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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

纽约科学杂志

Volume 3 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 21); November 1, 2010; ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: newyorksci@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Effect Of Sowing Date On Calyx Yield And Yield Components Of Rosselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) In Northern Guinea Savanna

 

*Futuless, K. N; Kwaga, Y1. M and Clement, T2.

 *1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, P. M. B 25, Mubi Nigeria

2Ministry of Education, Michika Adamawa State Nigeria

*Corresponding Address:

E-mail: futulesskaki@yahoo.com;  GSM: 08034798172

 

Abstract: The study is aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing date on yield and yield attributes of Roselle [Hibiscus sabdariffa L. ] in Northern  Guinea Savanna. The Experiment was conducted in the wet season of 2009 of Adamawa State University, Mubi. Ploughing was done before planting of the seeds of at s spacing 0f 30cm X 30cm. The effect of sowing date on yield and yield attributes of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was examined in experiment conducted in the wet season of 2009 at Adamawa State University Mubi.  Four sowing dates using local varieties of rosselle spanned between July and August were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Data were collected on plant height, leaf length, leaf width, days to 50% flowering, number of fruit per plant, fresh calyx yield and dry calyx yield. Result revealed that roselle sown in mid July had superior vegetative growth of plant height (33.95 cm), leaf length (16.83 cm), leaf width (7.75 cm) and days to 50% flowering (93) which were significant (p=0.05) to other sowing dates. August sown roselle recorded longer days of (101) relative to the ones sown in July. Roselle sown in mid July however gave the highest number of fruits (134), fresh calyx length (5.8cm), fresh calyx yield (139.59kg/ha) and dry calyx yield (81.03kg/ha) with an advantage to other sowing dates. Result revealed that rosselle sown in mid July had superior vegetative growth as shown in significantly (p=0.05) affected by sowing date with the August sown taking longer days relative to the ones sown in July roselle  sown in mid July however gave the highest calyx yield 81.03kg/ha with an advantage to other sowing dates. The need to screen the type of seed along side with other agronomic properties in this type of study cannot be over emphasized. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.01

 

Key words: Sowing, Roselle, yield, treatments, productivity

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Potency of Barleria prionitis bark extracts against oral diseases causing strains of bacteria and fungi of clinical origin

 

Kamal Rai Aneja, Radhika Joshi, Chetan Sharma

Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119. Haryana. India.

joshi_radhika31282@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oral health is integral to general well being and relates to the quality of life that extends beyond the functions of craniofacial complex. Plants have traditionally provided a source of hope for novel drug compounds, as plant herbal mixtures have made large contributions to human health and well-being. We report in this work for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of Barleria prionotis L. bark on two Candida albicans strains and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, involved in oral diseases of human. Acetone, methanol, ethanol, aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of Barleria prionitis bark were screened for in vitro activity against four oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and three oral fungi C.albicans strain 1, C.albicans strain 2 and S.cerevisiae. This plant was selected due to its traditional use for the treatment of oral infections. Three clinical strains namely Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Candida albicans strain 2 were isolated from dental caries affected patients. The antimicrobial activity of B.prionitis extracts on the agar plates varied in different solvents. The methanolic bark extract of B. prionitis was the most effective against all the four oral bacteria and the three oral fungi. Bacillus sp. was found to be the most sensitive pathogen which survived upto 12.5mg/ml, thus having an MIC of 25mg/ml. The antimicrobial potential of B.prionitis bark against Bacillus sp. was comparable with the standard antibiotic drug, the positive control, ciprofloxacin which produced a 29.65mm inhibition zone.  Interestingly the methanolic extract of B.prionitis bark showed much more potent activity against all the tested oral fungi namely S.cerevisiae, C.albicans strain 1 and C.albicans strain 2, than the standard drug amphotericin –B thus having a great potential to control candidiasis and other oral fungal infections. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):5-12]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.02

 

Key words: Oral pathogens; Barleria prionitis; antimicrobial activity; zone of inhibition; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)

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Retanning Agents for Chrome Tanned Leather based on Nano-Emulsion of Styrene/Butyl Acrylate Copolymers

 

EL-Shahat H.A. Nashy (a)*, Ahmed I. Hussein (b) and Mohamed M. Essa (b)

 

Chemistry of Tanning Materials and Leather Technolog(a), Polymers and Pigments(b) Departments, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt

E mail: Ismaelahmed1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Retanning process is one step of wet-finishing operations and is very important operation which overcomes the disadvantages of chrome tan.  For this purpose two different nano-emulsions of styrene/acrylate copolymers have been prepared to be used as retanning agents. The main difference and characters of the two nano - copolymers were studied. The particle size of the two prepared co-polymers was proved by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the two prepared copolymers on chrome tanned leather as retanning agents was also studied. The properties of the retanned leather, namely, tensile strength and elongation at break were measured. Thermal stability and texture of grain surface and fibers were examined using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. All these parameters were the main target of this work and used to evaluate the applicability of copolymers as efficient ratannang agents. The retanned leather was achieved with an improvement of mechanical properties, enhancement of thermal stability, uniform dyestuff, softness and firmness grain. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):13-21]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.03

 

Key words: Retanning agent, Chrome tanned leather, Nano-particles, Copolymers, Emulsion, Scanning electron microscope, Thermal stability, transmission electron microscope, Mechanical properties, Color difference

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Effect of Different Sand and Soil Ratios on the Growth of Terminalia arjuna W. & A.

 

Ritu vishnoi1, Govind S. Rajwar2 & Prakash C. Kuniyal2

 

1Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh, 249201, India.

2Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Rishikesh, 249201, India

dr.ritu.vishnoi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work was aimed to determine the suitable soil condition for the growth of the medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna W. & A. The phenological attributes of the Terminalia arjuna were studied for different parameters viz., whole length, stem length, root length, whole biomass, stem biomass and root biomass. Preparation of soil sample was done following the procedure of drying, grinding, sieving, mixing and partitioning. Seeds of Terminalia arjuna were sown in two sand and soil ratios (80 sand: 20 normal soil, 40 sand: 60 normal soil) and a control condition (normal soil). The data were analyzed by using factorial analysis (GENSTAT 5). The results of present study showed that root biomass in control condition was higher (2.74 gm) than in other two types of soil ratio (1.63 gm for 80:20 and 1.44 gm for 40:60). It was observed that stem biomass in soil ratio of 40:60 was higher (2.87 gm) than other two soil ratios (2.45 gm and 2.42 gm) the whole length of plant was highest (141.8 cm) during rainy season followed by summer (74.8) and winter (43.5). The root length of the plant was highest (66.0 cm) in rainy season and minimum (25.5 cm) in winter season. The findings suggested that Terminalia arjuna gave better growth pattern in the soil ratio of 80:20 in rainy season. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):22-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.04

 

Keywords: Phenology, Terminalia arjuna, Medicinal plant

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Hydrolytic Enzymes of Moulds Involved in Bread Spoilage

 

Ahaotu, N. N., *Ogueke, C. C. and Ahaotu, I.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. PMB. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.

e-mail: nnaya78@yahoo.com ;chikaogueke@yahoo.com

*Author for correspondence and proof

 

Abstract: The activities of hydrolytic enzymes of moulds isolated from bread were studied using milk, starch and olive oil agars while proximate composition of bread and the pH, titrable acidity and total mould counts during storage were determined using standard analytical procedures. Aspergillus niger produced the highest hydrolytic activity on milk and starch agars (13.18 mm2/day and 8.27 mm2/day respectively) while Rhizopus stolonifer had the highest activity on olive oil agar with a value of 13.29 mm2/day. The culture supernatants of A. flavus had the highest activity on milk, starch and olive oil agars with values of 4.5 mm, 5.5 mm and 3.0 mm respectively. The pH of bread stored at ambient and refrigeration temperatures decreased as days of storage increased while the total titrable acidity increased. Bread stored at refrigeration temperature had the highest mould counts of 1.0x105 cfu/g at the end of storage. Proximate analysis showed that bread has 56.75% carbohydrate, 2.96% protein, 3.40% fat, 0.98% crude fibre and 1.74% ash. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):27-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.05

 

Key words: enzyme; proteolytic; amylolytic; lipolytic; bread; moulds.

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Whey Protein Concentrate and Ginseng Extract Exhibit Antioxidant Properties in vitro and Reduce Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress of Aflatoxin in vivo

 

Ahmed A. El-Kady1, Hafiza A. Sharaf*2, Ahmed S. Gad3, Fathia A. Mannaa4,  Nabila S. Hassan2,

Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab1

 1Food Toxicology & Contaminants, 2Pathology, 3Dairy Science, 4Medical Physiology, Departments, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Hafiza.sharaf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aflatoxins the major toxic metabolites of fungi which are able to induce chronic liver damages. The antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and/or Korean ginseng extract (KGE) were evaluated in vitro in in vivo. In the in vitro study, five concentrations (e.g. 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/100 ml) of WPC and/or KGE were tested for their antioxidant activity using ABTS and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. In the in vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups including the control group, the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet) and the groups treated with WPC (500 mg/kg b.w) and/or KGE (20 mg/kg b.w) with or without aflatoxins for 30 days. The results indicated that both WPC and KGE exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro and the combined treatment showed the potential effect. Both agents showed a potential hepatoprotective effects against aflatoxins-induced liver damage and oxidative stress. They succeeded to restore the biochemical parameters and improve the histological and histochemical picture of the liver. This improvement was pronounced in the group received the combined treatment of WPC and KGE. It could be concluded that WPC should be incorporated with KGE when used as functional foods for people suffering from liver diseases. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):37-51]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.06

 

Key words: whey protein concentrate; ginseng, aflatoxin; mycotoxins; liver; oxidative stress; antioxidants

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Molecular Genetic Approach by using the RAPD-PCR Technique for Detection of Genetic Variability in Non- Human Isolates of Fasciola

 

Nashwa I. Ramadan1, Lobna M. Saber2, Maha M. Abd El Latif3, Nabila A. Abdalla4, and Halla M. Ragab4

 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, 3Department of research and applications of supplementary medicine, 4Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, ,National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt hmragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of the Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications for epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. The aim of the present work was to study the molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica isolates collected from cows and sheep, using the random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments-polymerase chain reaction (RAPDs-PCR) technique. Methods: F. gigantica and F. hepatica of bovine and ovine origin were collected from the biliary tracts and gall bladders of condemned bovine and ovine livers from Cairo Governmental slaughter house. By using (RAPDs-PCR) technique, optimal standardization of conditions of amplification and thermocyclation was made, using genetic markers. The methodology used compared the genetic pattern between the two species (inter-species) and inside each species (intra-species) between cow and sheep and the amplification fragments were between 135 and 741 base pairs of marker. Results: The results showed genetic variations (polymorphisms) of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica with amplification fragment based on a 500 – 400 base pair (bp). Inside each species, there were genetic variations in bovine and ovine strains and the amplification fragments were between 600 and 400 base pairs (bp). Conclusion: This assay is useful for both individual diagnosis and epidemiological surveys in endemic regions. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):52-60]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).  

