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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

纽约科学杂志

Volume 4 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 33); November 25, 2011, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net; newyorksci@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Effect of Oven drying on the nutritional properties of whole egg

and its components

 

S. Kumaravel1, Hema R.1 and Kamaleshwari A.2

 

1Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur , Tamilnadu , India.

2Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering college, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

e-mail: biotech.kam45@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The production of vacuum dried egg powder through a simplified technique was studied. The advantage of egg powder with its production and variation in its technology which helps for a better quality and cost efficient product was tested. Eggs as a raw source were collected from the local poultry farm and processes for production were carried out. High risk factors like, reduced glucose in the dehydrated product gets eliminated through vacuum drying technology. The increase of carbohydrate in the egg powder produced through vacuum technology has a visible proof of increased shelf life which indirectly reduces the risk of caramelization. Proteins in white like ovomucoid and ovalbumin which were considered to be important for blocking digestive enzymes are also eliminated through this technology.

[Kumaravel, Hema R. and Kamaleshwari A. Effect of Oven drying on the nutritional properties of whole egg

and its components. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.01

 

Keywords: Vacuum dried egg powder, poultry, dehydrated product, glucose, shelf life, caramelization, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, carbohydrate, enzymes.

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2

Determination of porosity in rocks over some parts of Gwagwalada area, Nigeria.
 

Alhassan D.Yusuf, Mallam Abu, Abdulsalam N. Nasir

 

Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, FCT PMB117, Nigeria

nasnaeem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The determination of porosity of rocks in some part of Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT-Abuja, was carried out to assess the effects of geographical variations on geophysical parameters which include porosity of rocks. This research paper describes a methodological approach using a direct measurement on rock samples in the laboratory. The volume of the rocks and the resulting porosity is then calculated from the computational approach. The results of the experiments and field studies that examined the rock porosity are then compared with the available lithological data (reviewed result). The data presented in this research work were gathered from the experiments conducted in the university of Abuja Physics laboratory and from the field studies observed from about eight locations within the research areas, which include Zuba, Yimi, Giri, Gwako, Paiko, Dobi, Anagada and Gwagwalada. In this investigation we have examined a suite of samples (20 specimens) with porositysity ranging from 14.29% to 51.92%.

[Alhassan D.Yusuf, Mallam Abu, Abdulsalam N. Nasir. Determination of porosity in rocks over some parts of Gwagwalada area, Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):5- 9]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.02

Key words: Rocks, porosity, lithology, laboratory, experiment, data

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3

Solution of 0-1 Programming Problem by using DNA Computing Model

 

Navin Kumar Agrawal1, Rajeev Kumar2 and Rahul Rathore3

 

1Department of Computer Science, Teerthankar mahaveer University, Moradabad, (U.P.)

2Department of Computer Application, College of Management & Computer Application, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad (U.P.)

3Department of Computer Science, Teerthankar mahaveer University, Moradabad, (U.P.)

Email: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com, garg.gla@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this problem, DNA computing model is used with fluorescence labeling techniques to solve the 0-1 integer problem. This model was motivated by parallelism and extra ordinary information density. The merit of this model is ease of Operation, simple implementation and time efficiency. The use of fluorescent material for reading the feasible solution is advantageous since it involves low cost, low error, and simple experimental step.

[Navin Kumar Agrawal, Rajeev Kumar and Rahul Rathore. Solution of 0-1 Programming Problem by using DNA Computing Model. New York Science Journal 2011;4(10):10-14]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.03

 

Keyword: DNA computing, fluorescence material.

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4

Effect of 3 types of training on Interleukin 15 and Insulin-like growth factor-1 in Adolescent females Running Head: Effects of training on IL-15 and IGF-1

 

Maghsoud Peeri 1*, Sara Parsamehr 2, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani3, Hoseyn Fatolahi 4

 

