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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

Volume 3 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 16); June 1, 2010; ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: newyorksci@gmail.com.



Titles / Authors

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Sierra Leone’s Civil War: The Role of Sexual Violence and the Emerging Presence of International Law


Fodeba Daboh, Elizabeth Leonard, Renee Williams, Ben Newton

(Department of Political Science, Undergraduate Students, 2006)

University of Pennsylvania

fdaboh@arcadia.edu or dabofodeba@gmail.com


Abstract: The mayhem committed against women through sexual violence during the long decade civil war in Sierra Leone cannot be overemphasized. Sexual Violence for the most part was seemed to be a norm in the society. Whether the International Community’s presence played a dormant or active role to put an end to human rights volition remains unreciprocated. This paper is an attempt to examine the role of International Law and how it has dealt with the brutal instances of sexual violence both before and after Sierra Leone’s Civil War of the 1990s. [New York Science Journal. 2010;3(6):1-5]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).


Keywords: Sierra Leone civil war, international law, sexual violence, human rights, AFRC, RUF, Special Court.

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Disarmament, Demobilization Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRR): A Case Study of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan.


Fodeba Daboh, Sahr Fatoma, Michael Kuch

Arcadia University Department of International Peace and Conflict Resolution, Glenside PA, USA.

fdaboh@arcadia.edu or dabofodeba@gmail.com


Abstract: Unlike Sierra Leone and Liberia’s DDRR program that is generally considered a success, the Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Resettlement in Sudan turn out a tricky end result. In this paper, we will look at the overall goal of this project, the DDRR in general, its goals and preconditions. In the body of the paper, we will look in detail at the backgrounds to the conflicts in all the three countries, pay special attention to the implementation of the DDRR in Liberia and Sierra Leon and the challenges and successes of the two programs, with the view to bringing out the lessons learned from them in order to formulate something of a possible template for a successful DDRR in South Sudan. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):6-19]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Keywords: Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration, Resettlement, war, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Sudan

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Omojowo, Funso Samuel;* Omojasola, Patricia Folake,**, Kolawole Matthew Olatunji** Ngwu Emmanuel onyebuchi*, Oluborode Gabriel Bayode*; Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun***

jowosam@yahoo.com ; folakejasola@yahoo.co.uk ; tomak74@yahoo.com; ngwuemma@yahoo.com, tkayode2007@yahoo.com, charliguitar@yahoo.com





ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to assess the microbial quality and safety of smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) treated with Sodium chloride (table salt) during 8-week storage at room temperature. Raw catfish steaks were subjected to the following treatments for 5 minutes prior to smoking: 5-25% table salt. The non-treated catfish served as control. The control and the fresh fish treated samples showed diverse microbial load. All treated smoked sample were negative for E. coli and Streptococcus sp. The treatment effectively reduced the TVC, Coliform, Staphylococcus and fungi after smoking and these low microbial counts was maintained until the end of the 8 weeks storage. Treatments with 20 and 25% salt proved best in terms of microbial reduction but organoleptically 5% treatments are acceptable to consumers. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(5):20-26]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key words: Table salt, storage, microbial load and smoked catfish

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Anshulika Lewis 1, Kamal Kishore Pande 2, Salil K. Tewari 3, S.S. Gahalain 4 and Pankaj Sah 5

1, 2 Department of Biotechnology, M.B Govt. P.G. College, Haldwani (Nainital) Uttarakhand (India)

3 Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding (Agroforestry Project) G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (India)

4 Department of Botany, SSJ Campus, Kumaun University, Almora Uttarakhand (India)

5 Department of Applied Sciences (Applied Biology Section) Higher College of Technology (HCT) Al-khuwair PO Box 74, PC 133, Muscat (Sultanate of Oman)

anshulikahld@gmail.com, pankaj@hct.edu.om, kemscience@gmail.com

Abstract: Evaluation of fifteen species of bamboo at the age of four years indicated significant differences among the species for all the characters. Estimates of heritability in broad sense were observed generally high for leaf breadth, biomass, leaf length, culm height and internode length. Growth characters such as tree height, diameter, culm wall thickness, bole thickness were found significantly and positively correlated with biomass. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):27-31]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Keywords: Traits, Genetics, Variation and Bamboo

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Cesarean Section Scar Depiction By Transvaginal Ultrasound in Non Pregnant State


Ghada M. Mansour, MD, Sherif F. El -Mekkawy, MD, Yasser G.M. Albahaie, MD, Asmaa H. Ali, MsC.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ain Shams University.