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.07

 

Keywords: Fasciola hepatica; Fasciola gigantica and (RAPDs-PCR) technique.

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Klebsiella has taken lead among uropathogens in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria-An observation

 

Osazuwa F 1, 1Mordi RM 1, Osazuwa E 2 Taiwo SS 3 Alli OAT 4, Ogbolu DO 4, Akanni EO 4, Anukam KC 5

1 Department of medical microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City .Nigeria

2 Department of Pharmaceutical microbiology, Faculty of pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

3 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of health sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Osogbo. Nigeria

4 Department of Biomedical sciences, College of health sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Osogbo, Nigeria

5 Department of medical laboratory sciences, Faculty of Basic medical Sciences University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

Correspondence to: Osazuwa favour Email:osazuwafavour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Against the background of reports of changes in the prevalence of uropathogens, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among out-patients of a tertiary hospital, the most prevalent uropathogen, and the distribution of uropathogens among both genders. Clean–catch midstream urines were collected from 1,011 out–patients consisting of 412 males and 599 females. Significant bacterial isolates were identified in the urine samples using standard techniques. Female patients had significantly higher prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p <0.05). Klebsiella sp was the most common uropathogen (33.3%) as well as in both genders of patients. Other pathogens recovered includes Escherichia coli (32.3), Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%), Candida albicans (7.5%)), Coagulase negative staphylococcus (3.9%), Proteus sp (3.2%), Enterococcus faecalis (1.1%), Pseudomonas (0.7%) and Providencia sp (0.4%). An overall prevalence of (27.6%) of asymptomatic bacteriuria was found and Klebsiella sp was the predominant uropathogen in both genders of out–patients. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):61-64]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.08

 

Keywords: prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria; out-patient; uropathogen

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Low External Input Technology Agriculture and Rural Development in Nigeria

 

Anyanwu, S.O1* and Adesope, O.M2

 1. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Rivers State University of Education, Port Harcourt

2. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

sixtusanyanwu@yahoo.com; omadesope@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The study examined resource productivity among low external input technology smallholder farmers in Imo State and their implications for rural development in Nigeria. Cross- sectional data generated from 80 LEIT smallholder farmers randomly selected from 2 out of the 3 agricultural zones in Imo State were used. Production function analysis was used in analyzing the data. Results showed that farm size,  labour input, capital input, planting materials and organic manure are the main determinants of the gross income of LEIT farmers. The relative abundance of a significant proportion of these resources in the rural areas therefore makes their increased use, a veritable instrument for sustainable rural development. Formation of cooperative societies among farmers whose lands are contiguous and utilization of extension agents as channels for credit delivery to farmers were also recommended. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):65-70]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.09

 

Key words: Low External Input Technology, Agriculture, Rural Development, Nigeria

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Agricultural trainees’ understanding of the concept of internal combustion engine in auto mechanics training

 

Amadi, N. S1*, Adesope, O. M2 Omeodu, M. D.1 Agi, C. 3

 *Department of Science and Technical Education, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

**Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

***Department of Educational Foundation, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

ndubisi_amadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine agricultural trainees’ understanding of the concept of an internal combustion engine in auto mechanics training. A structured questionnaire was administered to 105 randomly selected trainees in Faculty of Technical and Science Education, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Data were analyzed with the use of frequency, percentage and mean. The findings revealed that all the respondents adequately identified sparkplug and injector nozzles (100%). It was also revealed that respondents understood the functionality of the internal combustion engine parts with average mean of 3.8. Respondents agree that they know how to remove internal combustion engine parts with average mean of 3.06. Inspecting internal combustion engine parts by the respondent recorded average mean scores of 3.21 which indicated that trainees can inspect the parts during servicing. It is suggested that trainees focus more on what they do in order to perfect and understand more in their training. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):71-77]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.10

 

Key words: engines, internal combustion, trainees, understanding

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[New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):78-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.11

Withdrawn

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Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham: A high valued skin glowing and curing medicinal herb needs future attention on its conservation

 

V P Bhatt1 Vineeta Negi2 and Vijay K Purohit3

 1Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Govt. P G College Gopeshwar, Chamoli-246 401, Uttarakhand, India

2District Manager, Uttarakhand Parvatiya Aajeevika Sanvardhan Company (UPASaC), Gopeshwar, Chamoli-246 401, Uttarakhand, India

3Senior Scientific Officer, High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar (Garhwal)-246 174, Uttarakhand, India

E-mail address of Authors: vishwapati_bhatt@rediffmail.com,

negivineeta@rediffmai.com, vijaykantpurohit@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Himalaya is known for its rich biodiversity. Due to unique geographical setup, topography and undulant landscape the climatic conditions varied along an altitudinal gradients which attributes diversified ecological habitat ranging from tropical forest, grassland to alpine meadows with vast and diverse natural resources. This article describes a high valued skin glowing and curing medicinal herb needs future attention on its conservation. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):86-88]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.12

 

Keywords: Himalaya; biodiversity

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 Home-made monoclonal antibody –based sandwich ELISA versus commercial fast dot- ELISA technique in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis and fascioliasis

 

Faten M. Nagy 1; Ibrahim  Rabia 2 and Wafaa M. EL- Kersh3

 

1Immunolog Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI),  Embaba- Giza

2 Parasitology Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI),  Embaba- Giza

3 Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.

