New York Science Journal
Volume 4 -
Number 5 (Cumulated No. 27); May 25, 2011,
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Titles / Authors
OF AUTO ANTIBODIES AND GENETIC FACTORS IN TYPE 1 DIABETES
Elham Ragab abd El-Samea1, Farha El Chennawy1, Mamdouh
Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura
Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura
firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel. 0114571726
Data reported on
celiac and thyroid autoimmunity in type I diabetes mellitus
differ vastly. Therefore, we studied celiac and thyroid auto
antibodies in relation to patients clinical characteristics
(gender, age, duration of the disease, age onset and body mass
index), beta cell antibody status (GADA & IA-2) and HLA DRBI and
DQB1 types. The study included forty-five type 1 diabetic
patients (19 males and 26 females) with age ranging from 6 to 25 years (mean age 12.956 + 4.94) and fourteen healthy
subjects as a control group. Serum samples were analyzed for
anti-gliadin, anti-reticulin, anti-endomysium, anti-thyroid
peroxidase, GADA and IA-2A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
techniques were used to amplify the second exon of DRB1 and DQB1
alleles, after which sequence specific oligonucleotide probe dot
blot hybridization techniques were used to analyze the amplified
products. Molecular typing of HLA class II alleles showed an
increased frequency of DRB1 *04 and *0101 and DQB1 *02 in type 1
diabetic patients in comparison to control group (57.77% Vs
21.428%, P<0.05; 28.8% Vs 0%, P<0.05; 57.77% Vs 21.428%,
P<0.05). Celiac and thyroid autoimmunity tended to be more
prevalent in the subgroup of patients with GADA positivity
compared with GADA negative patients. These subgroups of
patients were of older age, higher age onset and had female
preponderance. GADA were also positively associated with DRB1
*03 and BQB1 *02 and negatively associated with DRB1 *04 and
DQB1 *03. Logistic regression analysis revealed that anti-gliadin
status was determined by female gender (B=2.1404, P=<0.05) and
GADA positivity (B=4.3515, P=<0.01). Conclusion: HLA
genotypes, beta cell auto antibodies and patient's clinical
characteristics could identify a different subset of type 1
diabetes that had increased prevalence of thyroid and celiac
auto antibodies. Thus combining clinical, immunological and
genetic factors could predict thyroid and celiac autoimmunity in
type 1 diabetes.
[Abd El-Samea ER,
El Chennawy F, El-Nahas MR. Association of Auto antibodies and
Genetic Factors in IDDM.
New York Science
Journal 2011;4(5):1-10]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), Insulin, auto antibodies, T
Increasing the skills of rural women with micro-credit programs
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and
Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
By accessing to wide range of financial tools, families
according to their priorities, invest on cases such as costs of
education, healthcare, healthy and good nutrition or housing.
Applicants for Microfinance resources mostly involved family
supervisor women, pensioners, homeless people, frugal workers,
small farmers and micro entrepreneurs. These people are divided
into four groups: Poor, very poor, relatively poor and
vulnerable poor. Whenever repayment afford , bond terms and
accessing to data , in this classification will change , in
order to supply sustainable financial needs of various clients
, procedures and operation structures will be develop
.Generally, in most countries, micro finance sources are
considered for poor women. By women’s access possibility to
finance services, they committed to loan and ensure its
repayment and preserve their saving accounts and also enjoy
insurance cover. Supplying programs for micro financial
resources have strong message for families and societies. Most
of qualitative and quantitative studies and researches have
proven that accessing to financial services; will improve
women’s conditions in family and society.
Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi.
Increasing the skills of rural women with micro-credit programs.
Science Journal 2011;4(5):11-15]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Micro-credit, rural women
effect of some bioregulators on flowering, chemical
constituents, essential oil and phytohormones of tuberose (Polianthes
Lobna, S. Taha and (2) Rawia, A.Eid
Ornamental Plant and Woody Trees.National Research Centre,Dokki,
author, emil, firstname.lastname@example.org
tuberose plants were soaked (24h) or sprayed with solutions of
spermidine and ATP at 50, 75 or 100ppm for each. Both
bioregulators (especially at 100 ppm) augmented plants bulblets
and flowering characteristics (No. of bulblets, fresh and dry
weights of bulblets, no of days to flowering, No of
florets/spike, spike length, length of rachis and fresh and dry
weights of spike) Spermidine was more effective than ATP for
bulblets parameters but ATP was preferred for flowering
parameters, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b and carotenoides),
chemical constituents of plants (Indoles, phenols and total
carotenoides). Essential oil content of flowers was
significantly improved by soaking or spraying of ATP at 50, 75
or 100ppm. The highest amount of endogenous GA3 produced with
ATP at 100ppm. However, spermdine (100ppm) caused the highest
amount of cytokinins. Using ATP as soaking or spraying treatment
at 75 or 100ppm resulted in the highest amount of ABA.
