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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

纽约科学杂志

Volume 4 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 32); October 25, 2011, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net; newyorksci@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

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1

Use of Geophysical Methods in Landfill Site Investigation: A Case Study of Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

 

Oyediran Ibrahim Adewuyi, Adeyemi Gabriel Oladapo

 

Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

oyediranibrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An integrated geophysical investigation of a site in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria was carried out to provide detailed information on the suitability or otherwise of the location for disposal of waste with utmost priority being prevention of groundwater pollution. Sixty six Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and 36 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out to determine the occurrence of linear structures, layer resistivity, bedrock depth, depth and characteristics of the unsaturated zone, identification of any confined or perched water bearing strata and subsurface features. VLF-EM data indicated the absence of linear features while VES showed the presence of three to four geoelectric layers namely topsoil, dry lateritic soil, clay layer, weathered/fresh bedrock with no evidence of fracture which may promote large scale groundwater pollution. Depths to bedrock and water table varied from 3.80 to 12.20m and 8.00 to 9.30m respectively. The presence of a clay layer with thickness ranging from 3.10m to 12.20m is significant in siting a landfill because of its impermeable nature that makes it qualify as a seal, hence protecting the underlying aquifer from being polluted. It can also serve as attenuating layer that will enable leachate to percolate slowly downwards, simultaneously undergoing attenuation by filtration, sorption and exchange processes with the clays in the unit. Thus the multi method approach has generated information which confirms the suitability of the site.

[Oyediran Ibrahim Adewuyi, Adeyemi Gabriel Oladapo. Use of Geophysical Methods in Landfill Site Investigation: A Case Study of Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):1-10]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.01

 

Keywords: Groundwater; landfill; pollution; leachate; bedrock

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Bioprocess Development for the Production of Bioactive Compounds from Actinomycetes Isolates from Al-Khurmah Governorate

 

*1Atta H.M.; 2 El-Sehrawi M.; 1 Bayoumi R. and 3 Gehan F. Galal

 

1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The present address: Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education- Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA.

2. Biology Dept. Faculty of Science - Taif University; KSA. 3. Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education (Girl)- Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA.

houssamatta@yahoo.com and houssamatta@hotmail.com; Tel: 00966506917966

 

Abstract: This work was carried out for develop a suitable process for extraction of bio-products and improve yields of the bioactive substances that demonstrated inhibitory affects against microbial pathogenic, from Streptomyces rimosus, KH-1223-55. The active metabolite was extracted using Chloroform and ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) at pH 7.0. The separation of the active ingredient and its purification was performed using both thin layer chromatography and column chromatography techniques. The physico-chemical characteristics of the purified antimicrobial agent have been investigated. This analysis indicates a suggested imperical formula of C28H43NO6. The minimum inhibition concentrations "MICs" of the purified antimicrobial agent were also determined. The purified antimicrobial agent was suggestive of being belonging to 18 membered polyketide macrolide antibiotic group (Borrelidin or Treponemycin antibiotic) produced by Streptomyces rimosus, KH-1223-55.

[Atta H.M.; El-Sehrawi M.; Bayoumi R. and Gehan F. Galal. Bioprocess Development for the Production of Bioactive Compounds from Actinomycetes Isolates from Al-Khurmah Governorate. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):11-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.02

 

Keywords: Production; Characterization; bioactive compounds; Streptomyces rimosus; Borrelidin antibiotic

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Discovery Potent of Novel Peptide Derivatives Containing Sulfonamide Moiety As Inhibitors of CA Using Structure Based Virtual Screening and Binding Assays

 

Ahmed A.El-Henawya*, Shaban I.Mohamedb, Ahmed A.Hassana, Ahmed H.Halawaa, M A.Elnassaga, Gamil A. Elhagea

 

 a) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo-Egypt.

 b) Technology Engineering Institute ,Tamoh,Giza , Egypt.