Abstract: The number of deliveries by Cesarean section has been increasing steadily worldwide in recent decades. The aim of this study was to find whether the trans-vaginal ultrasound is able to detect Cesarean section scars and their defects in the non pregnant state. A number of two hundred parous women were included in the study. After taking a full history, general and local examination, a transvaginal ultrasound was done for all of them detecting scars and dehiscence, blinded to their modes of delivery. Number of vaginal deliveries among the cases was 94 while caesarean sections were 106. Number of caesarean deliveries ranged from 1- 4 (2 +/- 1). 47.2 % of those cases delivered once, while 3.8% of them delivered 4 times. Ultrasound prediction of caesarean section (positive cases) was 84, while negative for scar cases were 116. Statistically significant association between real results and expected results was proved using chi-square test. Sensitivity was 79.2 %, Specificity 100, positive predictive value, 100%, and negative predictive value of 81.3%. Prediction of dehiscence in non gravid uterus was not proved in this study. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):32-39]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key Words: Transvaginal ultrasound, cesarean section scar, dehiscence of scar

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Study of the Noise Pollution for three consecutive years during Deepawali festival

in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh


Digvijay Singh, B.D. Joshi

Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya

Haridwar-249 404 (Uttarakhand), India. E-mail: digvijaysingh1979@gmail.com


Abstract: The present paper deals with monitoring of Noise Pollution at different places of Meerut City on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The Noise Pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 & 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, Students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The Campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):40-]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key words: Noise Pollution, Deepawali, Fire Crackers, Health Hazards

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Gas Chromatographic Investigation of Coriandrum sativum L. from Indian Himalayas


Kamal Kishore Pande 1, Lata Pande 2, Bharat Pande 3, Atul Pujari 4 and Pankaj Sah 5

1, 4 Department of Biotechnology, Government Post Graduate College Haldwani, District Nainital, Uttarakhand State (India)

2 Food and Nutrition Laboratory (Department of Home Science) DSB Campus, Kumaun University Nainital PIN- 263003 Uttarakhand State (India)

3 Department of Chemistry, Government Post Graduate College Haldwani, District Nainital, Uttarakhand State (India)

5 Department of Applied Sciences, Higher College of Technology, PO Box 74, PC 133. Al-Khuwair, Muscat (Sultanate of Oman)

kemscience@gmail.com, pankaj@hct.edu.om, drpankajsah1@gmail.com

Abstract: The essential oils composition of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits obtained by hydro distillation was studied at three stages of maturity by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oil yields showed marked increase during maturation process and forty one compounds were identified. Geranyl acetate (46.27%), linalool (10.96%), nerol (1.53%) and neral (1.42%) were the main compounds at the first stage of maturity (immature fruits). At the middle stage, linalool (76.33%), cis-dihydrocarvone (3.21%) and geranyl acetate (2.85%) were reported as the main constituents. Essential oils at the final stage of maturity (mature fruits) consist mainly on linalool (87.54%) and cis-dihydrocarvone (2.36%). [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):43-47]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Keywords: Essential oil, Coriander, Himalaya herbs, Herbal Medicine

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Omojowo, Funso Samuel and Raji, Aminu

jowosam@yahoo.com and niffish@gmail.com



ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to assess microbial quality and safety of smoked Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) treated with Sodium benzoate) during 8-week storage at room temperature. Raw catfish steaks were subjected to the following treatments for 5 minutes prior to smoking: 1-5% Sodium benzoate. The non-treated tilapia served as control. The control and the fresh fish treated samples showed diverse microbial load. All treated smoked sample were negative for E. coli and Streptococcus sp. The treatment effectively reduced the TVC, Coliform, Staphylococcus and fungi after smoking and these low microbial counts was maintained until the end of the 8 weeks storage. Treatments with 5% sodium benzoate proved best in terms of microbial reduction but organoleptically 1 or 2% treatments are acceptable to consumers. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):48-54]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key words: Sodium benzoate, storage, microbial load and smoked Tilapia

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Quadratic Model for Computational Analysis and Predictive Assessment of the Concentration of Dissolved Haematite during Oxalic Acid Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore

Chukwuka I. Nwoye and Ihuoma E. Mbuka

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. chikeyn@yahoo.com


Abstract: A quadratic model has been derived for computational analysis and predictive assessment of the concentration of dissolved haematite during leaching of iron oxide ore in oxalic acid solution. The model;