S. Taha and (2) Rawia, A.Eid. Stimulation effect
of some bioregulators on flowering, chemical constituents,
essential oil and phytohormones of tuberose (Polianthes
tuberos L.). New York Science Journal 2011;4(5):16-21].
Spermidine, ATP, flowering, chemical constituents, essential
oil, phytohromones, tuberose
Beneficiation Processing of Agbaja Iron Ore By Chemical Leaching Technique
S.M.O. Obiorah1, M.C.Menkiti2*,
of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka, Anambra State,
Of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,
Anambra State, Nigeria
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
The effects of dwell time, dilution ratio, leachant
concentration and variables interaction on the dephosphirization
of Agbaja iron ore have been investigated by chemical leaching[H2SO4]
technique and 23- factorial surface response
methodology. Results indicate 96%, 95% and 96% of phosphorus
removal at 36 min leaching time,0.3M leachant concentration and
1:2 dilution ratio, respectively. Iron loss during the leaching
was less than 0.15%.It can be concluded that acid leaching of
Agbaja iron ore is feasible at the conditions of the experiment.
Obiorah, M.C.Menkiti, E.E.Nnuka. Beneficiation Processing of
Ore By Chemical Leaching Technique.
New York Science Journal 2011;4(5):22-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Agbaja, Leaching, Iron, Ore, Beneficiation,Iron ore
Characteristics of Adult learning
and Mohammad Abedi2
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and
Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
of Agricultural Management, Islamic
University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran
Successful adult education programs recognize that adult learner
needs and learning styles may require non-traditional methods of
teaching and accommodate them whenever possible. This means
holding classes and sessions outside of typical working hours
for adults that work, providing one-on-one tutoring, group
classes, and other methods of delivering services that are
flexible. It is also important to hold the classes where it is
convenient for adult learners to attend, such as local houses of
worship, residential facilities, libraries, or other community
centers. Understanding this key principle is difficult sometimes
for organizations that have worked in child education, but not
in adult education. Congregations that have held learning
programs for children may feel that they are suited to take on
adult education without realizing the differences in program
structure and content. It is important that congregations
research training opportunities before embarking on an adult
Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi.
Assessing main Characteristics of Adult learning.
Science Journal 2011;4(5):28-34]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
indigenous knowledge, rural
adult learning principles in
Agricultural Management, Islamic
Qaemshahr Branch, Iran
Learners must retain what the program delivers to them in order to
benefit from the learning. In order for participants to retain
the information taught, they must see a meaning or purpose for
that information. They must also understand and be able to
interpret and apply the information in their own real life
contexts. Understanding includes their ability to assign the
correct degree of importance to the material and its application
in the future. The amount of retention is always directly
affected by the degree of original learning. In other words if
the learners did not learn the material well initially, they
will not retain it well either. Retention by the participants is
directly affected by their amount of practice during the
learning. After the students demonstrate they can apply new
financial skills, they should be urged to practice in their own
time and for their own personal needs to retain and maintain the
Important of adult learning principles in rural education.
Science Journal 2011;4(5):35-41]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
adult learning, rural education
Lesson plan in
agricultural education for adult
Agricultural Management, Islamic
Qaemshahr Branch, Iran
There are many
tests available to help you and your students discover your best
learning style. Generally speaking, however, if you are someone
who is more likely to think in pictures, prefer to meet with
someone in person, and are more likely to want visual diagrams
when completing a project you have tendencies towards visual
learning. Similarly, if you are more likely to think in terms of
sounds, prefer to speak on the phone with someone, and want
verbal instructions then you tend towards auditory learning.