*elhenawysci@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Recently, sulfonamides have been reported to show significant antitumor activity in vitro and/or in vivo. There are a variety of mechanisms for the anticancer activity, and the most famous mechanism is through the inhibition of CA isozymes. The structures of these compounds design to comply with the general features of sulfonamide pharmacophore which act as carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors. Virtual screening using molecular docking studies of the synthesized compounds were performed by Virtual Docker (MVD), the molecular docking results indicates that some synthesized compounds more suitable inhibitor against (CA) than original inhibitor (E7070).

[Ahmed A. El-Henawy, Shaban I. Mohamed, Ahmed A. Hassan, Ahmed H.Halawa, M A. Elnassag, Gamil A.Elhage. Discovery Potent of Novel Peptide Derivatives Containing Sulfonamide Moiety As Inhibitors of CA Using Structure Based Virtual Screening and Binding Assays. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):19-25]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.03

 

Key words: Peptide, Sulfonamide, Carbonic Anhydrase, DOKING, Lipinski Rule.

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4

Study of the 4,6-diamino-3-cyano pyridine-2(1H)-thione complexes

 

M. A. El Nawawy

 

1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr- City, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Complexes of 4,6-diamino-3-cyano pyridine-2(1H)-thione with Cu(II), Co (II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions have been prepared. The formation of 2: 1 (metal:ligand) complexes was identified by elemental analyses, spectrophotometric and electrical conductance measurements. The nature of bonding in the isolated complexes has been investigated by infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H N.M.R) spectra as well as thermogravimetry (TGA), magnetic properties and mass spectrometric data. The biological activities of the ligand and metal complexes have also been studied.

[M. A. El Nawawy. Study of the 4,6-diamino-3-cyano pyridine-2(1H)-thione complexes. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):26-29]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.04

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

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 Antiviral Potentials of Gossypium hirsutum Extracts on Yellow Fever Virus

 

Taiye R. Fasolaa, Faderera A. Adeyemoa, Joseph A. Adenijib and Iheanyi O. Okonkoc

 

aDepartment of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria;

bDepartment of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria;

cDepartment of Biochemistry & Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

fasolatr@yahoo.com; Tel.: +234-805 5303348

 

Abstract: Gossypium hirsutum used by traditional medical practitioners or in phytomedical practice in the treatment of diseases such as fevers and influenza was investigated for their inhibitory activities on the yellow fever virus in the tissue cell culture using Vero cells. The dried powdered leaf of Gossypium hirsutum were extracted with water and the extracts evaporated to dryness. Dry residue were dissolved in respective solvents (1:10 w/v) and tested for antiviral activity at P<0.01 against yellow fever virus by standard laboratory procedures. The water extract of the plants assayed for cytotoxicity in Vero cells showed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of G. hirsutum was 0.079mg/ml. The extracts were used at the established MICs. The extracts were mixed with equal volumes of 100TCID50 Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) in confluent monolayer of Vero cells. The extracts showed antiviral activities against yellow fever virus. G. hirsutum inhibited yellow fever viruses at MICs of 0.079mg/ml. Gossypium hirsutum showed higher toxic dose and ceased to be cytopathic at 0.079mg/ml. The result of the study revealed that the water extract of G. hirsutum showed significant antiviral activity. Based on this experimental evidence, the extracts of G. hirsutum are considered effective against YFV as they completely inhibited the infectivity of YFV as evident in complete absence of Cytopathic effects (CPEs). It should therefore be recommended that application of extracts from Gossypium hirsutum could help in the treatment of yellow fever infections. It is possible that more potent components especially against YFV might reside in the polar fractions which should form the focus of future investigation.