γ2 βγ - k = 0

k1 %Fe2O3


was found to be dependent on the value of the initial leaching solution pH measured during the leaching process. It was found that the validity of the model is rooted on the expressions D = k1%Fe2O3 and γ/D where both sides of each expression are correspondingly approximately almost equal. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted concentration of dissolved haematite from the corresponding experimental values was found to be less than 24% which is quite within the acceptable range of deviation limit of experimental results. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):55-60]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Keywords: Quadratic model, Dissolved Haematite, Initial solution pH, Oxalic Acid, Leaching, Iron Oxide Ore

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Traditional uses of medicinal plants of Pauri Garhwal, Uttrakhand


Nazir A. Pala, A. K. Negi, N. P. Todaria

Department of Forestry, Post Box -59, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal-246174, Uttrakhand


Abstract: The present study was carried out in some interior areas of Pauri district of Uttrakhand state to collect the information of traditionally used medicinal plants by the communities. A total of 61 medicinal plants belonging to 28 families were used by local people to cure different diseases. Out of 61 medicinal plant species 13 plant species were having roots and rhizomes as medicinal parts, 7 species containing fruits and flowers as medicinal value, Whereas 28 plant species were having leaves as their medicinal plant parts. Almost all these medicinal plants identified were used to cure human diseases and in which 10 plant species were also used to cure diseases of cattle of the local communities. Local communities, especially, older age class, including women heavily use these traditionally available medicinal plants for health and believe that these are easily available, less expensive, and have no side effects. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):61-65]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key words: Traditional knowledge, disease, local communities, traditional practices

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Modulator Role of Grape Seed Extract on Erythrocyte Hemolysis and Oxidative Stress Induced by Microwave Irradiation in Rats


Nahed S. Hassan, Bassem M. Raafat and Samir W. Aziz

Biochemistry Department, Laboratory of biophysics, National Research Center, El Tahrir street, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt. Fax: 202-33370931.

nahedsha33@yahoo.com, bassemraafat@hotmail.com, samir_Wassef@hoymail.com


Corresponding Author: Nahed S. Hassan, Biochemistry Department, Laboratory of biophysics.

National Research Center, El Tahrir street, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt. Fax: 202-33370931

E-mail: nahedsha33@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate firstly, the oxidative stress and erythrocyte hemolysis induced by exposure to 2450 MHz continuous wave microwave (MW), which is the carrier of signals emitted by cellular phones. Secondly to evaluate the possible protective role of grape seed extract. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups, the first group was considered as control, the second group was exposed to microwave at frequency 2450 MHz alone, the third group was supplemented by grape seed extract (GSE 200 mg/kg b.wt) and the fourth group was exposed to MW but was also supplemented by (GSE 200 mg/kg b.wt) before irradiation. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation (LPO), was estimated and used as a marker of oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were expressed to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. Also erythrocyte osmofragility test was assessed to determine rate by which red blood cells will undergo hemolysis. The level of malondialdehyde significantly elevated and the levels of antioxidative enzymes significantly decreased, in addition the erythrocyte hemolysis rate increased in the MW group compared to the control group. Oral administration of GSE exhibited marked amelioration of LPO, antioxidative enzymes, and rate of hemolysis which returned to normal values during the course of GSE treatment. It could be concluded that GSE has potent antioxidant effect that may be able to compensate MW-induced oxidative changes in the blood tissue by strengthening the antioxidant defense system. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):66-73]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key Words: Microwave, Grape seed extract, Osmotic fragility, Oxidative stress

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Samia Ismail Mohamed Mostafa 1, Mohamed Fathy Farag Bayomy2 , Amal I. Hassan1 and Nadia Abdel Raouf M. Zahran1