Finally, if you are more likely to think in terms of moving
images like mini-movies in your mind, prefer to participate in
an activity when you meet to speak with someone, and tend to
jump right into a project without reading directions you tend
towards tactile/kinesthetic learning. In the best of all
possible worlds, you would incorporate all three learning styles
into each of your lessons. However, this is just not possible in
the real world of teaching. In truth, it is often not hard to
include both auditory and visual learning styles in your
lessons. For example, you can have instructions written on the
board and say them out loud. However, it is not always as easy
to include the tactile/kinesthetic learning style into your
lessons. The sad truth is that many students have this as their
strongest learning style. It is best to not force the issue but
instead find natural places to include kinesthetic learning. If
your class warrants it, you could include simulations,
role-playing, debates, or the use of manipulative.
Lesson plan in agricultural education for adult.
Science Journal 2011;4(5):42-47]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Characterization of Intraspecific Protoplast Fusion in
Hassan*1, M. M., Ragaa A. Eissa1, and H.
of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture,
of Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and
Biotechnology researches Institute (GEBRI), Sadat City, Minufiya
Protoplast was isolated from two fungicide tolerant mutants PTz-C
and PTz-F of T.
obtained from 18 h old mycelium digested by Novozyme 234 and
fused by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The frequency of
fusion resulting in double fungicide
tolerant isolates was about 0.32 % and seven fusants were
selected for further studies. Fusion between the two fungicide
tolerant mutants of T.
developed some superior strains. The present study shows that
it’s possible to obtain temporary nuclear fusion in which
recombination events can occur.
The confirmation of occurrence of Intraspecific protoplast
fusion using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was
carried out using two primers. ISSR banding pattern indicated
that protoplast fusion was done at molecular level and it was
consistent with data obtained from the protoplast fusion
identification as nuclear and cytoplasmic
fusion. Results of the present study
demonstrated the scope and significance of the protoplast fusion
technique, which can be used to develop superior hybrid strains
of filamentous fungi that lack inherent sexual reproduction.
M. M., Ragaa A. Eissa, and H. A. Hamza.
Molecular Characterization of Intraspecific Protoplast Fusion in
Science Journal 2011;4(5):48-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Protoplast fusion, PCR-ISSR technique, Trichoderma.
From Mines Effluent of National Iron Ore Mininig Project,
Itakpe-Okene and Bioremediation Potential of Selected Species
Okunlola O.I., Ogunjobi A. A. and Oyelade A. A.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Department of Microbiology
University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Abstract: The microbiology of mine effluent of Itakpe iron ore deposit was
investigated in this study. Sample of mine effluent were
collected from the iron ore deposit of the National iron
Itakpe-Okene, Nigeria and were analyzed microbiologically. The
effluent was bioremediated using Bacillus circulans,
Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus coagulans along with 0.1
%w/v Ca (OH)2. Extent of
remediation was monitored with the physicochemical parameters of
the effluent. Twenty seven different bacteria isolates were
identified from the mine effluent. They are species of
Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus, Bacillus, and
Micrococcus. Initial physicochemical characteristics of the
raw effluent were pH6.8; COD, 714.05mg/l; BOD, 23.17mg/1; TDS,
254.13mg/l; Total alkalinity, 240.0mg/1; Total hardness 230mg/1.
Physicochemical results obtained after a seven day period showed
that COD of effluent seeded with Bacillus circulans
reduced to 598.55mg/1; while for effluent seeded with
Bacillus circulans and 0.1%w/v Ca(OH)2 recorded
49.78mg/1. The COD of effluent seeded with Bacillus coagulans
was 369.90 mg/l and 668.80 mg/l for that with Bacillus
coagulans 0.1%w/v Ca(OH)2. Pseudomonas sp
singly recorded 281.60mg/1 while a value of 563.20 mg/l was
obtained when use in combination with the Ca(OH)22.
The BOD followed a similar pattern with Bacillus circulans
recording 12.67mg/1 and 14.33mg/1 with the addition of 0.1%w/v
Ca(OH)2. Bacillus coagulans reduced to 6.0mg/1
and in combination with 0.1%w/v Ca(OH)2 reduced to
18.87mg/1 The TDS for Bacillus circulans was 160.6mg/1
and 158.8mg/1 for that with Bacillus circulans and
0.1%w/v Ca(OH)2. Pseudomonas sp recorded
141.0mg/1 and 177.9mg/1 of w/v with addition of Ca(OH)2.
