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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

纽约科学杂志

Volume 3 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 20); October 1, 2010, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: newyorksci@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

Serum anti-inflammatory interleukin profiles in Nigerian pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

 

1Nmorsi, O.P.G., 1Isaac, C., 2Ukwandu, N.C.D., 1Ohaneme, B.A. and 3Eifediyi, R.A.

 

1. Tropical Diseases Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2. Department of Medical Microbiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

3. Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: Prof. O.P.G. Nmorsi, nmorsi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We investigated some anti-inflammatory interleukin profiles in peripheral and placental blood of 96 pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ekpoma, Nigeria. In peripheral blood, interleukin-4 (IL-4) was elevated in mild (10.6 pg/ml) than in moderate (3.7 pg/ml) infection while in placental blood, elevated levels were observed in moderate (11.7 pg/ml) than mild (1.6pg/ml) infection. The depressed levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5) seen in mild than moderate infection in peripheral (331.0 pg/ml versus 419.6 pg/ml) and placental (314.2 pg/ml versus 571.2 pg/ml) blood was statistically significant (χ2 =10.46 and χ2 = 74.58; p <0.05). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) was elevated in mild infection (225 pg/ml) than in moderate infection (56 pg/ml) in peripheral blood and this difference was significant (χ2 = 101.64; p <0.05) while in placental blood, the elevated levels observed in moderate infection (226 pg/ml) was statistically higher than mild (158.3 pg/ml) infection (χ2 =11.88; p < 0.05). The volunteers with moderate infection had low haemoglobin level of 7.5g/dl and a mean low birth weight of 2.43kg. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.01

Key Words: Anti-inflammatory Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, Pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum, Nigeria

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Improvement growth and immune status using a potential probiotic bacteria Micrococcus species among Culured Oreochromis niloticus

 H.A.M.oSman1, TAGHREED B.IBRAHIM1, W.SOLIMAN1, OMIMA ABOUD2

1. Hydrobilogy department National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2. Fish diseases department, Animal Health Research institute, Dokki, Egypt

makkapigeon@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Probiotic bacteria Micrococcus species isolated from the gonads of apparently healthy Oreochromis niloticus was harmless to O. niloticus and had antagonistic effect against the pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila invitro. The inhibition zone to A. hydrohpila was 47 mm in diameter due to M. species. The effect of supplemental dietary probiotic bacteria (pseudomonas sp.107 cells/g food) on some heamatological parameter, growth performance and survival rate of O. niloticus. were divided to two groups, with three replicates each. Fish were fed frequently on a diet (5% of body weight) three times daily for 60 days. The obtained results showed that the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of O. niloticus increased significantly in the treated fish, when compared to the untreated group. Also, feed conversion ratio was lower in the treated group than the control one. Erythrocytic counts and hemoglobin content total serum protein, A/G ratio and phagocytic activity in fish fed on diets containing M. species were higher than that of the control group. After feeding sixty days O. niloticus was challenged I/P by A. hydrophila 0.3107 cells/ml. The survival rate was 75% with M. species while, it was 20% in the control group. Thus, the isolated M. sp. was harmless to O. niloticus and had probiotic effect in vitro and in vivo. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):5-11]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.02

Key words: Oreochromis niloticus- Micrococcus species- Aeromonas hydrophila- feed conversion ratio- Erythrocyte counts- hemoglobin content- phagocytic activity probiotic

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Comparative Analysis Of The Productivity Of Sustainable Cassava Farming Under External And Internal Input Use In Imo State Nigeria

 

Nwaiwu Innocent1, Odii Marshall1, Ohajianya Donatus1, Eze Chiedozie1, Oguoma Nicholas1, Ibekwe Christopher1, Henri-Ukoha Adanna1, Kadiri Fausat1, Amaechi Clifford.2, Oguh Joy2

1. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology P.M.B.1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

2. Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria.

 niuche2004@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This sturdy analyzed the productivity of cassava farmers under external and internal input use. Primary data were collected from 200 smallholder cassava farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Questionnaires were administered to the farmers using cost-route approach. Data were collected on the farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and values of input used and output produced. Data were analyzed using partial productivity approach and comparison made with Z-statistics. The results showed among others that there was no significant difference between the partial productivity per hectare of the average farmer that used external input and one that used internal input. Their average income per hectare were found to be significantly different from each other and stood at N93,750 and N106,443 for external and internal input users respectively. It is recommended therefore that internal inputs use should be encouraged and external inputs used as complementary inputs where inevitable. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):12-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.03

Key words: External input, Internal input, Sustainability, Analysis, and Comparison

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Quality assessment of selected cereal – soybean mixtures in “ogi” production

Bolaji Oluwatosin Akanbi 1, Olubunmi O Agarry 1, Samuel Alimi Garba1,2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Unit, University of Abuja, P.M.B 117, Abuja, Nigeria.