[Taiye R. Fasola, Faderera A. Adeyemo Joseph A. Adeniji and Iheanyi O. Okonko. Antiviral Potentials of Gossypium hirsutum Extracts on Yellow Fever Virus. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):30-35]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.05

 

Key words: Antiviral activity, cytotoxicity, cytopathic effects, Gossypium hirsutum, yellow fever virus

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Estimation of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollutants, No2, So2, Pm10 and Land Surface Temperature (Lst) of Nile Delta Region

 

M. I. El- Gammal1, R. A. Youssef*2, R. R. Ali2 and Amany, G. Madkour1

 

1Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta Branch, Mansoura University, Egypt

2 Soils and Water use Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

*refatay1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Climate change can be driven by change in the atmospheric concentrations of a number of radiatively active gases and aerosols, human activities have affected concentrations, distributions and life cycles of these gases. Therefore, the objective of this study to estimate the impact of air pollutants (e. g. NO2, SO2, and PM10) on Land Surface Temperature (LST) at the Nile Delta region. In the present study, twenty sites located at the southeast of Nile Delta were selected. A total of twenty eight Landsat ETM+ images bands 6, of path (176) and row (39), acquired during the years from 2000 to 2009; are employed in the current study. The images were processed in ENVI 4.7 software to estimate the mean of LST for the warm and cold seasons over the study sites. The available analytical data of air pollutants (e. g. SO2, NO2, and PM10) have been collected from the monthly reports of Environmental Information and Monitoring Program published during 2006 year. The correlation between the LST and pollutants was worked out using SPSS software. The results indicate that the correlation between NO2, PM10 and LST is positive. Whereas, the results of SO2 show that the correlation is negative.

[M. I. El- Gammal, R. A. Youssef, R. R. Ali and Amany, G. Madkour. Estimation of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollutants, No2, So2, Pm10 and Land Surface Temperature (Lst) of Nile Delta Region. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):36-45]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.06

 

Keywords: Climate change; Land Surface Temperature (LST); Pollutants, NO2, SO2, and PM10, Nile Delta

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7

GC/MS determination of Bioactive Components of Bulbophyllum kaitense. Reichib Leaves Estern Ghats in India.

 

A.KALAIARASAN, P. KUMAR , S. AHMED JOHN

 

P.G and Research Department of Botany, Jamal Mohammed College (Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli-620 020. Tamilnadu. India. E-mail: myla-kalai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the bioactive components of Bulbophyllum kaitense leaves were evaluated by using Perkin- Elmer Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry, The mass spectra of the compounds in the extract was matched with the National Institute of standards and Technology (NIST) library. The GC/MS analysis of ethanol extract of Bulbophyllum kaitense revealed that the existence of glycerin (29.52%) cis-z-a- Bisabolene epoxide (23.96%) 3,3, 4, 4, Tetra- methoxystibene (3.69%) 6,10-Dodecadien – 1- yn – 3 – 01, 3, 7, 11- trim ethyl. (3.29%), 3 – tert lox methyl) hex -5-ene -1, 2 – diol.(3.13%), 2h – Pyran, 2- (7- heptade lynyloxy) tetra hydro (2.63%) 1- Heptatrucitabik. (2.16%) Phenol, 2- methoxy -4- propyl (1.90%), 3- (Adamantan- 2- yliden - methoxymethyl)- Phenol(1.66%) Cyclohexane, 1,3,5- trim ethyl – 2- octadegcy (1.36%) Tetradecanoic acid (1.30%) 3,9 – Epoxy – pregnance – 11a, 20 – diol, 3a – methoxy – 18- [N-methyl –N- (2;4 epoxy ethyl) amino]. (1.10%). The identification of bioactive components in leaf parts of Bulbophyllum kaitense. Rechib by GC-MS is the first report.

[A. Kalaiarasan., P. Kumar., S. Ahmed john. GC/MS determination of Bioactive Components of Bulbophyllum kaitense. Reichib Leaves Estern Ghats in India. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):46-49]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.07

 

Key words: Bulbophyllum kaitense, leaves, Phytochemicals, GC-MS Analysis

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8

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A LOCALLY FABRICATED FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE APPARATUS

 

Fatukasi Samson Olusegun1, Ajayeoba Abiola Olufemi2 and Olaoye Olusegun Solomon

 

1Civil Engineering Department (Mechanical Unit) Osun State Polytechnic, P. M. B. 301, Iree, Nigeria.

2Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,

P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

aoajayeoba@lautech.edu.ng, samsek2k3@gmail.com, osolaoye@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The development and accurate experimental results of friction loss in pipe apparatus allows the detailed study of the fluid friction head losses which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes. But high cost of this imported model of this equipment makes it unaffordable for most Nigerians; hence there is a need for locally fabricated friction loss in pipe apparatus, aiming at economic viability and readily availability of the equipment to Nigerians for quality control. All the materials used in this work were sourced locally and they are readily available. In this work only laminar flow was considered and the t–test analysis at 95% confidence level of experimental results and graphical comparison of both imported and locally fabricated friction loss in pipe apparatus were carried out. It is seen from the results that there is no significant difference between the imported and fabricated apparatus.

[Fatukasi Samson Olusegun, Ajayeoba Abiola Olufemi and Olaoye Olusegun Solomon. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A LOCALLY FABRICATED FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE APPARATUS. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):50-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.08

 

KEY WORDS; Apparatus, Incompressible fluids, Indigenous materials, Fabrication, Laminar flow, Turbulent flow

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A Preliminary Microbiological Study of Sindh, a Glacier fed River of Sonamarg Kashmir

 

Sana Shafi1; Suhaib A. Bandh1*; Azra N. Kamili1; Manzoor A. shah2; Bashir A. Ganai3 and Nowsheen Shameem1

1Department of Environmental Science/Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar India

2 Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar India-190 006

3 Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar India-190 006

Email: suhaibbandh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research work determined the microbiological characteristics of waters of Sindh River, Kashmir. The study was carried out from July 2010 to December 2010 at two different sites. During the study the bacterial and fungal flora showed variation in relation to the conditions prevailing at the different sites. Seven bacterial isolates coded from B1 to B7 with 57.14% of the isolates as gram negative cocci and 42.86% gram negative bacilli were isolated. In addition five species of fungi; Asperigillus I, Asperigillus II, Penicillium sp. Candida I and Candida II belonging to three genera were also isolated. The highest viable count of bacteria was observed at site I with a cfu/ml of 5.6x102 in the month of July and the lowest viable count at site II with a cfu/ml of 1.2x102 in the month of December. Among the fungal species the maximum density was of Asperigillus I, Asperigillus II and minimum of Candida II. The isolated strains tested for sensitivity against eight antibiotics namely Cephalothin (Ch), Clindamycin (Cd), Trimaxozole (Co), Erythromycin (E), Gentamycin (G), Ofloxacin (Of), Penicillin (P), Vancomycin (Va) revealed that 46.42% of strains were resistant, 35.7% of strains were susceptible and 17.8% of strains showed intermediate sensitivity. Almost all the drugs tested against except Gentamycin and Ofloxacin showed 100% susceptibility. The results revealed that Asperigillus spp. and Candida spp. were susceptible while Pencillium spp. was resistance.

[Sana Shafi, Bandh S A., Kamili A N., shah M A., Ganai B A. and Nowsheen Shameem. A Preliminary Microbiological Study of Sindh, a Glacier fed River of Sonamarg Kashmir. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):58-62]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.09

 

Keywords: Bacteria; Fungi; Sindh River; Kashmir; Sonamarg

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The Orbit of Planet Earth in the Last 150 Million Years

 

P.C. van den Noort 1

 

1. Em Prof. Wageningen University, noort1935@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The structure of the world is a construction of philosophers and scientists. It changed all the time. Nowadays we have a chaotic Solar System. The orbit of Earth changes, therefore, on the very long run. With it changed the UV- radiation on the surface of Earth, influencing the number of mutations. This celestial factor plays an important role in the explanation of evolution and extinction which we can see in the fossil record of Earth, and reversed we can reconstruct the orbit of planet Earth. In principle this factor can also explain the loss of life on Venus and Mars.