Evaluated parameter indicated that effluent seeded with
Pseudomonas sp of gave the best remediation.
O.E., Okunlola O.I., Ogunjobi A. A. and Oyelade A. A.
Bacteria Isolated From Mines Effluent of National Iron Ore
Mininig Project, Itakpe-Okene and Bioremediation Potential of
Selected Species. New York Science Journal 2011;4(5):54-58].
Microbiology, Mine effluent, Physicochemical, Iron ore,
of Rural Women
Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic
Qaemshahr Branch, Iran
the reason that women are less
important in the development is this thought and action. Because
women are in occurred opportunities in the second stage, or even
sometimes do not come into account. Zanjani in the article
"Women's Empowerment" according to economic, social and cultural
characteristics, one of the important subjects that have
investigated is the effect of number of children in female
employment in urban and rural communities. In
urban, employment opportunity population continually reduces by
increasing the number of children. This reduction is weak, up to
the third child and then takes the intensity. So that the
employment opportunities of women decrease in pay to first child
to the second 3 / 2 percent and the second child to the third 9
/ 6 percent, while this reduction from third child to the
quarter is 3 / 27 percent. But in rural society due to the
household problems, type of activity and employment, increasing
numbers of children not only make no reduction in women
employment opportunities so with increasing the number of
children, women's job opportunities is also growing and by
having 7 child reaches its peak.
siyar. Assessing Employment of
Rural Women. New York Science Journal
2011;4(5):59-62]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
employment, rural women
Moisture-dependent physical properties of 12 varieties of rough
rice (Oryza Sativa L.) grain
Mohammad Bagher Dehpour1*, Seyed Hossein Payman1,
of Agricultural Mechanization, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
University of Guilan, P.O.Box 41635-1314, Rasht, Iran
of Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture,
Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran, Iran.
This study was
carried out to evaluate the effect of moisture content on some
physical properties of different varieties of rough rice grains.
12 rough rice varieties including Gharib, Hasani, Binam, Tarom,
Khazar, Domsiah, Hashemi, Alikazemi, Hybrid, Kadoos, Sepidrood
and Dorfak were evaluated in this research. The 12 varieties
were divided into 3 groups, namely, Local short grain varieties
(Gharib, Hasani and Binam), Local long grain varieties (Tarom,
Khazar, Domsiah, Hashemi and Alikazemi), and Improved long grain
varieties (Hybrid, Kadoos, Sepidrood and Dorfak) and the
physical properties of the varieties in each group were
determined at four levels of moisture content, including 8, 10,
12 and 14% (w.b.). The results revealed that the average values
of grain length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, surface
area, volume, sphericity, aspect ratio, thousand grain mass and
angle of repose were in the ranges of 8.74-11.94 mm, 2.14-3.26
mm, 1.84-2.21 mm, 3.36-4.05 mm, 33.24-45.41 mm2,
19.91-34.90 mm3, 31.97-45.01%, 0.19-0.37, 21.54-28.12
g, and 29.6-38.04º, respectively. For all of the varieties, by
increasing the moisture content the bulk density increased. The
static coefficient of friction on five surfaces, including
glass, galvanized iron, plywood, iron and aluminum were in the
range of 0.2180-0.3939, 0.2890-0.4122, 0.4192-0.6119,
0.3648-0.4621, and 0.2706-0.3843, respectively. Based on the
statistical analysis, the effects of moisture content and
variety on all of the physical properties of rough rice were
New York Science
Journal 2011;4(5):63-73]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Physical properties, Rough rice, Moisture content, Variety
development of Pedal operated flour mill.
Sushi T.Ambadkar², R.V.Paropate³,Vivek R.Gandhewar4,
Mechanical Engineering,Yashavantrao collage of Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering,JDIET, Yavatmal-445001, India.
Abstract: The socio-economic conditions of peoples living in villages of
developing countries including India, human muscle power can be
good alternative to fulfill the energy requirements for
performing many activities like flour milling. Pedaling is the
most efficient way of utilizing power from human muscles.