ibrahimshalash@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two monoclonal antibodies (12D/10F) and (5F/6H) were prepared at Immunology Department, TBRI. The first was an IgM monoclonal antibody prepared against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen and the second was of IgG subclass prepared against F. gigantica excretory / secretory products. Both monoclonals were evaluated by comparing the detection of specific Schistosoma circulating antigen (SCA) in serum and urine, and Fasciola circulating antigen in serum (FCA) and coproantigen by using MAb sandwich ELISA versus commercially available antigen capture fast dot-ELISA. Studied subjects comprised 42 S. mansoni infected patients, 35 F. gigantica infected patients, 30 patients harbouring parasites other than the parasite of infected group, and 20 healthy controls. The sensitivity and specificity of SCA assay in serum and urine by MAb sandwich ELISA was 92.9% and 96% for serum and 90.5% and 94% for urine respectively, compared to 71.4% and 76% for serum and 76.2% and 64% for urine respectively using fast dot-ELISA test. Accordingly, the diagnostic accuracy for MAb sandwich ELISA in both serum and urine was higher 94.6% and 92.4% respectively compared to 74% and 70% by fast dot-ELISA test. As well, the sensitivity and specificity of FCA assay in serum and stool by MAb sandwich ELISA was 97.1% and 96% for serum and 94.3% and 98% for stool respectively compared to 74.3% and 70% respectively for serum samples only using fast dot-ELISA test. Accordingly, the diagnostic accuracy by MAb sandwich ELISA was higher 96.5% and 96.5% for serum and stool respectively compared to 71.8% for serum only by fast dot-ELISA test. It is concluded that the home-made monoclonal antibodies prepared at Immunology Department, TBRI against S. mansoni and F. gigantica antigens showed high sensitivity and specificity and accordingly high diagnostic accuracy using sandwich ELISA compared to available fast dot-ELISA kits. This indicates the importance of using MAb sandwich ELISA as a confirmatory test for false negative results in field screening by fast dot-ELISA test. 

[Faten M. Nagy; Ibrahim Rabia and Wafaa M. EL- Kersh. Home-made monoclonal antibody –based sandwich ELISA versus commercial fast dot- ELISA technique in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):89-97]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.13

 

Key words: schistosomiasis; fascioliasis; monoclonal antibody; ELISA technique

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Effect of Sowing Date on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp) in Mubi North Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

 

Kaki Ngodi Futuless , Ibrahim Dauda Bake and Wasinata Tizhe

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture Adamawa State University P.M.B 25 Mubi Adamawa State Nigeria.

E-Mail: futulesskaki@yahoo.com; GSM: 08034798172

 

Abstract: This study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi during 2009 raining season to evaluate the effect of sowing date on yield and yield component of cowpea. The trial consists of 4 sowing date of cowpea viz: (SD1) 25th July, (SD2) 1st August, (SD3) 8th August and (SD4) 15th August 2009 respectively.  Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated four times. The land was cleared, ploughed, harrowed, leveled and marked in to blocks and plots with 1m between replication and 0.5 between plots. Cowpea seeds were sown by dibbling 3 seeds per hole at 70cm x 25cm spacing. Seedlings were later thinned to two plants per stand two weeks after sowing. The results obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and means separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test(DMRT). The parameters measured includes: plant  height (cm) at flowering, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, days to 50% flowering, leaf area (cm), number of pods at harvest, weight of 1000 (g), weight of shelled plants and yield (tons/ ha). The results obtained revealed that sowing date significantly (P<0.05) influenced the yield and yield component of cowpea in Mubi. SD3 recorded the highest yield of  (5.93t/ha) with SD1  recording the lowest yield of ( 5.05t/ha) which was significantly different from other treatments The significance of this study to Agriculture therefore, is that it is very necessary to know the most appropriate sowing date before planting cowpea in any agro-ecological zone of the country for enhanced yields.

[Kaki Ngodi Futuless, Ibrahim Dauda Bake and Wasinata Tizhe. Effect of Sowing Date on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp) in Mubi North Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):98-102]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.14

 

Key Words: Sowing date, cowpea, Yield components, Mubi, Nigeria

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Aspects of reproductive biology in mudskipper, Periophthalmus papilio from mangrove swamps of Lagos lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria.

 

 LAWSON Emmanuel O.

 

Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, P.O. Box 001, LASU Post Office, Lagos, Nigeria.

ollulawson@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted on aspects of reproductive biology of mudskipper, Periophthalmus papilio (Bloch and Schneider 1801) from the mangrove swamps of Lagos lagoon in Nigeria. P. papilio is an economically valued fish species, both as food for the populace and baits for industrial or offshore fisheries in Nigeria and the entire coast of West African sub-region. 2167 individuels were caught from the lagoon with non return valve traps between May 2006 and May 2008. Data on sex, total length (TL), gonad (GW) body weight (BW) measurements were carried out on individual specimen. These data were used in the determination of sex ratio, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and maturation in this species. The sex ratio of 1 male to 1.42 females was observed but was not significantly different (X2=57.04>X21, 0.05=3.84) but a departure from the theoretical 1male:1female sex ratio. Females population were more than the males. The GSI values varied from 0.01 to 0.48% in males and between 0.11 and 8.40% in females. 0.104±0.004 (in males) and 2.69±0.03% (in females) of the body mass were used in gonad development. The eggs were as small as 0.20mm and as big as 0.50 mm (mean = 0.36±0.01 mm) in diameter for average fish of 116 mm TL.. Seven (7) stages of maturity: immature, immature and developing, ripening, ripe, ripe running, spent, and resting/representing the pre-, spawning and post spawning period were encountered in this study. The fish were identified as male at 70 mmTL and as females at 60mm but riped at 90mm TL. The maturity of females was earlier than the males. The maturity stages obtained from the present study were in conformity with those reported in other teleosts though with modifications. Therefore, the sex ratios, egg diameters, gonadosomatic index and maturation of the species in Lagos lagoon were investigated to provide baseline data for future ecological and biological studies of this species and other species within the Nigerian mangrove swamps, estauaries and coastal waters.