[P.C. van den Noort. The Orbit of Planet Earth in the Last 150 Million Years. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):63-65]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.10

 

Keywords: Structure, solar system, gravity, chaos, mutation, volcanism, impact, asteroid, celestial, orbit, planet, extinction, evolution.

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Problems of Financing Community Development Projects in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria.

 

Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Nwakwasi, R.N., Ejiogu-Okereke, N. and Emeana, E.M.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Technology, Federal University Of Technology Owerri. email;bankausta@yahoo.com; jesus4allheroes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems associated with financing community development projects in Obowo Area of Imo state. The specific objectives were to: determine the sources of financing community development projects, identify the commonest projects initiated and executed in the community, describe the roles of these source In financing community development projects, examine the problems of financing community development projects, and to make policy recommendations based on the findings. One hundred and twenty {120} respondents were randomly selected from ten (10) autonomous communities in Obowo Area of Imo state. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Simple statistical tools such as frequency, percentages, and tables, were used in data analysis. Result also shows that the self-help group is the most available source (99.1%) than other sources. The major problems encountered during financing the projects include: Embezzlement of funds, mismanagement of funds, available sources not co-operating, lack of security at the project site, and land – owners demanding much money for compensation. The solutions proffered include: proper management of funds, payment of taxes and rates, creation of more autonomous communities, among others.

[Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Nwakwasi, R.N., Ejiogu-Okereke, N. and Emeana, E.M. Problems of Financing Community Development Projects in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal, 2011: 4(10): 66 – 72] http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.11

 

Key words: Finance, community, project, development, government, Nigeria

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Effects of Cassava Processing And Value Added Products On Sustainable Poverty Alleviation In Ikwuano Area Of Abia State Nigeria.

 

Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto, F.C., Nwakwasi, R.N., Aja,O.O and Ike, C.L.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Technology, Federal University Of Technology Owerri. Email;bankausta@yahoo.com; jesus4allheroes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study examined the effects of cassava processing and the value added products on sustainable poverty alleviation as perceives by rural households in lkwuano L.G.A of Abia State. The objectives were to ascertain the perception of the farmers towards cassava processing as a strategy for poverty alleviation and ascertain the effects of cassava processing and value-added products on sustainable poverty alleviation. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 160 randomly sampled farmers for data collection. The result showed that the processing methods of cassava in the area included grating, pressing, sieving, fermenting, dewatering, extracting and roasting. The forms cassava available included garri, fou-fou, livestock feed, starch, flour and tapioca. The constraints to the processing included insufficiency of tubers for processing, drudgery, high cost of equipment, poor technological information, poorly stilled technicians and offensive odors. The result further showed that the effects of cassava processing and value-added products on sustainable poverty alleviation were increased acreage under cultivation, income, employment, increased household food security, increased demand for cassava products and variety in cassava consumption. It was however recommended that research into the constraints de funded by governmental and non-governmental organizations for improvement on the processing techniques in addition to training technicians on the maintenance of the processing equipment.

[Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto, F.C., Nwakwasi, R.N., Aja, O.O and Ike, C.L. Effects of Cassava Processing and Value Added Products on Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Ikwuano Area of Abia State Nigeria. New York Science Journal, 2011: 4 (10): 7377]. http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.12

 

Keywords: Cassava, sustainability, poverty, food security, Nigeri

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Effect of Access to Infrastructural Facilities on Sustainable Rural Development in Ihitte-Uboma Area of Imo State Nigeria

 

Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto, F.C., Anyoha N.O., Aja, O.O. and Chukwunyere, A.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,

Federal University of Technology Owerri.