Keeping these things in mind a pedal operated flour mill is
developed. The machine consists of a chain drive and belt
drive that turns rotates conventional stone wheels ,where the
poured wheat gets crushed to produce flour. The machine is
economically viable, can be used by common people, save time
otherwise spent in traditional hand cranking of stone wheels and
can be adopted for human-powered process units which could have
intermittent operation without affecting the end-product.
A. Hatwalne, Sushi T. Ambadkar, R.V. Paropate, Vivek R.
Gandhewar, A.M. Wankhade. Design and development of Pedal
operated flour mill. New York Science Journal
2011;4(5):74-77]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
flour mill, chain drive, belt drive, stone wheels.
Acid, Lipid and Lipoproteins levels in HIV Infected Patients
Maria, 2Finebone Patience. 1Adetunji
Kehinde, 1Umahion Kingsley
¹ Department of
Chemical Pathology&Immunology, Faculty of Basic Medical
Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo, University, Sagamu campus, Nigeria.
² Chemical Pathology
University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) induces a wide array of biochemical
and immunological alterations resulting in the progressive
impairment of cellular functions, several metabolic
abnormalities and eventual development of acquired immune
deficiency syndrome (AIDS). There is paucity of information
plasma ascorbic acid concentration in HIV patients on
antiretroviral therapy in University College Hospital
This study was designed to assess the
interplay of ascorbic acid, lipids and lipoproteins in HIV
positive patients on antiretroviral therapy. One hundred
subjects consisting of fifty HIV positive patients with mean age
of 34.02 ± 0.95 years and fifty controls with mean age of 35.06
± 0.98 years were selected for this study. Plasma ascorbic acid,
lipids and lipoproteins were estimated using spectrophotometric
methods. The anthropometric indices were measured using standard
methods. The result showed significant reductions in plasma high density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (p<0.01) and body weight (p<0.05)
when compared with the controls. There were significant
increases in the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density
lipoprotein cholesterol LDLC (p<0.01) when compared with corresponding control values. There were significant
correlations between TC and HDLC (r=0.427, p<0.01) and LDLC
(r=0.975, p<01).TC/HDLC ratio was negatively correlated with TC/LDLC
(r=-0.782, p<0.01) and HDLC/LDLC (r=-0.742, p<0.01).
Plasma ascorbic acid, lipids and
lipoproteins were altered in our human immunodeficiency
virus. Infection patients on antiretroviral therapy.There
were interplays in the plsma lipids and liporoteins in HIV
[Ebesunun Maria, Finebone Patience, Adetunji Kehinde, Umahion Kingsley.
Plasma Ascorbic Acid, Lipid and Lipoproteins levels in HIV
Infected Patients. New York Science Journal
2011;4(5):78-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Ascorbic acid, cholesterol,
High density lipoprotein, human immunodeficiency virus
Studies On Acute
Mycotoxicosis In Turkey
Hassan, A. A*.1;
Nahed, M.El Mokhtar1 and Samira, A.M. Snousi
Deptartment, 1 Animal Health Research Institute,
Agriculture Research Centre, Dokki and 2 Veterinary
Laboratory, El-Dakhla , El-Wadi -El-Gadid Governorate.
: The present study was undertaken to investigate the
causes of Sudden death in a turkey farms at El-Wadi El-Gadid and
Giza Governorates. The Post mortems examination of forty
representative cases, showed enlargement and hemorrhages of
liver, spleen, lung, kidney and muscles. Aspergillus flavus,
A.niger, A.funigatus and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated
in dominating frequency but Fusarium sporotrichioides, F.
tricinctum and F. oxysporum were rarely isolated from these
organs. The same fungi were recovered from houses of dead turkey
(Feed, litter, air, underground water and dropping). From 122 of
these strains isolated from houses of turkey, 110 were
mycotoxigenic (90.1%), the ratio between the numbers of isolates
screened for toxin production versus the number found to be
positive is of interest. 85.3% of Aspergillus flavus
produced aflatoxins, 80% of A. ochraceus produced
ochratoxin A and 80% of F. Sporotrichioides and 100% of
F. tricinctum and F. oxysporum produced T-2
toxins. The majority of mycotoxic fungi were detected in feed
(90%) and 100% in litter which could be considered as the main
sources of this toxicosis. On the other hand, the mycotoxins
were detected in utilized feeds in significant levels. The mean
levels of aflatoxins
were detected in 76.6% of examined wheat,
of ochratoxins detected in 40% while
ppb of T-2 was recovered from 15% of examined wheat samples.