2 Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65 Minna, Nigeria.

tosinakanbi2@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: To develop a protein rich weaning food in a country with high poverty rate, the effects of adding soybeans as a starting material for “ogi” production were evaluated. Simple spontaneous fermentation was carried out similar to traditional fermentation and proximate analysis and bioavailabity test using broiler chicks were performed to determine nutrient content and inactivation of protein inhibitors present in soybeans respectively. The Fermented soybean-cereal mixtures resulted in higher microbial densities, protein content and lactic acid than fermented cereals without soybeans (P <0.05). Chicks fed diets from the fermented mixtures showed better weight gain and food efficiency than those fed on fermented cereals without soybeans (P<0.05). Incorporation of soybeans in cereals did not result in any significant differences in microbial types. The inclusion of soybeans in as a starting material in the production of “ogi” improves the nutritional value and further research is needed to elucidate the contributions of the microbiota involved with respect to protein inhibitors inactivation and phytase degradation. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):17-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200)

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.04

Key words: ogi, protein inhibitors, soybean, bioavailability,poverty, lactic acid

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Rare and Threatened species of medicinal value under Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. in District Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu ( India)

 

Lal Singh1, Prafulla Soni2, H.B. Vasistha3, S.K. Kamboj4

 1,2,3,4 Forest Ecology and Environment Division

P.O. New Forest, Forest Research Institute Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India)-248006

Email: sonip1405@gmail.com; lalsingh82@gmail.com;

 

Abstract: A survey in District Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu (India) shows that the industrial area harbors diverse species of various rare and threatened medicinal plants of tropical region. 40 species of medicinal and other ethno botanical uses have been recorded Out of 40 species 6 are listed as rare and threatened as per the IUCN categorization. This area therefore represents a very conducive habitat for their in-situ conservation. Maintaining such types of habitats may be very valuable in protecting and conserving these rare and endangered species of the tropical region of the country. The present paper describes in detail the rare and threatened flora inventoried in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):27-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.05

Keywords: Prosopis juliflora, medicinal, diversity, rare, threatened

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Pollution of Ibadan soil by industrial effluents

 

Adebisi, Segun Akanmu1 and Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike1*

1Department of Geological and Chemical Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, PMB 4494, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

*Address correspondence to Engr. Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike

Department of Geological and Chemical Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, PMB 4494, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Phone: +234-8067726800. kfayemiwo@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the land we live on, the water we use and the air we breathe. Many industrial activities are responsible for discharging waste into the environment, and these waste containing many poisonous substances that will contaminate the soil. Soil contamination by effluents from nine (9) food processing industries in Ibadan city was the subject of this research. Effluents, receiving water, soil and plants around the industries were sampled and analyzed for levels of pollutants using standard analytical methods. The results shown significant pollutants enrichment of soil by the effluents from the studied industries. Industrial pollution is clearly one of the biggest contributions to our polluted land, at least here in the west; there is need for a stricter regulation of industrial effluents to control soil contamination, in order to reduce the risk to public health. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):37-41]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.06

Key words: Food Processing, Ibadan, pollution, industries effluent

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Polyculture Of Heteroclarias / Tilapia Under Different Feeding Regimes

 

Solomon, J.R and Ezigbo, M. N.

 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory.

Johnsol2004@yahoo.com. Tel: +2348033140666

 

ABSTRACT: Triplicate Treatments of Heteroclarias and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings in a semi-intensive polyculture system, were fed for twelve weeks on Pigeon pea meal, Bambara groundnut meal and coppen floating feed. They were fed at 3% body weight and were used as the control treatment. Growth performance and Physiochemical Parameters were measured weekly. Results showed that the treatment fed with coppen had the best growth performance; mean weight gain (2.23g) and (1.13g) for Heteroclarias and Tilapia, while the treatments fed with substitutes, showed appreciable growth performance with Pigeon pea meal having a final mean weight gain of (1.16g) and (0.74g) and Bambara nut coming last with (0.92)g and (0.97g) respectively. There was significant difference (P>0.05) between the feed types on the growth of the fish. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):42-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.07

Key Words: Bambara groundnut, coppen feed, Heteroclarias and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

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Biochemical Significance of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Psoriasis vulgaris among Egyptian Patients