1Radioisotopes Department, Nuclear Research Center Atomic Energy Authority

2 Department of Zoology, Physiology, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University


ABSTRACT: Hyperthermia therapy, a form of cancer treatment, has been recently paid considerable attention because it is expected to significantly reduce clinical side effects compared to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and can be effectively used for killing localized or deeply seated cancer tumors. The present study was designed to investigate the thermal kinetics of mild and severe whole body hyperthermia (WBH) at 42C and 43C and its thermal late effect, at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post mild and severe WBH (42C & 43C) in normal strain male rabbits, on some biochemical parameters, serum levels of heat shock proteins, total protein, albumin, globulin, and testosterone. Besides the histological structure of testis, before and after mild and severe WBH treatment and its thermal late effects at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. It was attempted to evaluate the degree of safety and the effective time when hyperthermia is applied in the clinic for treating cancer and other diseases with keeping the normal cell intact. Exposure of male rabbits to mild (42C) and severe (43C) WBH showed an increase in serum total protein and albumin which showed continuous increase till the end of experiment in mild WBH (42C) whereas it induced significant decrease in serum globulins. While in severe treatment (43C), serum total protein showed significant decrease and reached the control value at 28 days post heat treatment. Severe WBH (43C) showed significant increase in serum albumin and globulins immediately after WBH till the end of the experiment (from 7 days till 28 days). Results showed that significant decrease in testosterone level immediately after mild (42C) and severe (43C) WBH. During the recovery period the level of testosterone began to increase till reached nearly the control value at 28 days post WBH in both treatments (42C and 43C).Moreover, mild & severe WBH (42C&43C) caused induction of HSP70 KD of rabbit serum immediately after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The histopathological examination of testis revealed that the mild treatment group (at 42C) the duration time was long through the period of the experiment (28 days) with mild changes in the testicular tissues which characterized by mild degeneration, azosperms and giant spermatogonial cell formation. Regarding the process of spermatogenesis in this group, it is still weak through the whole period of the experiment (28 days) but it did not stop. In the severe treatment group (43C), there was severe reaction characterized by degenerative, necrobiotic changes in the early stage and immediately after heat exposure with short duration time until 14 days post WBH, while at 21 days and 28 days, the tissue started to show completely series of spermatogenesis and mature sperms associated with giant spermatogonial cells at 28 days post WBH (43C). The spermatogenesis was completely affected and nearly stopped then went back to normal as quickly as 21 days post WBH (43C). [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):74-87]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Keywords: Hyperthermia therapy; histopathological examination; mild degeneration; azosperms

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Tree As Bio-Indicator Of Automobile Pollution In Dehradun City: A Case Study


Avnish Chauhan

Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities

Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pardesh-244001. avnishchauhan_phd@aol.in


Abstract: The plant species selected for the study were Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Delonix regia. Reduction in chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid, carotenoid, pH, relative water content and APTI was recorded in the leaf samples of all selected trees collected from polluted site when compared with samples from control area. The data obtained were further analyzed by using two-way ANOVA and also obtained significant changes in all these parameters was found in the leaf samples collected from polluted site trees, exposed to automobile exhaust in comparison to control site. There was maximum (43.36%) reduction of chlorophyll ‘a’ content in the leaves of Ficus religiosa and minimum (26.57%) reduction was in the Mangifera indica, while maximum (30.99%) carotenoid was depleted in Polyalthia longifolia and minimum (18.42%) depleted in Mangifera indica at polluted site as compared to control site. The maximum (44.67%) reduction of ascorbic acid was observed in the leaves of Delonix regia and minimum (22.93%) reduction was observed in the leaves of Polyalthia longifolia. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):88-95]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Keywords: Air Quality Index, Clock Tower, Chlorophyll, APTI

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Studies on the Post-Mortem Changes in African Catfish (Clarias angullaris) During Ice –Storage


*Ihuahi Josiah Adoga; **Egila Joseph; and *Omojowo Funso Samuel

*National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), P.M.B. 6006, New Bussa, Niger-State, Nigeria.

**University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.

joeihua@yahoo.co.uk, egilajn@yahoo.com, jowosam@yahoo.com


Abstract: Studies were conducted to evaluate the post-mortem changes in African Catfish (Clarias angullaris) during 18 days of ice-storage. Rigor started within 1hr, 30 min after spiking, increased gradually with the lapse of storage time. Maximum rigor index (78%) was attained within 5 hrs, which continued for about 2 hrs 30 min and did not attain full rigor (100%) and then started to relax from rigor. Almost complete relaxation (35%) occurred within 12 hrs after death without showing any sign of spoilage. Initial pH of the muscle immediately after death was 7.10, which decreased to 6.00 within 4 days, and then gradually increased to 7.25 at the lapse of 18 days storage period, when the fish was organoleptically unacceptable. The initial TVB-N and peroxide values were 7.21 mg/100 g and 4.0 meq/kg of oil respectively, which continuously increased with the lapse of the storage period. TVB-N value was 25.42 mg/100 g at the end of 12 days which was within the recommended limit for fresh fish. Values of TVB-N after 12 days exceeded recommended limit. Results of peroxide value did not support those of sensory evaluation since all values were within limit of acceptability throughout the experiment, even when other results indicated unacceptability. The organoleptic acceptability of Clarias angullaris assessed on the basis of quality attributes such as general appearance, odor, color, eyes, slime and consistency of flesh was limited to 12 days. Initial total viable count was 3.2 x 103 cfu/g which increased to 1.6 x 106 cfu/g on day 12. At this stage the fish were within accepted recommended limit. After 12days, the values exceeded acceptable limit reaching 5.7 x 108cfu/g at the end of 18days. Total coliform count was lower than total viable count throughout the experiment. The overall results indicated that Clarias angullaris was found in acceptable conditions for 12 days of ice-storage in the insulated ice box. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):96-101]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).



