kinigi and Shingiro, Northern Province, Rwanda. There is also a need to establish the relationship between these plants and those consumed by mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park. As results, nine traditional practitioners revealed 77 species grouped in 71 genera and 39 families used in order to treat 19 diseases and symptoms by means of 78 medicinal receipts. Among those species, five are endemic of Albertine Rift and are: Crassocephalum ducis-aprutii (Asteraceae), Pycnostachys goetzenii (Lamiaceae), Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae), Ranunculus bequaertii (Ranunculaceae) and Senecio mariettae (Asteraceae). Being endemic and medicinal at the same time requires a special attention on their exploitation so as to avoid their extinction. Some medicinal plants found in this area are also eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Volcanoes National Park namely Clematis simensis (Ranunculaceae), Gynura scandens (Asteraceae), Plantago palmata (Plantaginaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae). [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(5): 37-49]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.07

 

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Medicinal Plants, Traditional Practitioners, Phytotherapy, Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

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8

Impact of Ardh-Kumbh Festival on Concentration Level of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) in Haridwar, India

 

K. K. Gangwar and Deepali

 Punjab State Council for Science & Technology, Chandigarh 160019, India

kamalkishor14@rediffmail.com, deepali.phd@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out from January 2004 to December 2004 to ascertain the impact of Ardh-Kumbh festival, on concentration level of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) on sites namely; Singh Dwar, Ranipur More, Shiv Murti and Chandi Ghat. During the Ardh-Kumbh period, the over all highest mean concentration of SPM was 389.68g/m3 on festive day of Ardh-Kumbh Punya Kal, at Singh Dwar whereas RSPM was 11.20g/m3on festive days of Basant Panchmi at Shiv Murti. The values of SPM increased sharply by 30.06%, on festive day of Chaitra Amavasya at Shiv Murti and RSPM by 21%, on Basant Panchmi at Singh Dwar, as compared to the pre-festive days of the said festivals. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):50-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.08

 

Key words: Air pollution, SPM, RSPM, Ardh-Kumbh, pre and post festive days.

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9

Expression Of Glucocorticoid Receptor Beta (GCR Β) In Asthmatic Patients And Its Correlation With Clinical Severity And Pulmonary Functions

 

Engy Yousry Elsayed , Enas M Foda, khaled AH Mohammed, Hassan Shalaby,

Amal Z. Abd El-Halem* and Eman Ramzy**

 

Internal Medicine, Clinical Pathology* and Chest** Departments

Faculty Of Medicine, Ain Shams University, cairo, Egypt.

ashorengy@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Background: Glucocorticoids are the gold standard treatment of bronchial asthma. Although the majority of patients with asthma respond favorably to inhaled and systemic steroid therapy, a subset of asthmatics failed to demonstrate a satisfactory response even to systemic glucocorticoid therapy. GCR β (glucocorticoid receptor beta) is a hormone binding deficit isoform of GCR (glucocorticoid receptor) which has been isolated in humans and when over expressed, it may function as a dominant negative modulator of GCR. Aim of the work: This study was designed to determine the percentage of expression of GCRβ on PBMCs: (peripheral blood mononuclear cells )of asthmatic patients and to correlate it with the clinical severity and pulmonary functions. Subjects and Methods: 60 asthmatic patients (41 males, 19 females) and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Asthmatics were classified according to GINA guidelines (2002) into mild, moderate and severe asthma. They were subdivided into asthmatic on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) (n=35) and those not on ICS (n=25). For all studied groups, spirometeric pulmonary functions and immunohisto-chemistry staining of PBMCS were performed to analyze percentage of expression of GCRβ on PBMCs. Results: It showed that the percentage of expression of GCRβ on PBMCS were statistically higher in all asthmatic patient groups compared to control, with higher % of expression in those not on ICS. Also a statistical significant higher % of expression of GCR β in severe asthmatics compared to both mild and moderate groups was detected. In conclusion: This study highlights the importance of glucocorticoid receptor beta isoform in pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and this may be directly linked to asthma severity and can affect the response to medications especially ICS. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):54-62]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.09

 

Key words: Bronchial asthma, Glucocorticoid Receptor beta, Glucocorticoid therapy.