1, 2, 3, 4 Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author. Email: mpeeri@iauctb.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on the serum levels of interleukin 15(IL-15) and insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) in adolescent females. Methods: Twenty seven girls randomly were selected from among 150 adolescent girls. Then, they randomly were divided to four groups of resistance (n=7), endurance (n=7), concurrent (n=7) and control (n=6). The training programs of the groups lasted for 8 weeks, three days per week, which were performed from simple to difficult exercises and from low-intensity to high-intensity considering the principle of overload and increase in exercise intensity. Blood samples were taken before, in the middle and after the training program and IGF-1 and IL-15 variables were measured. Statistical analyses used were ANOVA with repeated measures (split-plot or mixed factorial test). Results: The results showed that eight-week resistance training made no Significant difference of IL -15 in the pre, mid and end of study protocol into the control, endurance and concurrent training groups. But was found a significant increase in concentration of IL -15 in three stages (pre-mid, and end test) in the resistance group (P=0.029; f = 7.794). Not significant difference in serum IGF-1 levels was observed into and between the four study groups. Conclusions: The results confirmed that fulfill of different types of physical activity, may improves body composition and VO2max in adolescent girls. Resistance training, especially can improve one of the important immune system indicators (IL-15) in adolescent females.

[Maghsoud Peeri 1*, Sara Parsamehr 2, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani3, Hoseyn Fatolahi. Effect of 3 types of training on Interleukin 15 and Insulin-like growth factor-1 in Adolescent females Running Head: Effects of training on IL-15 and IGF-1. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):15-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.04

 

Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Concurrent training, IL-15, IGF-1

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5

Role of ICT in women’s growth and education

 

Mini Agarwal, Sumit Choudhary

College of Engineering, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad (U.P.).

E-Mail: miniagarwal21@gmail.com

 

Abstract: All we know that each child has first teacher his/her mother. Educated girl makes the Nation Educated. But if she is illiterate then how child gets or takes the correct education from his/her mother. In recent arena both men and women have equals values in the world. But in villages and in some houses have rigid rules for girls and women’s they don’t believe in women’s education and equal position to men’s. In this paper we represent that with the help of information and communication technology (ICT) e-governance provides the education to women’s in new technologies and in every field like knitting, cooking, paper modeling etc. Through the help of ICT women takes initiative in each field like social and economic development. ICT encourage the women or her families for her education. ICT provides the knowledge of recent technologies like internet, online banking and shopping etc. ICT provide the knowledge of both knowledge sharing means how a woman shares her knowledge to other persons and knowledge gathering means how she gets the knowledge to other persons or resources. We all know that the financial problems are coming time to time if the women are literate then they helps in solving their financial problems.

[Mini Agarwal, Sumit Choudhary. Role of ICT in women’s growth and education. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):21-22]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.05

 

Keywords: illiterate, literate, gathering, sharing, education, financial.

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6

Farmers’ perception on insect pests’ control and insecticide usage pattern in selected areas of Ghana

 

*Silas Wintuma Avicor, 1 Ebenezer Oduro Owusu, 1, 2 Vincent Yao Eziah, 1, 3

 

1 African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science (ARPPIS), West African Sub-Regional Center, University of Ghana, PMB L59, Legon. Accra.

2 Dept. of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, Legon. Accra.

3 Crop Science Dept., College of Agriculture & Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra.

wintuma@live.com

 

Abstract: A survey of 60 farms in vegetable and cotton growing areas in the Greater Accra and Upper East Regions of Ghana revealed chemical control as the sole insect pests’ control practice of the farmers. Aphids, whiteflies, diamondback moth and grasshoppers were the most devastating insect pests that attack their crops whilst tomato, okra, cabbage and garden eggs were reported as the most affected by whiteflies. The farmers used synthetic insecticides to manage insect pests. Farmers involved in both cotton and vegetable production used hazardous insecticides recommended for cotton on vegetables. Though 25% of farmers exceeded the recommended dose, the frequency of insecticide application was generally high (weekly or less). Most farmers lacked safety equipments with a few improvising some of these items such as applying insecticides using brooms. Farmers changed insecticides mostly as a result of their availability on the market rather than perceived ineffectiveness or cost. The storage and disposal of insecticides by farmers were risky and could adversely affect the health of humans and the environment. Farmers’ knowledge of insect pest management practices were sourced mostly from experience, peer learning, extension agents, Ghana Cotton Company and the media. This study underlines the need for regular monitoring of insecticide usage patterns to ensure food safety, safeguard human and environmental health and prevent/detect resistance at the initial stages.