Key words: Clarias angullaris, post-mortem, rigor-mortis, ice-storage, quality

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Extreme value theory and peaks over threshold model: An application to the Russian stock market


Vladimir O. Andreev1, Oleg B. Okunev2, Sergey Eu. Tinyakov3

1. ORAGS Academy, Orel, 302028, Russia

2. MGIMO University, Moscow, 119454, Russia

3. SFU University, Krasnoyarsk - Zheleznogorsk, 662974, Russia



Abstract: Traditional research methods adopt normal distributions as a pattern of the stock market behavior. This paper utilized POT model of extreme value theory, and GPD distribution which can give more accurate description on tail distribution of financial returns/losses. EVT and POT techniques are applied to a series of daily losses of the RTS index (RTSI) over a 15-year period (1995-2009), RTSI is total index of 50 largest Russian stocks. The focus is on the use of proposed methods to asses tail related risk providing a modeling tool for modern risk management. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):102-107]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Keywords: Extreme Value Theory, General Pareto Distribution, Peaks over Threshold, Tail Distribution, Value at Risk

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Erosion of Biodiversity knowledge between younger and older generation regarding plant identification and their uses in oak and pine dominated zone of Garhwal Himalaya.


Dhani Arya* Ashish Tewari ** Shruti Shah**

* Department of Botany HNB Garhwal University Srinagar Garhwal UK (india)

** Department of Forestry DSB Campus Kumaun University Nainital UK (India)


ABSTRACT-The present study deals with the erosion of biodiversity knowledge between young and older generation regarding the plant identification and use such as fodder, fuel, timber, edible, religious and medicinal plants. The knowledge have been analyzed with both group and result have been shows the erosion of knowledge in younger group 21.64% in oak and 34.06% in pine zone in compare to the older group (male and female). [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):108-111]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Key words- Garhwal Himalaya, young and older generation

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New Records of Coccinellid Beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from District Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India


*Pushpendra K. Sharma and Prakash C. Joshi

*Department of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001 (U.K.), India

Department of Zoology and Environment Science, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar249404,U.K., India


*Corresponding author. E. mail <pushp_phd@yahoo.com> Phone- +919410164962, 91-135-2743555

Abstract: An extensive survey of predatory and mycophagous Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Dehradun District, India, over a period of two years (July 2005 to June 2007). A total of 4382 specimens of Coccinellids were collected at four different sites representing four different ecosystems having altitudes from 310m to 640m within the Dehradun. Twenty five species were identified and 14 species were recorded for the first time from district Dehradun. These 14 newly recorded species belong to 11 genera of 4 tribes and 3 sub-families. The following 14 species belonged to sub-family Coccinellinae and tribe Coccinellini: Anegleis cardoni (Weise), Cheilomenes sexmaculata var undulata (Fabricius), Harmonia dimidiata (Fabricius), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), Hippodamia sp., Illeis cincta (Fabricius), Megalocaria dilatata (Fabricius), Micraspis discolor (Fabricius), Micraspis vincta (Fabricius), Micraspis sp., and Psyllobora bisoctonata (Mulsant). Two species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae and tribe Chilocirini: Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius) and Chilocorus nigrita (Fabricius). Only one species namely Rodolia sexnotata (Mulsant) represented tribe Noviini of the subfamily Coccidulinae. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):112-120]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Keywords: New record, Coccinellid beetles, Coccinellidae, Coleoptera, Predatory

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Cytogenetic and Biochemical effects of anti depression drug (wellbutrin) on male mice