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10

Study ingredients a yield plant corn on regimes different irrigated

 

Shiva Dast Bandan Nejad1 , Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Mani Mojadam2

1-Master graduate of science and Research University, Khuzestan Branch

2-Assiatant professor Department of agronomy &physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch

*Corresponding Arthur Shiva_dastbandannejad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract :The understanding of drought stress effect mechanisms in dry and semiarid lands, play a key role in management of various irrigation regimes to confronting with environmental adverse conditions and also to promote function and farm management in corn plant. This research is performed in 2008 summer, at Shahid Salami irrigation institute farm in Ahvaz County (in Iran) and with 256 mm rainfall average.Experiment location has dry and semi-arid climate and with considering Ahvaz weather forecasting statistics of 40 years, annual mean rainfall 213.94mm, annual mean temperature degree 25.24, the mean of maximum annual temperature degree 32.92,the mean of minimum annual temperature degree 18.4 centigrade. Test is done in the form of factorial plot and in accidentally complete blokes' plot with four repetitions. Factores contents : 4 time of stopping irrigation (Optimal irrigation =I0 , stopping irrigation in 10 leaf phases =I1, stopping irrigation at stage of flowering= I2 ,stopping irrigation at stage of filling seed=I3) in secondary factor have three date sowing contents( 20 July & 5 August & 20 August) According to variance breakdown results, water stress, the different dates of planting and reciprocal effects of them on seed function, harvest index and biological function were meaningful , but a bout weight of thousand seeds, only the effect of different dotes of planting on this functional component was not meaning full, and also about row number effect of water tension and different dates of planting were not meaningful. Drought tension caused the reduction of biological function, seed function, harvest index, weight of thousand seeds, seed number of row and row number of maize. Seed function in I3 treatment, was 9.43 ton in hectare, which regarding to ware shortage and famine phenomena, it is under consideration. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):63-67]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.10

 

Key words: corn, yield , drought stress

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11

Agro-potentiality of Paper Mill Effluent on the characteristics of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek).

 

Vinod Kumar 1*, A.K.Chopra1 Chakresh Pathak1 and Sachin Pathak2

Department of Zoology and Environmental Science

Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India

2Statistical Officer

Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India

E-mail: profakchopra@yahoo.co.in, vksorwal@gmail.com,

chakreshpathak@yahoo.co.in and sachp1010@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the agronomical characteristics of Trigonella foenum-graecum irrigated with different concentrations of Paper mill effluent such as 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% along with control (Borewell water). The study revealed that the effluent is rich in some plant nutrients and affected the agronomical characteristics of T. foenum-graecum (Pusa early bunching) and physico-chemical characteristics of the soil as well. On irrigation of soil with different effluents up to 90 days of harvesting, it was observed that there was a significant effect on WHC, EC, Na+, PO43 - and SO42 - (P<0.05), Cl-, K+ and Ca2 + (P<0.01) and NO32 - (P<0.001) and insignificant effect on pH, moisture content and bulk density (P>0.05).There was no significant change in the soil texture of the soil. Among various concentrations of effluent irrigation, the irrigation with 100% effluent concentration decreased moisture content (14.69%), WHC (18.10%) and bulk density (5.92%), pH (7.60%) and increased EC (119.41%) , soil nutrients like Cl- (57.39%), K+ (13.59%) and Ca2+ (18.68%) Na+ (38.80%), NO32- (36.43%), PO43- (63.29%) and SO42- (25.62%) of the soil. The agronomical parameters such as seed germination, shoot length, root length, number of roots, root nodule, number of leaves, flowers, pods, pod length, dry weight, chlorophyll content and crop yield of T. foenum-graecum were recorded to be in increasing order at low concentration of the effluent i.e. from 5% to 25% and in decreasing order at higher effluent concentration i.e. from 50% to100% as compared to control. Stimulation was observed in seed emergence period and shoot length, root length, number of leaves and biomass with the increase in effluent concentration in early seedling growth period. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):68-77]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.11