[LAWSON Emmanuel O. Aspects of reproductive biology in mudskipper, Periophthalmus papilio from mangrove swamps of Lagos lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):103-110]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.15

 

Key words: atretic, fecundity, gonadosomatic index, oocyte, spermatocyte

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Non-Timber Forest Products (Ntfp’s) Uesd By Tharu Tribe Of Kanchanpur District Of Far-Western Nepal

 

Nabin Raj Joshi1 and Vishal Singh2

1 Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Kumaun University Nainital, Uttarakahnd 263002, (India)

2 Centre for Ecology Development and Research, 41/I, Vasant Vihar, Dehradun, 248006, Uttarakahnd (India).

Email: nabin2001@gmail.com

Abstract: The study documents plant species used as Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and traditional knowledge on the utilization of these plant resources by Tharu tribes of in and around the Tharu tribal communities in Kanchanpur district of Nepal. The study was exploratory and participatory in nature. A total of 114 plant species belonging to 54 families have been identified from the Tharu community areas. Most of them have medicinal properties in their bark, root and fruits. A large number of these identified plant species are used for gastro-intestinal problems, rheumatisms, chest infection and fever and typhoid. Medicine from these plant parts is prepared in the form of juice, paste and powder usually prepared by elder female in the family. Elderly persons and traditional healers of the areas pose vast knowledge on ethno medicinal practices along with various rituals in comparison of the young generation. The knowledge transformation system is quite restricted within the family. It is not only essential to conserve such a wealth of information hidden among the local people but also to apply them to modern knowledge of science and technology to meet the ever increasing requirement of mankind. Beside this certain NTFP species like Piper longum, Acorus calamus, Pterocapus marsipium, Terminalia chebula Terminalia bellirica, Aegle marmelos, Solanum virginium and Rauvolfia serpentine etc. are under threat of being extinct due to growing human  pressure as well as habitat degradation impacted by anthropogenic activities, recent trend of climate change.

[Nabin Raj Joshi and Vishal Singh. Non-Timber Forest Products (Ntfp’s) Uesd By Tharu Tribe Of Kanchanpur District Of Far-Western Nepal. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):111-119]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.16

 

Keywords: Non-timber forest products, documents, Tribe, Tharu, Traditional Knowledge, Kanchanpur, District, Nepal

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Assessment of Genetic Variations in Some Vigna Species by RAPD and ISSR Analysis

 

Elham A. A. Abd El-Hady*1,  Atef A. A. Haiba1; Nagwa R. Abd El-Hamid1; Abd El-Rahman M.F. Al-Ansary1 and Ahmed Y. Mohamed2.

1Department of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

 2  Department of Botany, Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

* elhamabdelhady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Genetic variations of seven Vigna species were evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of the seven genotypes by RAPD analysis, five primers generated 64 fragments, of which 31 were polymorphic with an average of 12.8 bands/ primer. The amplified products varied in size from 2556 to 255 bp.   Eleven selected ISSR primers produced 128 bands across seven genotypes of which 89 were polymorphic with an average of 11.64 / primer. The size of amplified bands ranged from 2838 to 264 bp. Similarity index values ranged from 0.913 to 0.120 (RAPD) 0.822 to 0.118 (ISSR) and 0.899 to 0.115 (RAPD and ISSR). The results indicated that both of the marker systems RAPD and ISSR, individually or combined can be effectively used in determination of genetic relationship among Vigna species.  It could be concluded that, the information of genetic similarities and diversity among Vigna genotypes are necessary for breeding programs. 

[Elham A. A. Abd El-Hady,  Atef A. A. Haiba; Nagwa R. Abd El-Hamid; Abd El-Rahman M.F. Al-Ansary and Ahmed Y. Mohamed. Assessment of Genetic Variations in Some Vigna Species by RAPD and ISSR Analysis. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):120-128]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.17

 

Keywords:  Genetic Diversity, Vigna, RAPD, ISSR

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The Qualitative Uses Of Some Medicinal Plants In Ikeduru L.G.A Of Imo State, Nigeria

Nwachukwu C. U., Ph.D1, Ume N. C.Ph.D2, Obasi M. N. Ph.D2 , Nzewuihe G. U1 and Onyirioha  C.  U. Ph.D3

Dept. of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State1

Dept. of Geography, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State2

National Open University, Owerri Study Centre, Imo State3

ABSTRACT: The study examined twenty plants of medicinal value in Ikeduru Local Government Area of Imo State. The study was carried out through fieldwork, specimen collection, preservation and botanical identification of plant specimens by a curator. Information on the constituents, use and preparation of the plants was got from oral interview of some traditional herbal practitioners as well as from literature on herbal practice. Preparations and subsequent tests show that these plant species contained alkaloid, fixed oil, essential oil, calcium, phosphate ion, tannins, quinine, resins among others. It was also discovered that these plants in combination were used in the treatment of ailments such as diabetes, malaria, high blood pressure, Asthma, Arthritis, Epilepsy, convulsion, pile, diarrhoea etc. Since these plants are of medicinal value and used to treat various ailments it becomes imperative to conserve them. To this end, the conservation of plant species of medicinal importance should be pursued vigorously by both government and individuals through establishment of park, botanical gardens and horticultural centers in order to safe guard them from indiscriminate use, over exploitation and destruction.