[Silas Wintuma Avicor, Ebenezer Oduro Owusu, Vincent Yao Eziah. Farmers’ perception on insect pests’ control and insecticide usage pattern in selected areas of Ghana.New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):23-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.06

 

Keywords: Insecticides, aphids, whiteflies, health, environment.

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7

Management And Conservation Of Biodiversity Through Soil Seed Bank In Moist Tropics Of India

 

 Upama Mall 1 and Gopal S. Singh 2,

1. Department Of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, UP, India

2. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, UP, India.

*Corresponding Author and Present Address. Mob: (+91) – 9450530681. Email: gopalshs@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Maintenance of biodiversity at landscape level comprising of various ecosystem ranging from agro-ecosystem, plantation, grassland and natural forest is very crucial for the human kind. Human and most animals are almost totally dependent on plants, directly or indirectly, as a source of energy. The vegetation of different ecosystems depends upon the availability of viable seed bank in the soil which insights proper management and restoration of different ecosystems. Soil seed bank is presence of viable seeds and propagules in the soil which was done by seedling emergence method. Total sixty one plant species comprising of 26 families were recorded through germination process in all four different ecosystems- agro-ecosystem, plantation, grassland and natural forest soils. Of the total 61 species thirty one were annuals and thirty were perennials. Herbs and grasses were dominant in all ecosystem types. Grassland and natural forest constitute maximum biodiversity in form of soil seed bank and agro-ecosystem harbored minimal diversity. Conservation and management of biodiversity through soil seed bank have became prime attention for long-term sustainability of various ecosystems. This study therefore, gives basic idea about management of biodiversity through soil seed bank of different ecosystems of moist tropics of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

[Upama Mall and Gopal S. Singh. Management And Conservation Of Biodiversity Through Soil Seed Bank In Moist Tropics Of India. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):30-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.07

 

Key Words: Soil seed bank, biodiversity, conservation and management, moist tropics, eastern Uttar Pradesh.

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8

Amplification of Capsule – Producing Genes from Cryptococcus Neoformans Using Specific Primers

 

1*Randa Alarousy, 2Heidy Abo El Yazeed, 3Hosam Kotb, 4Khaled Sabry Abdella, 4 and 2Mohamed Refai

 

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

3Department of Reproductive Diseases, Animal Reproduction Research Institute

4Department of Plant Microbiology, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

*randaarousi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Phenotypic switching parameters introduced by C. neoformans strains such as: capsule size change; colony morphology and cell form were studied in a preliminary trial to understand the dynamics of phenotypic switching and microevolution of C. neoformans. The effect of certain volatile oils on the capsule size of C. neoformans was determined and these oils were used to produce three phenotypes; original capsule size phenotype (O) by growing the yeast cells (reference strains of serotypes A and C) on SDA medium at 370 C; large capsule size phenotype (R) by growing the cells of reference strain on rosemary oil agar medium at 370 C and small capsule size phenotype (T) by growing these cells on thyme oil agar medium at 370 C with frequent observation of capsule size in all cases over a period of two weeks. Two other phenotypic characters (cell form and colony pigment) were studied. The study included most important phenotypic characterization assays macroscopically, microscopically and biochemically. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was applied on the DNAs extracted from the examined phenotypes in order to amplify the capsule genes; CAP 10, CAP 59, CAP 60, and CAP 64 using specific primers in a preliminary trial to understand the dynamics of phenotypic switching and microevolution of C. neoformans.

[Randa Alarousy, Heidy Abo El Yazeed, Hosam Kotb, Khaled Sabry Abdella, and Mohamed Refai Amplification of Capsule – Producing Genes from Cryptococcus Neoformans Using Specific Primers] New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):38-42].(ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.08

 

Key words: Microevolution, Virulence, Phenotypes, Rosemary oil, Thyme oil

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9

Role and Utility of Trace Elements in Palaeodietary Reconstruction

 

Jaibir Singh Pharswan and Yogamber Singh Farswan

 

Department of History and Archaeology, HNB, Garhwal University Srinagar (Garhwal). Uttarakhand, India

e-mail: jai_pharswan@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we discuss about the impotency of Trace Elements in Human and Animal Diet. Some of Trace Element such as Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Zinc (Zn) played an important in the dietary reconstruction. The investigation of the chemical content of bone for reconstruction of palaeodiet, however, is a relatively recent development. Aspect of past subsistence such as the importance of Marine and Terrestrial components in the Diet, the contribution of plants versus animal and marine, can now be estimate using more rigorous, quantitative techniques involving the chemical composition of Bone.