 

Keywords: Paper mill effluent, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Irrigation, Agronomical characteristics

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12

Exotic Ornamental Flora of Kashmir Valley-An overview

 

Shabana Aslam1, Khursheed Ahmad Ganaie2, AQ John3 and GH Dar1

1. Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J& K, India190006

2. Department of Botany, Islamia college of Science and Commerce, Srinagar, J& K, India 190006

3. Division of Floriculture, Medicinal and Aromatic plants, SKUAST- Kashmir, J& K, India 191121

Shabana_botany@yahoo.com; khursheedtrali@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The Kashmir Himalaya, known for its indigenous and endemic flora, also provides home to a large number of exotic plants, which exhibit a wide taxonomical and distributional stretch. Although, some preliminary studies have been carried out in the region on some aspects of its exotic flora (Stewart 1972, Singh and Misri 1974, Singh and Kachroo,1983, Ara et al.1995, Dar et al.1995), the inventorization and documentation of its exotic ornamentals has received a little or negligible attention. There is a lot of scope for these exotic ornamentals in the floriculture industry of Kashmir, but lack of authentic identification has been as a big hurdle in their scientific management. It is in this backdrop that the present floristic study was carried out to identify, inventorize, document, and characterize the exotic ornamental plant species grown in the Valley. The present study has revealed that Kashmir Valley grows 317 exotic ornamental plant species, which belong to 209 genera in 85 families. Dicotyledons are the largest group, represented by 252 species in 163 genera and 67 families. Monocotyledons comprise 52 species in 37 genera and 13 families. Gymnosperms are the smallest group, with 13 species distributed in 9 genera and 5 families. Asteraceae is the largest family containing 33 exotic ornamental species. This is the first assessment of alien ornamental flora of the Kashmir Valley. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):78-82]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.12

 

Key words: exotic, ornamental plants, Kashmir, floriculture

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13

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTS SAUCES ON POUCHED TILAPIA PRODUCTS.

 

Omojowo Funso Samuel, Olokor Julius Oghenekaro, Ihuahi Josiah Adoga, Adelowo Ezekiel, Idris Garba Libata, Omojowo Taiwo Mary

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR FRESHWATER FISHERIES RESEARCH (NIFFR), P.M.B. 6006, NEW-BUSSA, NIGER-STATE, NIGERIA.

jowosam@yahoo.com, oghenekaroolokor@yahoo.com, joeihua@yahoo.co.uk, adelowoeo@yahoo.com, idrisgarbalibata@yahoo.com; omojowo_taiwo@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: High quality stunted tilapia of the same size procured from Private pond in NIFFR were used for pouch studies. The fish samples were scaled, gutted, knobbed, washed, brined and pre-cooked. Ninety gram (90 g) of the pre-treated tilapia was added to 30g of either Tomato sauce or the Ginger-garlic sauce prepared and packed in a local pouch. The pouches were hermetically sealed using manual impulse sealer and sterilized in an Autoclave. Six hundred pouches were produced out of which 42% of the total production did not burst in the autoclave. From the pouch tilapia that did not burst and studied for six weeks, 47.4% of those in Ginger sauce were sterile while those in the tomato sauce have only 39.2% sterile. Shelf-life studies revealed that the non-sterile Pouch tilapia in ginger–garlic sauce had a longer shelf life of 5 weeks compared with a Tilapia-n-tomato sauce with a shelf life of 3 weeks. Organoleptically, results of overall acceptability, taste, colour and texture of the products shows that pouch tilapia in Ginger-garlic sauce at the fifth week had a better acceptance and significantly different (P<0.05) when compared to pouch tilapia of the third week of storage. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(5):83-86]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.13

 

Key words: Tilapia, tomato sauce, ginger-garlic sauce and pouch.