[Nwachukwu C. U., Ume N. C., Obasi M. N., Nzewuihe G. U and Onyirioha  C.  U. Qualitative Uses Of Some Medicinal Plants In Ikeduru L.G.A Of Imo State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):129-134]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.18

Key Words: Medicinal Plants, Arthritis, tannins, Ikeduru, curator

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Antibiotic residue in eggs of laying hens following injection with gentamicin

 

Alm El Dein A.K 1. and Elhearon E.R.2

 

1Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

2Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1, 1 alaa_kamal2002@hotmail.com

Abstract:

1)       Thirty two hens were assigned to four equal groups (n = 8) and injected intramuscularly or subcutaneous with either 2 or 4 mg/kg gentamicin for 3 successive days.

2)       The transfer of gentamicin into eggs was determined separately from albumen, yolk and whole egg daily during dosing and withdrawal periods by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

3)       Drug excretion was usually over a long period and with a high dose in the yolk compared to the albumen due to the incorporation and storage of drug in preovulatory yolks during the dosing period.

4)       Residues in the whole eggs were detected after the last injection for 12 and 15 days when hens injected with 2 and 4 mg/kg gentamicin for 3 successive days respectively.

5)       The concentrations of drug residues were closed to the limit of the assay's sensitivity (0.01µg/g). 

[Alm El Dein A.K. and Elhearon E.R. Antibiotic residue in eggs of laying hens following injection with gentamicin. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):135-1140]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.19

 

Key words: Antibiotic residue – gentamicin – yolk – albumen – whole egg

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Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopic analysis of Lawsonia inermis Leaves

 

1Hema R., 1S. Kumaravel, 2S. Gomathi and 3C. Sivasubramaniam

1Food Testing Laboratory, Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur

2Dept. of Biochemistry, KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode

3Dept. of Environmental and Herbal Sciences, Tamil University, Thanjavur

e-mail: hema.scientist@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Due to uniqueness of Lawsonia inermis leaf property in curing different ailments this part was selected for the study. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from Lawsonia inermis leaves by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that Lawsonia inermis leaves contain mainly į-D-Glucopyranoside, methyl (51.73%) and 1,4-Naphthalenedione, 2-hydroxy- [Synonyms: Henna] (19.19%), which were used in curing skin ailments caused due to Environmental Pollution of Air and Water.

[Hema R., S. Kumaravel, S. Gomathi and C. Sivasubramaniam. Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopic analysis of Lawsonia inermis Leaves. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):141-143]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.20

 

Keywords: Lawsonia inermis, GC-MS analysis, 1,4-Naphthalenedione, 2-hydroxy- (Henna), Skin ailments caused due to Environmental Pollution of Air and Water

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Credit Use and Technical Change in Smallholder Food Crop Production in Imo State of Nigeria

Nwaru1, J. C. and R. E. Onuoha2

1.             Department of Agricultural Economics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria        E-mail:                nwaruj@yahoo.com

2.                Department of Agriculture, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

E-mail:   roserery@yahoo.com

Abstract: Harnessing the potentials of credit to stabilize and perhaps increase resource productivity and output growth in agriculture is particularly justified when farmers face very low savings capacity, poorly developed rural financial markets and availability of appropriate farm technologies whose adoption is constrained by shortage of funds. These conditions hold in Nigerian agriculture. Given the high level of poverty among farmers and other rural entrepreneurs, credit use has become a very important tool for enhancing technical progress and production. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the impact of credit use on the technical efficiency of smallholder food crop farmers in Imo State of Nigeria. Primary data from a simple random sample of 187 food crop farmers, consisting of 75 farmers producing with credit and 112 others producing without credit were used for the study. Data analysis was by the estimation of stochastic frontier production functions by the methods of maximum likelihood and ordinary least squares using the computer program, FRONTIER 4.1. The estimated farm level technical efficiency ranges from 0.2173 to 0.9014 with a mean of 0.5492 for the farmers producing without credit and 0.2009 to 0.9216 with a mean of 0.4462 for those producing with credit.. Factors directly related to technical efficiency are education, age, and farming experience while household size is indirectly related to it. It was concluded that none of the farmer groups achieved absolute technical efficiency, indicating that ample opportunities exists for them to increase their production efficiency. Moreover, the mean technical efficiency of the farmers producing without credit was significantly higher than that of the farmers producing with credit indicating that credit may not have been used properly. Economic policies and programmes for checking loan diversion and misapplication are necessary to enhance credit delivery and use.

[Nwaru, J. C.; Onuoha, R. E.; S. I. Onwukwalu. Credit Use and Technical Change in Smallholder Food Crop Production in Imo State of Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):144-151]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.21

Keywords: Credit, technical efficiency, food crop production, Nigeria

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Genetical Analysis of some Quantitative Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

 

Khattab S.A.M., R. M. Esmail and Abd EL-Rahman M.F. AL-Ansary*

 

Genetics and Cytology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*dr.aalansary@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Means of the six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of the three wheat crosses; (1) Golan x Mexiback; (2) Sakha 202 x Wa 4767 and (3) Mexiback x Sakha 202 were used to estimate genetic parameters. Results revealed that epistatic gene effect cannot be ignored when establish a new breeding program to improve wheat populations for economic traits. The inheritance of all traits studied was controlled by additive and non-additive genetic effects, with greater values of dominance gene effect than the additive one in most cases. Heterosis relative to mid-parent and better parent was found to be significantly positive for grain weight /spike, no of grains /spike, grain yield / plant, biological yield and harvest index in the three crosses under study. The coincidence of sign and magnitude of heterosis and inbreeding depression was detected for most traits in the three crosses. The average degree of dominance as indicated by √(H/D) revealed existence of over-dominance towards the better parent for all traits except No. of spikes/plant in cross III. Narrow heritability sense estimates were generally found to be moderate in magnitudes in all cases. The highest estimates of narrow sense heritability associated with highest genetic advance for no of spikes / plant in the three crosses, grain weight/spike in crosses I and III indicated sufficient improvement of their traits variability. 