e-mail:bankausta@yahoo.com; jesus4allheroes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of access to infrastructural facilities on sustainable rural development in Ihitte-Uboma LGA, of Imo State. The study centered on the identification of infrastructural facilities provided, determining the access to infrastructure for their sustainable development finding the impact of infrastructures and the factors affecting the provision of infrastructure on the study area. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting twenty villages from randomly selected ten autonomous communities in the study area. Data were gathered from ninety respondents through personal interview and the use of structured questionnaire. It revealed that the infrastructural facilities provided were mostly initiated by community members. These infrastructures were mainly carried out through self-help effort and involvement of community organizations such as, age grade, women association, and village improvement union. The contributions of Government in establishing infrastructure in this area was discovered to be minimal and most Government initiated infrastructure failed or were abandoned. The study equally revealed that access to infrastructure by respondents was high. For example, they have access to pipe-borne water, electricity and have no access to information communication technology, improved health care service. It also revealed that infrastructure has a great impact in rural development and the factors which affect the provision of infrastructure according to the respondents were lack of fund, high cost of materials and effect of government policy. It was recommended that the Government should compliment self-help efforts by providing counterpart funding to support infrastructure facilities initiated by community members.

[Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Anaeto, F.C. Anyoha N.O., Aja, O.O. and Chukwunyere, A.I. Effect of Access to Infrastructural Facilities on Sustainable Rural Development in Ihitte-Uboma Area of Imo State Nigeria. New York Science Journal, 2011: 4(10): 78 – 83] http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.13

 

Keywords: Infrastructure, sustainability, rural development, services, facilities.

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Parasitological evaluation of some vended sachet water in Southwestern Nigeria

 

Alli JA1, Okonko IO2*, Alabi OA1, Odu NN2, Kolade AF1, Nwanze JC3, Onoh C3, Mgbakor C1

 

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria 2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East/West Road, P.M.B 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria;

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The sale and consumption of sachet water continues to grow rapidly in most countries of the world. A parasitological evaluation of some vended sachet water in Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the safety of sachet water and recommend ways of improving the quality of such drinking water. One hundred (100) brands of 500ml sachet water samples were purchased from roadside and market hawkers and examined using wet preparation and Modified Ziehl Nelson techniques. The result obtained from this study showed that almost all the sample contains debris, while 22.0% (n=22) of them harboured parasites and the water were found to be very slimy and had objectionable odour. Infective stages of six common protozoan and helminthes pathogens were identified. Of the 6 incriminating parasites, Entamoeba species 7(31.8%) was most predominant. This was closely followed by Isospora belli 6(27.2%) and Balantidium coli 6(27.2%) while Cryptosporidium parvum 1(4.5%), Hookworm 1(4.5%), and Taenia species 1(4.5%) was least prevalent. The parasitic load found in the various samples differed markedly, 86.4% of the positive samples examined contained single parasitic infection, while 13.6% contained mixed infection of two or three types of parasites (C. parvum with Entamoeba species, while hookworm also had I. belli and Taenia species as a second contaminant). Location-dependent prevalence showed that samples from Ojoo/UI had the highest prevalence of parasites 4(66.7%). This was followed by Gate Motor Park 3(42.9%), Oja Oba 2(40.0%), Bodija Market 2(25.0%), Oje/Yemetu Market 2(25.0%), Ogunpa Market 2(25.0%), Gbagi/Alakia Motor Park 2(25.0%), Iwo Road Motor Park 3(18.0%), and Challenge/New Garage 1 (14.3%). Those from Owo 1(8.3%) and Akure 1(6.7%) had the least prevalence. No parasite was detected in samples from Ijebu-ode and Lagos. Oocyst of C. parvum was found in sample from Iwo Road Motor Park only, mixed infected with Entamoeba species. Ova of Hookworm and Ova of Taenia species in water from Gate Motor Park only, mixed infected with I. belli. Of all the samples examined, only 4.0% of them had NAFDAC approval, while the remaining 96.0% were listed. Of these 4.0% NAFDAC approved and 96.0% NAFDAC listed water, 2(50.0%) and 20(20.8%) were also positive for parasites respectively. However, there was statistical significant relationship (F=10.953; P=0.000) between method of identification of parasite (wet preparation method and modified Ziehl Nelson techniques respectively) and parasite recovery. The organisms detected in these water samples were mainly pathogens of faecal and zoonotic origin. Our observation suggests the existence of a significant level of faecal contaminants in some of our sachet water. Thus, implementation of measures and regulations that would critically minimize and control the spread of waterborne diseases is highly advocated.