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14

Review of Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS)

 

Payman Salami *, and Hojat Ahmadi

Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Biosystems Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran. salami@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: There have been considerable advancements in the field of MIS over the years, and it continues to grow and develop in response to the changing needs of the business and marketing environment. Professionals and academicians are contributing and serving the field of MIS through the dissemination of their knowledge and ideas in professional journals. Thus, changes and trends that likely have an impact on MIS concepts, processes, and implementation can be determined by reviewing the articles published in journals. Content of the articles published in journals can also give us an idea about the types of research and themes that are popular during a given period. To see the evolutionary change in the field of MIS, the present study examined the content of articles published in business and marketing journals. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):87-95]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.14

 

Key words: Farm Management Information Systems; FMIS; GIS; IT; MIS

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15

Gastrointestinal Helmith Parasites of Local and Exotic Chickens Slaughtered in Gwagwalada, Abuja (FCT), Nigeria

 

1Matur, B.M, 1Dawam, N.N and 1Malann, Y.D

1dept of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, P. M. B 117, Abuja Nigeria (+234)

malaumatur@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Five hundred (500) gastrointestinal tracts of local and exotic breeds of chickens slaughtered at the Gwagwalada Market (the FCT, Abuja) were collected and examined for helminth parasites. Formol-ether concentration technique was used to concentrate the gut content and analysis carried out. Six different gastrointestinal parasites were isolated and identified. Of these parasites, Ascaris galli was found to be the most prevalent (51.60%) among the chickens. Other parasites encountered included; Railleitina echinobothrida (19.60%), R. tretragona (22.20%), Hymenolepsis carioca (23.00%), Hetarakis gallinarum (31.00%) and Syngamus trachea (1.80%). There was significant difference (x2=6.64, df = 1; P< 0.01) in prevalence rate of infection between the local and exotic breeds of chickens. Parasite preference in respect to sex was also recorded. Females harbored more parasites than males. The significance and socio-economic implications of these parasites are also highlighted. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):96-99]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.15

 

Key words: Gastrointestinal, Helminth, Parasites, chicken

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16

Sedimentation Analysis of Some Sulphide Ore Concentrates and Comparative Studies on their Leach-Ability in Butanoic Acid Solution

 

Chukwuka Ikechukwu Nwoye1, and Ihuoma Ezichi Mbuka 2

1 Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

2 Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sedimentation analysis of galena and sphalerite concentrates has been carried out to determine the average grain sizes. Comparative studies on the leach-ability of these ore concentrates in butanoic acid solution were also done. Results of the sedimentation analysis indicate that the average grain sizes of Ishiagu galena and sphalerite are approximately 100 and 150 μm respectively. This implies that galena is finer than sphalerite. It was found that increase in the mass-input of galena and sphalerite, initial and final pH of the leaching solution decreases the concentration of dissolved metal as a result of minimized reductive tendency of H+ under this condition. The concentrations of lead and zinc dissolved per unit mass of galena and sphalerite concentrates leached in butanoic acid solution was evaluated as 10.575 and 5.077 mg/Kg/g respectively. This implies that the concentration of dissolved lead in butanoic acid is approximately twice that of zinc. This also implies that the reaction between galena and butanoic acid is twice that between sphalerite and the same acid (experimental process and conditions being the same). [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):100-105]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.16

 

Keywords: Sedimentation analysis, sulphide ore concentrates, leaching, butanoic acid

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17

Biochemical Effects of Fermented Camel Milk on Diarrhea in Rats

 

Mona E. Y1., Ragia O.M1, Abeer A. KH2, Mosa T.E2

1Food Technol. Res. Inst. Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department .National Research Centre, Egypt

E-mail: abeerkhaial@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Camel milk is different from other ruminant milk, having low cholesterol, low sugar, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium), high vitamin C. Camel milk is remedy for viruses causing diarrhea as Rota Virus considering it could be important from public health point of view to anticipate the vital hazard in camel raw milk and its produces. In this study, we used rat model of rotavirus infection which causing diarrhea. This investigation was designed to prepare fermented Camel milk with low fat (1.5%) and using it in formulas for feeding diarrhea rats (25%, 50% and 75%) to perform the role of the macro elements (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and calcium) as well as micro elements (iron and zinc) of the three prepared formulas for diarrhea rats. Results indicated that the fermented camel milk had higher content in sodium and potassium than the row camel milk and there was stopping diarrhea on formula 3, this is due to the formula 3 can be considered a strong vital inhibitor to human Rota Virus which represents the main diarrhea-causing agent in infants. It can be concluded that fermented camel milk can be considered as a good food of high nutritive and therapeutic applications. Meanwhile, the high content of antimicrobial agents in camel milk may explain its potential as an antiviral activity especially against diarrhea-causing viruses. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):106-111]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.17