 

Halla M. Ragab*, Nabila Abd El Maksoud* and Mohamed M. Farid Roaiah**

 *Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

** Dermatology & Andrology and S. T. D.S, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo university.

hmragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis has been characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by acanthosis and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. Several growth factors and cytokines, are assumed to be important. Recent studies indicate that various cytokines including tumor necrosis factor - α ( TNF - α ), IL - 2R and IL - 6 play an essential role in the induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. Objectives: To analyse relevant inflammatory mediators in the serum of patients with active psoriasis ( Psoriasis vulgaris ) of mild-to-moderate and severe psoriasis compared to healthy controls. Patients / Methods: Forty psoriasis patients were recruited from the dermatology outpatient clinic of Cairo University Hospital. Patients body mass index ( BMI ), waist circumference and psoriasis area and severity index ( PASI ) were recorded. Fasting serum samples were obtained on enrolment. All the patients did not receive any treatment (locally or systemically), for at least four weeks before enrolment. Age, sex and ( BMI ) matched with forty healthy controls were also recruited. Serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 levels were estimated using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay ( ELISA ) technique. The patients group were subdivided to two groups according to the diseases severity, PASI, into, mild-to-moderate psoriasis group and severe psoriasis group. Results: Serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 were all statistically significant elevated in the patients group compared to healthy controls ( p < 0.05 ). Also they were all statistically significant increased in severe psoriasis compared to mild-to-moderate psoriasis ( p <0.05 ). Conclusions: These data support the view that serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, possibly by induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. We recommend a use of an array of these cytokines as a useful follow-up marker for monitoring of psoriatic patients and optimizing therapeutic strategies. Also we suggest the study of antisense therapy using the antibody of these cytokines in psoriatic patients. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):58-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.08

Keywords: Psoriasis vulgaris, Cytokines, TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6

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Contribution of mesophilic starter and adjunct lactobacilli to proteolysis and sensory properties of semi hard cheese

 

El-Sayed El-Tanboly, Mahmoud El-Hofi, N. S. Abd-Rabou and Wahed El-Desoki1

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

1Dairy Science Department, Al-Azhar univ., Agriculture Faculty, Assuet Branch

tanboly1951@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cheese products enriched with probiotic bacteria are one of optimized functional foods. The objective of the present study was to influence of modified mesophilic starter and probiotic Lactobacillus, as adjunct culture, on product quality, in particular the proteolytic pattern of the cheeses. The composition and the pH value were almost identical between cheese. The rate of proteolysis of cheese with probiotic bacteria was slightly higher than that in control cheese, probably as a consequence of their different proteolytic activity. Levels of water soluble nitrogen (WSN/TN), non protein nitrogen (NPN/TN) and levels of phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen (PTA/TN) increased significantly with ripening period. Organoleptic evaluation showed that probiotic cheese had higher sensory evaluation than control cheese, without probiotic strain. The population of Lactobacillus survived to numbers > 107 cfu/g, which is necessary for positive effects on health. These results showed that the contribution of mesophilic starter and probiotic strain as adjunct culture can be successfully used in production of semi hard cheese. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):67-73]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.09

Keywords: Physically heat shock mesophilic starter; probiotic bacteria; semi hard cheese;cheese proteolysis

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Phytochemical Analysis and Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Cassia Occidentalis L. (whole plant)

 

1*Egharevba, Henry Omoregie; 2Odigwe Anselem C.; 3Abdullahi, Makailu Sabo; 4Okwute, Simon Koma; 1Okogun, Joseph Ibumeh

 1Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine

National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research &Development (NIPRD), Idu Industrial Layout, Idu, P.M.B. 21 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
3National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

4Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

*Corresponding author

Phone number: +234 8036453033; E-mail: omoregieegharevba@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Cassia occidentalis L. whole plant was extracted successively with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. Another crude extract of aqueous methanol was also carried out. The extracts were tested in vitro for activity against standard strains microbes and clinical isolates. The zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. The in vitro antimicrobial screening revealed that the extract exhibited varying activity against different microbes with zones of inhibition ranging from 14-34mm, MIC ranging from 1.25 - 10mg/ml, and MBC/MFC of 2.5-20mg/ml for the sensitive organisms at the tested concentrations. The highest activity was an MIC of 1.25 mg/ml and MBC of 2.5mg/ml. The activities observed could be due to the presence of some of the secondary metabolites like, alkaloids, anthraquinones, sterols, glycosides, saponins, terpenes and flavonoids detected in the plant. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):74-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.10

