New York Science Journal
Volume 4 -
Number 12 (Cumulated No. 34); December 25, 2011,
Cover (online), Cover
Contents, Call for
Papers, All papers in one file
To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the
"Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of
the web address from .pdf to .doc
Welcome to send your
manuscript(s) to: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Titles / Authors
Science Journal 2011;4(12):1-9
Power System Distribution Quality Due to Using Dc-Converter
Loads and Electric Arc Furnaces
H.A.Khalik, M.A. Aziz,
power and Machines Engineering Department, Faculty of
Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
A Power quality improvement approach is introduced using
passive tuned filters. This approach is applied to improve
the power quality of the two different non-linear loads,
witch are connected to the real power system distribution.
The considered non-linear loads are the DC converter loads
and the electric arc furnace loads (EAF). The DC converter
loads are used for feeding the under ground metro in Cairo,
while the EAF loads are used in steel industries in
Arco-Steel Factory located in Sadat City, Egypt.
[H.A.Khalik, M.A. Aziz,
Improvement of Power System Distribution Quality Due to
Using Dc-Converter Loads and Electric Arc Furnaces.
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):10-19
Improvement, Power System Distribution Quality, Using
Dc-Converter Loads, Electric Arc Furnaces.
Synthesis of New
Sulfonamide Scaffolds Acting As Anticancer Targeting CAII
Protein Based Docking
Sh.I. Mohamed2, T. M.A. Ibrahim1, G.A.M.
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,
Nasr City, Cairo-Egypt.
Engineering Institute ,Tamoh, Giza, Egypt.
Recently, sulfonamides have been reported act as anticancer
agent through different mechanisms in vitro and/or in vivo, the
most important mechanism is through inhibition of the carbonic
anhydrase isozymes. The present work aims to synthesis some
novel sulfonamide derivatives. The synthesized compounds were
characterized by elemental analysis, physical and spectral data
(IR, 1HNMR). The synthesized compounds docked into
active site target of validated drug of CA. The calculations in-silico
were predicted that, the lowest energy of the docked poses of
compounds which interact with residues of active site, may be
making them possible inhibitors and physiologically active.
Some compounds like (17) show extensive interactions with
the targets, which consider more suitable inhibitor against (CA)
than reference drug.
Sh.I. Mohamed, T. M.A. Ibrahim, G.A.M. El-Hag Ali.
Synthesis of new sulfonamide scaffolds
acting as anticancer targeting CAII protein based docking
studies. New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):20-29].
Anticancer; carbonic anhydrase CAII; Docking.
Preparation Of High
Potent Measles Haemagglutinating Antigen From Wild Type Measles
Babatunde O1,2, Okonko Iheanyi O2, Faneye
Adedayo 2 and Adu Festus D2
Microbiology unit, Pathology department Federal Medical center
Idi-Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Department of Virology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences,
University of Ibadan College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria, World Health
Organization Regional Reference Polio Laboratory.
study reports the preparation of preparation of high potent
measles haemagglutinating antigen from wild type measles virus
in Ibadan, Nigeria. Measles haemagglutinating antigen was
prepared indigenously from isolates obtained from two children
infected with measles at the Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH)
Ibadan, with titres of 7.15 and 9.5 TCID50. The
isolates were then adapted to Vero cell line after eight serial
passages. Stock isolates were then prepared in three bateches
following polyethylene glycol between 80 concentration method.
The haemagglutination activity (HA) of the three batches of the
measles HA antigen were then tested with 4% washed monkey RBC in
a 96 well V shaped bottom microtitre plate alongside with
commercial measles HA antigen lot no. 733031. Batch 1 antigen
gave a titre of 1:640 while commercial antigen titre was 1:320,
Batch 2 antigen titre dropped one fold to give 1:320 with
commercial antigen titre 1:320, and untreated measles virus gave
a titre of about 1:10. Cell controls were also set up to
validate the results of this study. Batch 3 HA antigen titre
rose back to 1:1280 while commercial antigen gave 1:320 and
untreated measles virus 1:10. Twenty-seven (27) field samples
were collected from the Otunba Tuwashe Children’s emergency ward
(OTCHEW) of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. They
were collected based on the criteria determined by past history
of measles infection, vaccination history, and manifestation of
other exanthematous illness. The age range of children tested
was between 7 months and 15 years. An actual adult individual
infected with acute measles was also tested using paired sera.