[Jaibir Singh Pharswan and Yogamber Singh Farswan. Role and Utility of Trace Elements in Palaeodietary Reconstruction. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):43-48]. (ISSN:1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.09

 

Key words: Trace elements, Faunal remains, Palaeodiet.

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10

Expression of drug resistance-related proteins; Survivin and P-glycoprotein in Astrocytic Tumors

and their correlation with Malignant Grade and to each other

 

Zakaria A. El-Khayat1; Shadia A. Fathy 2;*Heba K. Nabih 1; Safinaz E. El-Toukhy 1'; Azza A. Atef 2; and Marwa A. El-Shaer 3.

 

1 Medical Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt.

1' Medical Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt and King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA.

2 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

* dr_heba_kamal@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The expression of the drug resistance-related proteins; P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and Survivin was analyzed quantitatively in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of forty astrocytic gliomas (8 WHO grade I, 6 WHO grade II, 6 WHO grade III and 20 glioblastomas "WHO grade IV"). In addition, the correlation to each other and with the grade of malignancy was also investigated. Sections of these tumors were immunohistchemically stained with antibody to Pgp (MDR1-gene product) as well as, these sections were subjected to Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA) for the estimation of survivin protein expression. P-glycoprotein expression was not detected in tumor cells of the majority of low-grade astrocytomas, WHO grade I and II (64%) and the percentage of Pgp stained cells generally increased with tumor grade. However; 4 of the 26 (15.4%) malignant gliomas, while, WHO grade III and IV were negative. While the expression of survivin in non-glioblastomas (grades I, II and III) was not-detectable in 12 cases and detectable in 8 cases with mean of 48.2814.43 pg/ml. 14 cases of glioblastoma multiform;GBM (grade IV) were detectable for survivin with mean of 135.4128.34 pg/ml and 6 cases were not detectable for survivin. The distributions of survivin expression included 1 of 8 (12%) grade I; 2 of 6 (33%) grade II; 5 of 6 (83%) grade III and 14 of 20 (70%) grade IV. These results suggest a relation between expression of drug resistance-related proteins and malignant grade of astrocytic tumors. This indicating that, expression of survivin and Pgp may be related to tumor malignant progression in astrocytic tumors. Highly positively significant correlation was found between survivin and P-glycoprotein (r=0.452) at the 0.01 level of signifinance. Expression of drug resistance-related proteins; Survivin and P-glycoprotein in Astrocytic Tumors and their correlation with Malignant Grade and to each other.

[Zakaria A. El-Khayat; Shadia A. Fathy; Heba K. Nabih; Safinaz E. El-Toukhy; Azza A. Atef; and Marwa A. El-Shaer. Expression of drug resistance-related proteins; Survivin and P-glycoprotein in Astrocytic Tumors and their correlation with Malignant Grade and to each other. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):49-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.10

 

Keywords: Astrocytic tumors; Survivin; P-glycoprotein; Immunohistochemistry; ELISA; Malignant grade; Drug resistance-related proteins.

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11

Investigations into the Effects of Different Binding Ratios on some Densification Characteristics of Corncob Briquettes

 

Oladeji, J.T.

 

Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso

jtoladeji@gmail.com/oladeji2004@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Corncobs utilized in this experiment were obtained from corn processing mill. They maize were chopped into pieces, sieved and particles of 2.40mm representing medium series were selected. The compaction pressure was fixed at 6.60 MPa. Starch mutillage of 20 (B1), 25 (B2) and 30 (B3) % by weight of the residue was separately added as binder. An existing briquetting machine was utilized to produce briquettes. A dwell time of 120 seconds was observed for the briquettes to form. The briquette formation was replicated three times. The initial, maximum and the relaxed densities of the briquettes were determined using the mould dimension, the relaxed briquette’s dimension and ASAE standard method of determining densities. The compaction, density as well as relaxation ratios were also determined. The briquette dimensions (length, breadth and height) in cm after extraction from the mould were measured and through this the briquettes stability was determined by calculating the axial and lateral expansions of the briquettes. The mean bulk density of the unprocessed corncob residue was 50.32 kg/m3, while the relaxed densities of the briquettes with the percentage binder ratio B1, B2 and B3 were 377, 365 and 328 kg/m3 respectively and this translates to percentage volume reduction of about 749, 725 and 652 %. The maximum densities for percentage binder ratio B1, B2 and B3 varied from 570 to 802 kg/m3. The compaction, density and relaxation ratios are 3.63, 0.56, 1.78; 3.01, 0.56, 1.78; and 2.65, 0.53, 1.89 for varied from 2.65 to 3.63 for percentage binder ratios B1, B2, and B3 respectively. The study concluded that of all the three percentage binder ratios examined, percentage binder ratio B1 (20 %) exhibited the most positive attributes of biomass energy than the other two.