 

Key words: Camel milk- diarrhea- Rota virus- minerals

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18

EFFECT OF STRAIN ON GROWTH, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BROILERS REARED FOR 12 WEEKS.

 

Chukwuka Okwunna Kosarachukwu*, Oscar Okechukwu Micheal Iheshiulor, Apeh Omede, Prince Ifeanyi Ogbuewu.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Imo State, Nigeria. okwy2k5@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to evaluate the sensory properties of meat obtained from different broilers strains reared for 12 weeks. One hundred and sixty-two day-old birds as hatched from three commercial broiler strains (Ross, Abor Acres and Anak) were raised to 12 weeks of age. Each strain consisted of 54 birds and each group sub-divided into 3 replicates of 18 birds each. The birds were fed broiler starter diet for 4 weeks and finisher diet for 8 weeks. There were significant (P< 0.05) strain differences on body weight gain, dressing percentage abdominal fat and GIT. Differences in the daily feed intake also were significant (P< 0.05). Ross and Anak strains were statistically similar in final body weight and dressing percentage (P < 0.05). The result showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in tenderness, flavour, hedonic score and cooking loss among the strains. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):112-116]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.18

 

Key words: Broiler strain, carcass characteristic, meat quality

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Ameliorative Effect of Zinc on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Erythrocyte Fragility in Wistar Rats

 

Suleiman Folorunsho Ambali,1 Ahmad Tijjani Abubakar,1 Mufta’u Shittu,1 Lukuman Surakat Yaqub,1 Patricia Ishaku Kobo1 and Abdulganiyu Giwa2

1Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, 800004, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Phone number: +234 8037015411; E-mail address: fambali2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the molecular mechanism of chlorpyrifos (CPF) poisoning. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorative effect of zinc, an antioxidant trace element, on lipoperoxidative changes and erythrocyte fragility induced by subchronic CPF exposure in Wistar rats. Twenty adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each were used as experimental subjects. Rats in groups I (S/oil group) and II (CPF group) were exposed to soya oil only (2 ml/kg) and CPF only (10.6 mg/kg~ 1/8th LD50 ), respectively. Group III (Zn group) were dosed with zinc only (50 mg/kg) while in group IV (Zn+CPF), Zn (50 mg/kg) were co-administered with CPF (10.6 mg/kg). These regimens were administered orally once daily for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and erythrocytes analysed for erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration as an index of lipoperoxidative changes. Erythrocyte fragility was significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in CPF group compared to S/oil, Zn and Zn+CPF groups, respectively. Similarly, the CPF group showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) in MDA concentration compared to S/oil, Zn and Zn+CPF groups, respectively.The present study has shown that repeated exposure of rats to CPF increased erythrocyte fragility partly due to oxidative hemolysis resulting from increased lipoperoxidative changes. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):117-122]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.19

 

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, erythrocyte fragility, lipoperoxidation, amelioration, zinc

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Exploitation of Genetic Variability in Cowpea Improvement for High Moisture Tolerance: 3. Response of Genotypes to High Moisture Stress

 

D. O. Idahosa1 J. E. Alika2 and A. U. Omoregie1

1. Department of Crop Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2. Department of Crop Science, University of Benin, Nigeria.