[Khattab S.A.M., R. M. Esmail and Abd EL-Rahman M.F. AL-Ansary. Genetical Analysis of some Quantitative Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L). New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):152-157]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.22

 

Keywords: Bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L, generation mean analysis, gene effects, heterosis, heritability, genetic advance

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Studies on the Effect of Selenium and Organic residues on Chamomile ( Matricaria  chamomilla L. ) Plants

 

Azza, A.M. Mazher1*,  Sahar, M. Zaghloul2 and Yassen, A. A

 

1Ornamental plants and woody trees Dept.2Plant nutrition Dept National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*azza856@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at El –Kassasin  region Ismailia Governorate over two growing seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) to study the effect of foliar spray of Selenium at the rates of (0, 4,6and8 ppm) and organic material (sheep manure) at three rates (0,10and 20m3 per feddan) on the morphological growth, essential oil and some chemical  composition of Chamomile (Matricaria  chamomilla L. ) plants .Results pointed  out that using different rates of organic residue or selenium increased fresh and dry weight of herbs and inflorescences compared  with the control treatment in both seasons. Also,all treatments tended to increase essential oil , nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content and uptake as compared with the control treatments. The highest value in N, P and K content and uptake was noticed when applied selenium at a rate of 30g with organic residue.Thus,the applications may be recommended for increasing the growth,essential oil and chemical constituents of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) plant.

[Azza, A.M. Mazher,  Sahar, M. Zaghloul and Yassen, A. A. Studies on the Effect of Selenium and Organic residues on Chamomile ( Matricaria  chamomilla L.) Plants. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):158-164]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.23

 

Key words:  Medicinal plant – heavy metal - sheep manure

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Karyotype analysis for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) compared with tissue culture derived plants

 

Mohamed M. AbdAlla¹ and Aesha M. Abd El-Kawy²

¹Desert Research Center, Genetic Resources Department, Tissue Culture Lab.

²Botany Department. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (for girls) Egypt.

Email: el_awadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The cytological studies on the micropropagated date palm (phoenix dactylifera var. Karama) revealed that no morphological changes occurred during microproopagation and there were 36 chromosomes arranged in 18 bivalents of chromosomes in c-meta phase profile, seventeen bivalents are autosomal chromosomes and XY bivalent in male or XX in female. Chromosome No.2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were meta centric, chromosomes No. 1,7,8,9 and 10 were submetacentric and chromosomes from No.11 to No17 were subtelocentric. While X chromosome was submetacentric and Y chromosome was subtelocentric. There were no significant differences in the chromosome length, area and centromer positions between the micropropagated plantlets and the mother plants.

[Mohamed M. AbdAlla¹ and Aesha M. Abd El-Kawy. Karyotype analysis for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) compared with tissue culture derived plants. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):165-170]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.24

 

Keywords: date palm , cytology, karyotype, tissue culture

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Neurotoxic effects of organic solvents in exposed workers: Altered expression of some biochemical markers

 

Noha M Hegazy1, Nadia B. Abdel Gawad1, Fateheya M. Metwally1, Hanaa H. Ahmed3, Ehab R. Abdel Raouf2, Khadiga S Abrahim1, Nevin E. Sharaf1

1 Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, NRC

2 Department of Research on Children with Special Needs.

3  Department of Hormones,NRC

 

Abstract: Background: Organic solvents (OG) are volatile and lipophilic compounds, having great affinity to neuronal tissue that may lead to various neurological findings. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents may affect the levels and turnover of neurotransmitters in man. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been crucially implicated in many cognitive functioning. Serum B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) are responsible for programmed cell death or apoptosis, which is considered to be an important phenomenon that is related to neuron vulnerability to a variety of toxic effects, and it is the fundamental process responsible for the clinical manifestations of many different neurological disorders processes. There is an association between exposure to solvents and damage of the brain, in which oxidative stress is a possible mechanism for that damage influenced by serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) & Malondialdehyde level (MDA). Materials and Methods: forty-four workers exposed to organic solvents and 45 unexposed, were examined in order to assess possible neurotoxic signs and symptoms related to solvent exposure. In addition, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used for quantitative assessment of cognitive impairment, and   the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and Malondialdehyde level (MDA) were done to all subjects. Results: Our results showed that, the mean scores of MMSE were significantly lower among the solvent exposed group and this score was considered a mild cognitive impairment. In addition to, stocke and glove hypothesia indicative of peripheral neuropathy (PNN) in 47.7 % of the exposed, versus 11.11% in the control group. The BDNF, Bcl-2, were significantly decreased, while the TAC was not significantly decreased and the MDA was significantly increased. So the previously mentioned markers could be used in assessment of central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction induced by occupational exposure to organic solvents.