Also, the higher significant mean levels were observed in
utilized yellow corn in feeding of diseased turkey (42.5±2.6
ppb of aflatoxins and 51.0±0.01 ppb of ochratoxins).
The same mycotoxins
were also detected in sera of diseased live birds, 40% of turkey
sera had a mean levels of 4.74±0.01
ppb aflatoxins, 20% had
of ochratoxins and 50% of examined diseased turkey sera had a
mean levels of
52.0±0.2 ppb T-2
foregoing results gave a large probability that the feed, water,
litters are the sources of these toxicosis. The biochemical
parameters and electrophoresis patterns were significantly
altered in diseased birds. The hygienic significance of fungal
and mycotoxins pollution for turkeys health had been
A. A; Nahed, M.El Mokhtar and Samira, A.M. Snousi. Studies On
Acute Mycotoxicosis In
New York Science Journal 2011;4(5):82-91]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Mycotoxicosis, turkey, Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, T-2 toxin,
Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Biochemical, Electrophoresis
Solar Disinfection Of Stream And Well Water
Aluko, A.G. Akinyemi, O.B., Falaiye, O.A and Awe, S. F.
Public Health Research (EPHR) Laboratory, Mosunmola House,
Temidire Area Tanke Oke-Odo, P. O. Box 4247 Ilorin, Kwara State,
disinfection of stream and well water was studied. Raw stream
and well water were collected and dispensed into transparent,
colourless plastic PET bottles. These were then exposed to
sunlight from for four hour (10:00 to 14:00).
atmospheric conditions (sky condition, relative humidity, total
radiation, aerosol optical depth and temperature) and the
bacteriological quality (total bacterial and total coliform
counts) of the water samples were monitored during the exposure
period. The sky was clear, total radiation was high (588 -1317Wm-2),
relative humidity and aerosol optical depth were low (15%- 39%
respectively); the corresponding atmospheric temperature was
high. The initial bacterial counts of the water samples were
high (1.8 to
2.4×106 and 2.2 to 2.4×106 for well and
stream water respectively). They were reduced by
to 86.3% for well water and between 77.4 to 81.2%.
The rates of
killing of bacteria varied in the water samples and also hourly
56.5%/hour and 8.2 to 50.0%/hour for the well water and stream
water respectively). The influence of the atmospheric condition
on the disinfection of water is discussed. The study confirms
that solar radiation could be effectively used to disinfect
contaminated water and hence water can be made safe using solar
K.I.T, Alege, A.A.,
Aluko, A.G. Akinyemi,
O.B., Falaiye, O.A and Awe, S. F.
Solar Disinfection Of Stream And Well Water.
Science Journal 2011;4(5):92-97]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Solar; Disinfection; Stream; Well Water
Properties of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent Leaf)
*NJOKU, Obioma U.;
JOSHUA, Parker Elijah; AGU, Chidozie Victor and DIM, Nzubechukwu
Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
(Scent leaf) is plant species mainly found in the tropics and
widely used as spices. A study was carried out with the leaves
of the plant to determine its antioxidant activities and
phytochemicals present as well as toxicity levels. The acute
toxicity of the plant extract on mice was found to be 2450mg/kg
body weight. Phytochemical analysis on both the fresh and dried
leaves of the plant revealed the presence of terpenes,
flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, proteins,
carbohydrate, fats and oils with the dried samples having higher
concentrations. The antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of
the leaves was determined in vitro using rat liver
homogenate. A significant inhibition at different concentration
was observed with nitric oxides, ferrous sulphate and carbon
tetrachloride induced lipid peroxidation activities when
compared with ascorbic acid. This study revealed that Ocimum
gratissimum may serve as a good scavenger of free radicals
and thus reduces the effects of oxidative stress in the body.
Obioma U.; JOSHUA, Parker Elijah; AGU, Chidozie Victor and DIM,
Nzubechukwu C. Antioxidant Properties of Ocimum
gratissimum (Scent Leaf). New York Science Journal
2011;4(5):98-103]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Ocimum gratissimum; Antioxidant; Scent Leaf; Free
The manuscripts in
this issue were presented as online first for peer-review,
starting from March 25, 2010.
All comments are
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