Hanaa M. Roshdy* & Amal A.Fyiad**

* Cell Biology department, National Research Centre

** Biochemistry department, National Research Centre

Corresponding author: Hana-amr@hotmail.com


ABSTRACT: Background:Wellbutrin (bupropion hydrochloride) is a new highly selective norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, it is effective in the treatment of patients with major depression. Aim: Evaluating the cytogenetics and biochemical effects of wellbutrin .Material and methods: The sample of this study is male albino mice, divided into control group ( did not administrate any treatment) and adult male albino mice group administrated orally doses of (0.2 and 0.4 mg kg/day) wellbutrin for 14 consecutive days and after one day from the last treatment the treated males were sacrificed and examined for sperm head abnormalities, cytogenetic analysis in (spermatocyte and bone marrow cells) and biochemical analysis (DNA, RNA and protein brain content). Results showed that in the group of males treated with (0.2 mg/kg/day) wellbutrin, the frequencies of sperm head abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations in spermatocyte and bone marrow cells were increased significantly while the DNA, RNA and total protein brain content were decreased significantly as compared with the control. On the other hand in the group of males treated with (0.4 mg/kg/day) wellbutrin there was a highly significant increase in the frequencies of sperm (head abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations (in spermatocyte and Bone marrow cells and a highly significant decrease in the DNA, RNA and total protein content in the brain of treated males as compared with the control group. Thus, we concluded that wellbutrin should be taken under extreme medical care because it is considered a mutagenic drug. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):121-126]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Key words: Wellbutrin – chromosomal aberrations - sperm abnormalities -DNA-RNA- total protein - mice - bupropion hydrochloride

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Cytogenetic and Biochemical effects of Metenix on Albino Male Mice


Amal A.Fyiad* & Hanaa M. Roshdy**

* Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre

**Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre

ABSTRACT: Background: Metenix (metolazone) is a new antihypertensive, it is effective in the treatment of patients with high blood pressure, heart failure and edema. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytogenetic and biochemical effects of metenix. Materials and methods: Study sample (Male adult albino mice) was divided into two major groups;treated group and matched control. Treated group adminstred orally doses of (0.01, 0.02) and 0.04mg (kg) of metenix for 10 consecutive days.Control did not receive any treatment. All treated groups and control were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment the incidences of sperm head abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations in (bone marrow and spermatocytes, were determined in all treated groups. Results showed that (metenix) caused a significant increase in the frequencies of abnormal sperms and chromosomal aberrations in (somatic and germ cells, in all treated groups compared with control and these increases were dose dependent. The biochemical analysis (nucleic acids and total protein) were examined in the livers of treated animals. The results stowed that there was significant decrease in the nucleic acids and total protein content in the livers of treated animals compared with control; these decreases were dose dependent. The data obtained in this study suggested that (metenix) should be used under medical control due to its cytogenetic and biochemical toxic effects on male albino mice. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):127-132]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Keywords: metenix, chromosomal analysis, sperm head abnormalities, DNA, RNA, total protein, male mice

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Comparing the use of Tithonia diversifolia and Compost as soil amendments for growth and yield of Celosia argentea


Shokalu, Adekemi Olubukola *1, Ojo, Aderemi O.2 Ezekiel-Adewoyin, Dorcas Tinuke 3 and Azeez, Jamiu Oladipupo 4

1National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B. 5432, Idi- Ishin, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Federal College of Agriculture, I.A.R. & T., Ibadan, Nigeria

4 Department of Soil Science and Land Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

*Corresponding author kemishokalu@yahoo.co.uk, (+234 80 3636 9814)


ABSTRACT: Field experiment was conducted between June and September in the 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons at the teaching and experimental research field of the National Horticultural Research Institute (7025”N and 3052”E), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, to compare the growth and yield of Celosia argentea L. using different rates and sources of organic amendments and also evaluate the effect of the amendments on soil chemical properties. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates the plot size was 4 m2. Tithonia diversifolia (chopped, fresh leaves and young stem) was applied at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 20 tons ha-1 and compost (made from cassava peels + poultry manure at ratio 3:1 on dry weight basis) at the same rates. These treatments were incorporated into the soil two weeks before planting. Agronomic data and soil chemical parameters were subsequently collected. Results indicated that soil P, Ca, CEC, K and soil organic matter content were significantly (P < 0.05) improved by the addition of both compost and Tithonia. There were no significant effect of compost on soil pH, N, Mg and Zn, but these parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) improved with the use of Tithonia. The plant’s number of leaves, plant height and stem girth increased significantly (P< 0.05) with the application of both compost and Tithonia; though compost amended plots gave higher values. Mean yield for two years in the compost amended plots was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (45.52 tons ha-1), compared with that observed for Tithonia (40.17 tons ha-1) amended plots. Compost amendment at 20 tons ha-1 produced the highest yield of Celosia argentea. [New York Science Journal 2010; 3(6):133-138]. (ISSN 1554 – 0200).


Keywords: Celosia, Tithonia, compost, soil amendments

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