Key words: Cassia occidentalis, phytochemicals, antimicrobial activity, MIC, MBC, MFC

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Open Source Bioinformatics Workbench Options for Life Science Researchers

 

Tarun Kant

 Biotechnology Laboratory, FGTB Division

Arid Forest Research Institute, New Pali Road, Jodhpur 342005, India

Email: tarunkant@icfre.org

 

Abstract: It is unimaginable to think of a life science researcher who does not use a modern day computer as an aid to his research. In fact, modern day research cannot go on without computers playing some role in their research endeavours. The degree of this role may vary from use of embedded microchips in various intelligent equipments in use to complex data analysis. Today’s researcher is surely computer savvy. With high throughput cutting-edge technology, a biologist is generating sea of data which needs high speed computing power to process and analyze it and bring out a logical interpretation. Bioinformatics tools are available today for all areas of life sciences. Most of the tools available are open source and freely available. And all these tools are now available under the umbrella of open source Linux OS platform. This review throws light on the available Linux distributions that can be used effectively as bioinformatics workbenches. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):82-87]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.11

 

Keywords: Linux; bioinformatics, FOSS, sequence alignment, phylogeny

Abbreviations: GNU - GNU’s Not Unix; GPL - GNU General Public License; OS - Operating System; OSS/FS - Open Source Software/Free Software; FOSS - Free and Open Source Software; TCO - Total Cost of Ownership

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 Molecular Genetic Approach by using the RAPD-PCR Technique for Detection of Genetic Variability in Non- Human Isolates of Fasciola

 

Nashwa I. Ramadan1, Lobna M. Saber2, Maha M. Abd El Latif3, Nabila A. Abdalla4, and Halla M. Ragab4

 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, 3Department of research and applications of supplementary medicine, 4Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

hmragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of the Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications for epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. The aim of the present work was to study the molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica isolates collected from cows and sheep, using the random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments-polymerase chain reaction (RAPDs-PCR) technique. Methods: F. gigantica and F. hepatica of bovine and ovine origin were collected from the biliary tracts and gall bladders of condemned bovine and ovine livers from Cairo Governmental slaughter house.. By using (RAPDs-PCR) technique, optimal standardization of conditions of amplification and thermocyclation was made, using genetic markers. The methodology used compared the genetic pattern between the two species (inter-species) and inside each species (intra-species) between cow and sheep and the amplification fragments were between 135 and 741 base pairs of marker. Results: The results showed genetic variations (polymorphisms) of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica with amplification fragment based on a 500 – 400 base pair (bp). Inside each species, there were genetic variations in bovine and ovine strains and the amplification fragments were between 600 and 400 base pairs (bp). Conclusion: This assay is useful for both individual diagnosis and epidemiological surveys in endemic regions. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):88-96]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.12

 Keywords: Fasciola hepatica; Fasciola gigantica and (RAPDs-PCR) technique

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Evaluation of Maize-Soyabean Intercrop as Influenced by Sowing Date of Soyabean in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

 

Futuless,Kaki Ngodi

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture Adamawa State University P.M.B 25 Mubi,Nigeria.

futulesskaki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted at Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria with the objective of evaluating the influence of soyabean sowing date on maize-soyabean intercrop during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons. The crops were grown on sandy loam soil in alternate rows typical of the husbandry practices of the area.Results indicate that, variation in soyabean sowing dates influenced the growth and yield of soyabean more than that of maize with early sown soyabean producing more yield than later sown one.Results revealed that, the number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant,1000 grain weight, grain weight per plant and grain yield ( kg|ha) of soyabean were significantly (p=0.05) higher with SD1 in both years compared to other treatments. It was observed also, that the optimum sowing date for both maize and soyabean that produced the best yield and yield determining characters was SD1 for the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(10):97-102]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.13

Key Words: Maize-soyabean intercrop, Optimum, Grain yield, Sowing date

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Variation in heavy metal contents on roadside soils along a major express way in South east Nigeria

 

1 Mbah C N, 2M A N Anikwe

 

1Department of Soil and Environmental Management.

Ebonyi State University, P.M.B,053, AbakalikiNigeria.

2Department of Agronomy and Ecological Management.