[Alli JA, Okonko IO, Alabi OA, Odu NN, Kolade AF, Nwanze JC, Onoh C, Mgbakor C. Parasitological evaluation of some vended sachet water in Southwestern Nigeria. New York Science Journal, 2011: 4 (10): 84 – 92] http://wwwsciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.14

 

Keywords: Modified Ziehl Nelson techniques, Cryptosporidium parvum, Taenia species, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli and Entamoeba species, Wet preparation

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Evaluation of the Antidepressant Like Effect for Some Natural Supplements Against Reserpine Induced Behavioral Depression in Mice

 

Suzan F.I. El-Sisi

 

Address: Physiology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, NODCAR, Giza, Egypt

Email: Suzanelsisi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background; the aim of this study was conducted in a trial to evaluate a model of antidepressant like effect, with fewer side effects and have superior efficacy. This might be achieved through combining two natural antidepressant supplements, omega-3 fatty acids (ω3, 400mg/kg) and B-vitamins [folic acid (B9), 3mg/kg) and cyanocopalamine, (B12),1.5mg/kg)] then comparing its antidepressant like effect either against the classical antidepressant drug fluoxetine (FLU, 30mg/kg) or by a combine of each of them with a subthreshold dose of fluoxetine (8mg/kg). Open field, forced-swimming test (FST), tail-suspension test (TST), were performed to assess the potential antidepressant-like effect of this combine and to study the mechanisms by which the combine exert the antidepressant-like action in adult reserpinized mice. As well as the levels of catecholamine in hippocampus and cortex of mice brain, and the levels of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in serum, hippocampus and cortex of mice were determined, Results of this study showed that: 1- Intraperitoneal injection (ip) of 10 mg/kg reserpine for 2 weeks induced depression in mice through increasing the immobility time in TST, FST, and increasing the Hcy levels in all tested tissues. As well as decreasing the levels of catecholamine, omega-3, and decreasing the climbing and swimming time in FST. 2- Oral administration of the combined treatment markedly reduced the time of immobility in FST and TST and their effects are somewhat similar to that produced by the active dose of fluoxetine. While the effect of the individual treatment in FST partially reversed reserpine-induced depression. 3- The reduction in immobility produced by B-vitamins and FLU in FST was through increasing swimming behavior, suggesting that these supplements may act in the serotonergic system. This effect was augmented by the act of their combination. 4- The reduction effect produced by omega-3 was through increasing mainly climbing and partially swimming behaviors, suggesting that it may act mainly in the noradrenergic or dopaminergic system and to a lesser extend with serotonergic system. 5- The reduction produced by combining omega-3 plus B-vitamins was through increasing both swimming and climbing behaviors suggesting that this combination may act in both the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. 6- The behavioral data are in parallel and supporting the results of biochemical analysis showing; maximum elevations in the levels of monoamines, omega-3 as well as reduction in the levels of Hcy were achieved by omega-3 and B-vitamins combination. Conclusion: This study provides evidences that co-administration of omega-3 plus B-vitamins possesses potent antidepressant-like activity and this antidepressant-like action, as obvious in FST, may involve different transmitter systems. To better understand these actions, future studies are needed.

[Suzan F.I. El-Sisi. Evaluation for the Antidepressant Like Effect of Some Natural Supplements Against Reserpine Induced Behavioral Depression in Mice. New York Science Journal 2011; 4(10):93-104]. (ISSN:). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041011.15

 

Key words: depression, reserpine, omega-3, B12, folic acid, fluoxetine, catecholamine, open field test, forcing swimming and tail suspension tests.

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This is online first for peer-review starting from September 26, 2011
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