[Oladeji, J.T. Investigations into the Effects of Different Binding Ratios on some Densification Characteristics of Corncob Briquettes. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):55-58]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.11

 

Keywords: -Briquettes, Binder ratio, Compaction pressure, Corncob residue Particle size

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Preliminary In Vitro Study For Using Aqueous Cinnamon Extract Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

 

Abeer A. H. Boseila

 

Department of Virology , National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), 6 Abou Hazem St., Pyramids Ave., Giza 12553, Egypt. Telephone: 002-02-35851278, Fax: 002-02-35855582, abeerboseila1971@yahoo.com.

 

ABSTRACT: Aqueous cinnamon extract was examined for its effect to inhibit infection by Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells. The cytotoxicity studies revealed that by increasing concentration of the aqueous cinnamon extract, the toxicity increased. At concentration of 137.5ug/ml the toxicity was 100% after 24 hours post inoculation however at concentration of 34.375ug/ml the extract is non-toxic to the cells. Treatment of the virus extracellularly with the non-toxic dilution of the aqueous cinnamon extract before inoculation on the cells help in complete reduction of the virus titer. However, prophylactic effect of the different concentrations of the aqueous cinnamon extract revealed complete protection of the cells at concentration of 137.5 g/ml while at concentration of 68.75 g/ml the virus titer was not affected. When infected cells treated with the different concentrations of the aqueous cinnamon extract, concentration of 68.75 g/ml showed complete treatment of the infected cells while at concentration of 34.375 g/ml the virus titer was not affected. Aqueous cinnamon extract could be used as an inactivator agent during the production of FMD vaccine.

[Abeer A. H. Boseila. Preliminary In Vitro Study For Using Aqueous Cinnamon Extract Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):59-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.12

 

Keywords: Cinnamon; FMDV; Inactivation; Antiviral

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Studies on Ion association and Solvent Interaction-Conductance of Multi-charged Electrolytes (Potassium Ferricyanide and Ferrocyanide) in Aqueous and Aqueous Dextrose Mixtures at Different Temperatures.

 

Dehury Sujit Kumar*, Dash Upendra Nath

 

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technical Education and Research (ITER), Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, 751030, India.

sujitam@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The conductance of potassium ferricyanide and ferrocyanide has been measured in the concentration range of 110-3 to 610-2 mol dm-3 in aqueous and aqueous binary mixtures containing dextrose (5, 10, 15% (w/w)) at different temperatures (298.15-313.15K). The conductance data in all cases have been computed by Shedlovsky equation to obtain Λom and KA. Based upon the composition dependence of Walden product, the influence of the dextrose mixtures on the solvation of ions has been discussed. The values of the association constants, KA, are used to obtain various thermodynamic parameters for the association process in the solution. It has been observed that the electronic contribution is totally negligible towards the standard transfer thermodynamic quantities.

[ Dehury Sujit Kumar, Dash Upendra Nath. Studies on Ion association and Solvent Interaction-Conductance of Multi-charged Electrolytes (Potassium Ferricyanide and Ferrocyanide) in Aqueous and Aqueous Dextrose Mixtures at Different Temperatures. New York Science Journal 2011;4(11):64-69].(ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.13

 

Keywords: Aqueous dextrose, potassium ferrocyanide and ferricyanide, association constant

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 15, 2010. 
 
All comments are welcome: newyorksci@sciencepub.net.

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.01

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.02

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.03

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.04

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.05

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doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.08

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.09

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.10

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.11

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.12

doi:10.7537/marsnys041111.13

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