Enugu State University of Science and Technology, EnuguNigeria

cnmbah10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pollution of natural environment due to release of heavy metals from various sources is a widespread problem through out the world. The study investigated heavy metal concentration on roadside along a major expressway in south eastern Nigeria. Fifteen air dried surface soil samples were collected from 50cm – 1m ( point A) and fifteen from 100m (point B) away from the roadside along a road with a distance of 170 km. Heavy metals were found in both points with highest concentration at 50cm – 1m (point A). Mean values 5205.11(Fe), 247.97(Cu), 74.11(Zn) 100.19(Pb) and 18.8(Cd) mgkg-1 were recorded at 50cm – 1m while means values at 100m away from the roadside for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 4890, 217.86, 64.08, 87.13 and 3.05 mgkg-1, respectively. Variability of heavy metals ranged between 7 – 56% and 14 – 70% at 50cm – 1m and 100m, away from the road, respectively. At 50cm – 1m and 100m, Pb and Cd showed high variability with highest variability (70%) observed in Pb at 100m away from roadside. Results from the study showed that the studied soil contains higher levels of heavy metals nearer the roadside and constitute health risk to human and animal health when plants – based food stuff grown along the area is consumed. [New York Science Journal. 2010;3(10):103-107]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.14

 

Keywords: Automobile waste; Heavy metal; Expressway; Pollutio; Toxicity

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Gross And Microscopic Changes In The Gonads Of Male And Female Domestic Pigeon (Columbia Livia)

 

Kigir E. S.1, Sivachelvan M. N. 1, Kwari H. D.1, Sonfada M. N.2, Yahaya A.1, Thilza I. B.3 and Wiam I. 1

1. Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

2. Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria

3. Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

thilzathilzathilza@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to observe the gross features of the male and female pigeon as well as the behavioral patterns and histological features of their gonads with the aim of establishing their sexual characteristics as a mode of identifying their sex. Seven pairs of pigeon age at 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 13 and 14 weeks were purchased from local breeders and reared under controlled conditions before they were used in this study. A pair of bird was sacrificed at a time after body weights were recorded. The gonads were then dissected out and weighed wherever possible before being subjected to histological studies using routine Haematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) staining technique. Grossly, the colour pattern and feather did not show any obvious difference between the male and female. A pair consists of male and female. A male weighed more (120g at one week and 360g at week fourteen) than the female (90g at week one and 250g at week fourteen). On dissection, male presents two testes while the female present only one ovary on the left side. By 4th week the male began to show more aggressive behavior than the female on “beak tests” recorded for the first time in the present study. Histologically, the male pigeon showed well developed testes from 11 weeks onward with the seminiferous tubule, straight tubule and interstitial cells of leydigs in it. The ovaries in the females could be recognized with follicles in them by 4 weeks of age. The follicles became very prominent and large by 11 weeks and the Graafian follicles could be recognized by 13 weeks of age. It was concluded from the above observation that within a set of pairs, the large one could be safely considered as the male and it will be more aggressive than its female counterpart. Histologically, the birds seem to show sexual maturity by 11-12 weeks with females ovulating by 13 weeks. It is therefore safer to buy pigeons in pairs of the same age from a renowned breeder than in the market for breeding purpose. [New York Science Journal. 2010;3(10):108-111]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.15

 

Key words: Pigeon, Testis, Ovary, Seminiferous tubule, Graafian follicles

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Efficient Micropropagtion Protocol for Portulaca grandiflora. Hook. Using Shoot Tip Explants

 

Ashok K Jain1 and Mudasir Bashir2

 

1Professor, School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University Gwalior -474011,

Madhya Pradesh, India

E- mail: asokjain2003@yahoo.co.in;

2Research Scholar, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, School of Studies in Botany

 Jiwaji University Gwalior-474011, Madhya Pradesh, India

E-mail: mudasirbot@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A rapid clonal multiplication protocol comprising direct multiple shoot induction from shoot apex of Portulaca grandiflora Hook was developed. Shoot apex from healthy grown plants were used as explants for culturing. Explants were cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) or kinetin (KIN) for primary shoot proliferation. The best shoot proliferation (27.3 per explants with 98% induction) was observed in MS medium containing 2.5mgl‑1 BAP. For rooting of microshoots, half strength MS medium supplemented with 0.75mgl-1 Napthalene acetic acid (NAA) showed best results with 9.2 roots per shoot at an average root length of 6.0 cm with average rooting response of 95%. After acclimatization and transplantation, 100% of the In- vitro derived plants were found healthy in ex vivo conditions. [New York Science Journal. 2010;3(10):112-116]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.16

 

Key word: Acclimatization, Portulaca grandiflora Hook., In-vitro, Shoot proliferation

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 8, 2010. 
 
All comments are welcome: newyorksci@sciencepub.net.

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.01

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doi:10.7537/marsnys031010.16

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