E-mail: danielidahosa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cowpea is cultivated in varied agroecological environments in the humid tropics and is beset with different type of stresses such as high moisture – a phenomenon of heavy rainfall characterized by temporary waterlogging and drought at all stages of plant development and eventual low grain yield production. Twenty-seven germplasm of cowpea from diverse genetic origin were grown under rainfall condition in two locations located in rainforest-savanna transition area with sandy-loam soils and in the humid rainforest area with clay and clayey-loam soils during early and late cropping seasons in randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2006. The response of the cowpeas to increasing moisture tolerance was evaluated for different agronomic characters based on mean weekly soil moisture level and susceptibility rating scale. High moisture deficit delayed days to 50% flowering, 50% maturity, reduced pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain yield. Early season planting resulted in significant difference in crop yield of 613kg/ha in Ekpoma and 117.4kg/ha in Obayantor. The results indicated that cowpea grown under increasing moisture stress experienced delay in flowering and seed development phases though some genotypes exhibited more tolerance level to increasing moisture stress in the two seasons. Such genotypes can be exploited and improved upon for effective adaptation to waterlogged prone areas. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):123-129]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.20

 

Keywords: Cowpea germplasm, response, high moisture stress, grain yield

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Morphological Characteristics of Amaranthus Cruentus L. as Influenced by Kola Pod Husk, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizers in Southwestern Nigeria

 

1Makinde E.A., *2Ayeni, L.S and 2Ojeniyi, S.O

1Department of Botany, Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos

2 Adeyemi College of Education, PMB 520, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

3Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure.

2*Author for correspondence: leye_sam@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Greenhouse experiment was conducted using two soil types: Orthic Luvisols at Ikorodu and Ojo (Dystric Fluvisol) respectively in southwestern Nigeria. The effects of organic, organomineral and NPK fertilizer treatments on height, number of leaves; plant girth and leaf area of Amaranthus cruentus L. were studied. Eight fertilizer treatments Residual effects of fertilizers were assessed in the second planting period. The soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), N and P. compared with control, all the treatments significantly increased (p<0.05) plant height, number of leaves, plant girth and with each other in relation to plant parameters studied. PGB (50:50) is recommended for optimum leaf area. At Ikorodu, soil treated with KPH + NPK (50:50) mixture most significantly increased (p < 0.05) plant height, number of leaves, plant girth and leaf area while at LASU, PGB + NPK (50:50) had better residual effect on plant height, number of leaves, girth and leaf area at cruentus than single application of KPH, PGB and NPK fertilizer at the two sites. PGB (50:50) and KPH (50:the second cropping. All combined treatments had higher growth and yield components of Amaranthus 50) compared favourably production of Amaranthus cruentus and where it is not available KPH (50:50) could be used. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):130-134]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.21

 

Keywords: residual effect and soil types

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22

Occurrence of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi Among Ruminants in Egypt

Hussein. Kaoud1*, A.R. El-Dahshan1, M.M. Zaki1, Shaimaa.M. Abo-elsoud1

1Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Environmental Pollution and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 11221, Egypt

*Email: ka-oud@link.net

 

Abstract: Prevalence of haemolytic Mannheimia species in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in both apparently healthy and diseased animals was investigated. Nasal swabs were collected from some farms in different Governorates. Samples of lung tissues, tonsils, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and nasal swabs were also collected from freshly slaughtered cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats at abattoirs of Egypt, (A total of 837 samples). Typical β-haemolytic Pasteurellaceae were isolated from nasal swabs and tissue samples and identified biochemically. Bacterial isolates identified as P. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. The Prevalence rate of M. haemolytica which isolated from the respiratory tracts of cattle and buffaloes were 3.60% and 3.90%, respectively. M. haemolytica was isolated from sheep and goats in prevalence rate of 14.10% and 11.80%, respectively. We demonstrate that a relatively high number of apparently healthy animals seem to carry the potentially pathogenic M. haemolytica. In case of buffaloes, the recovery rate of P. trehalosi was higher than that in cattle (P. trehalosi are rare in cattle). M. haemolytica isolates were predominate over P. trehalosi in both sheep and goats. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):135-141]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030510.22

 

KEY WORDS: Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella. trehalosi, Epidemiology

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The article in this issue are online first for peer-review starting March 20, 2010
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