[Noha M Hegazy, Nadia B. Abdel Gawad, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hanaa H. Ahmed, Ehab R. Abdel Raouf, Khadiga S Abrahim, Nevin E. Sharaf. Neurotoxic effects of organic solvents in exposed workers: Altered expression of some biochemical markers. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):171-176]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.25

 

Keywords: Occupational exposure, solvents, biomarkers, BDNF, Bcl-2, TAC, MDA, MMSE, cognitive impairment, PNN

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Saccharomyces cereviciae ameliorates oxidative stress, genotoxicity and spermatotoxic effects induced by Ochratoxin A in male Albino Mice

 

Abdel-Aziz, K.B.a; Farag, I.M.a; Tawfek, N.S.b; Nada, S.A.c; Amra, H.A.d and Darwish, H.R.a

a Cell Biology Dept., National Research Centre, , Cairo Egypt.;

b Zoology Dept.,   Faculty of Science, Al-Mania Uni., Egypt.;

c Pharmacology Dept.; National Research Centre

d Food Toxicology and Contaminants Dept.,  National Research Centre

 

Abstract:   The present study was undertaken to assess the possible protective effect of Saccharomyces cereviciae (Sc) against Ochratoxin-induced toxicity in mice. Four groups of 30 mice each were used: control group, Sc-treated mice (4 × 108 CFU) group, OTA-treated mice (1.8 mg/kg b.w.) group and a group of mice given Sc two hours before OTA gavage. After 24 hr. of last gavage, the percentage of weight changes were measured; the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured, as markers of oxidative status, in homogenates of liver and kidney. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells evaluating micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) rate and chromosomal aberrations in metaphase I and II (MI & MII) in spermatocytes, besides mitotic and meiotic activities were recorded. Also, sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology) were evaluated. Results showed that ochratoxin A significantly decreased the body weight. The levels of MDA and non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH) as well as enzymatic antioxidant, (SOD) were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney of OTA-treated mice in comparison with control. OTA increased the frequencies of MNPCEs in bone marrow and structural and numerical chromosome aberrations in spermatocytes. Also, OTA caused a significant reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count and sperm motility, and increased sperm abnormalities, as compared to control. In mice received Sc before OTA gavage, a significant amelioration in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in liver and kidney along with increasing in GSH contents and activities of SOD were recorded, compared to OTA group, consequently enhancing growth performance. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that Sc administration reduced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by OTA. Sc plus OTA treatment caused a significant recovery in sperm parameters and improved morphologic features of sperm. In conclusion, Saccharomyces cereviciae was found to be safe and successful agent in counteracting the oxidative stress and protecting against genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, as well as ameliorates spermatotoxic effects induced by OTA in male Albino Mice.

[Abdel-Aziz, K.B.; Farag, I.M.; Tawfek, N.S.; Nada, S.A.; Amra, H.A. and Darwish, H.R. Saccharomyces cereviciae ameliorates oxidative stress, genotoxicity and spermatotoxic effects induced by Ochratoxin A in male Albino Mice. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):177-190]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.26

 

Keywords: ochratoxin A, Saccharomyces, oxidative stress, micronucleus, spermatocytes, sperm

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Antimicrobial Activity of Some of the Indian Spices Against Food Borne Pathogens

 

1Hema R., S. 1Kumaravel, 2C. Sivasubramanian

1Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur, TamilNadu, India

2Tamil University, Thanjavur, Thanjavur, TamilNadu, India

e-mail: hema.scientist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial activity of 25, 50, 75 & 100 % alcohol extract of Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum has been evaluated against bacterial strains of Pseudomonas lundensis, Bacillus cereus, and fungal strains of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger. Extracts from both Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum, showed excellent antimicrobial activity against all the test organisms. In 25 and 50% concentration, Cinnamomum verum showed the highest of 19 mm and 16 mm antibacterial zone against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas lundensis respectively. In 75 and 100 % concentration, Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest of 15 mm and 21 mm of antimicrobial zone against Aspergillus niger and Bacillus cereus respectively. Among all the results obtained, the maximum antimicrobial zone formation with minimal concentration was recorded with 100 % extract of Syzygium aromaticum against Bacillus cereus with 21 mm of antibacterial zone and with 100 % extract of Syzygium aromaticum, with 18 mm of antifungal zone against Aspergillus niger. It was concluded that the herbals Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum has resistivity against food borne pathogens.

[Hema R., S. Kumaravel, C. Sivasubramanian. Antimicrobial Activity of Some of the Indian Spices Against Food Borne Pathogens. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):191-193]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.27

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Pseudomonas lundensis, Bacillus cereus,   Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus

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Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from non-clinical urine samples.

 

*Chikwendu, C. I., Amadi, E.S. and Obi, R. K.

Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 1526 Owerri Imo State, Nigeria. E-mail: chinwechikwendu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 120 urine samples from apparently healthy students were analysed for the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of 13 antimicrobials was also studied to determine antimicrobial resistance rates and multiple resistances amongst the isolates. Antimicrobial resistance test was carried out by the Kirby-Bauer technique. The P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited high resistance to streptomycin, sparfloxacine and ciprofloxacine (39-74%), and moderate resistance to ofloxacine, gentamicin and perfloxacine (19-35%). The K. pneumoniae isolates exhibited moderate resistance to augumentin, co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin (22-29%). P. aeruginosa was more prevalent (80%) in the samples than K. pneumoniae (55%). The isolates also occurred more with the female students than the males. Resistances to the antimicrobials for both isolates were equally higher in the females than in the males. The results probably infers a great measure of abuse (overuse or mis - use) of antimicrobials among the student population, considering the fact that the urine samples were obtained from students who were neither on admission in the hospitals nor out patients for urinary tract infections.

[Chikwendu, C. I., Amadi, E.S. and Obi, R. K. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from non-clinical urine samples. New York Science Journal 2010;3(11):194-200]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsnys031110.28

 

Key words:  Prevalence, antimicrobial resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, non-clinical, urine samples

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The articles in this issue are online first for peer-review starting from August 15, 2010
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