All samples were tested using batch 1 antigen. The findings of
the field study showed that 5 subjects with clinical history of
measles tested positive to the indigenous prepared high potent
measles haemagglutinating antigen with titres ranging from 1:32
to 1:128, while 6 subjects with history of vaccination had
titres also ranging from 1:32 to 1:128. Four subjects with other
exanthematous illness also tested positive with titres of 1:32
and 1:64. Specificity and sensitivity tests of the measles HA
antigen using 4 known measles unexposed and unvaccinated
subjects and 5 known measles infected subjects gave a
specificity and sensitivity of 1, this showed that the antigen
was highly specific and equally sensitive. The result from the
adult measles patient also confirmed the efficacy of our measles
HA antigen giving an acute phase serum titre of 1:16 and
convalescence phase titre of 1:128, this showed a 4-fold rise in
titre which is diagnostic of measles infection. The findings of
this study are of a significant practical impact and confirm
that an indigenous prepared antigen can give a higher titre than
the commercially prepared antigens. Thus, if the indigenous
prepared antigen is further refined and produced massively, it
will be highly cost effective especially in field for sero-monitoring
Babatunde O, Okonko Iheanyi O, Faneye Adedayo and Adu Festus D.
Preparation Of High Potent Measles Haemagglutinating Antigen
From Wild Type Measles Virus In Ibadan, Nigeria.
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):30-37].
activity, measles, measles virus, serum titre
Growth as a Prerequisite for Sustainability
P.C. van den Noort
Em Prof. Wageningen University,
A highly developed economy cannot adopt a zero growth situation.
According to chaos theory, in such a developed economy there
must be a continuous process of inventions and innovations in
order to prevent a collapse of the existing socioeconomic
[P.C. van den Noort.
Growth as a Prerequisite for Sustainability. New York Science
Journal 2011;4(12):38-42]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
economy, zero-growth, chaos, logistic evolution, innovation,
instability, inventions, vitality, revolution
Secondary Students’ Achievement in Geometry: A Field Report on
Team Teaching Approach
E. Achor1, PhD; Benjamin I. Imoko2, PhD &
1 & 2. Department of Curriculum
and Teaching, Benue State University, Makurdi-Nigeria;
3.Command Secondary School,
Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria;
This study examined the effect
of team teaching on the achievement of students in geometry and
how this effect varies across gender. The study used a non
equivalent pre-test post-test control group quasi experimental
design. Intact classes were therefore assigned to the
experimental and control groups. The population consisted of
7184 SS one students out of which a sample of 288 students was
selected from four secondary schools. Two of the selected
schools were assigned as experimental group while the other two
were the control group. Geometry Construction Achievement Test
(GCAT) was the main instrument used for data collection and it
is a 30 items multiple choice objective test with four options
(A, B, C & D). ANCOVA was used to analyse data to test for the 2
hypotheses. The result reveals that there
was a significant difference between the mean achievement of the
group taught Geometry using team approach and the group that
interacted with their class teachers only(F1,
287 = 117.961, p<0.05).
However, male and female students taught Geometry using team
teaching approach did not differ in their mean achievement
287 = 9.690, p> 0.05). There was a significant interaction effect of gender and method on
students’ achievement in geometry (F1, 287 = 6.551,
theoretical assumption that team teaching enhances students’
academic achievement has been tested and the findings have given
practical support to the earliest proposition. Since the result
in Nigeria especially geometry is along the pattern of the
earlier findings in other countries and subjects, it implies
that its use did not discriminate along subject, culture and
location. It is recommended among others that adequate teaching
and learning materials be made available for teachers who will
be encouraged to use team teaching. That effort should however
not be dissipated on gender rather on appropriate method such as
team teaching since it has comparable effect across gender when
E. Achor, PhD; Benjamin I. Imoko, PhD & Nguuma Jimin.
Improving Some Nigeria Secondary Students’ Achievement in
Geometry: A Field Report on Team Teaching Approach.
New York Science
Team teaching, cooperative teaching, geometry achievement,
resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from different
Ibiene AA, Okonko IO
and Agbeyi EV
Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, PMB
5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Bacterial load of different water samples was determined using
standard bacteriological methods. Susceptibility of the bacteria
isolated to commercial antibiotics was also assessed.
The most probable number (MPN) for positive water samples ranged
from 3 to 240 MPN/100ml and 2 to 17MPN total and faecal coliform
coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp.,
Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp.,
Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp.
carried out using the disc diffusion technique showed that all
bacterial isolates were susceptible to gentamycin (100.0%) and
streptomycin (77.8%) except for Citrobacter sp and
Klebsiella sp which were resistant to streptomycin (22.2%).
It also showed that all bacterial isolates were resistant to
erythromycin (88.9%), augumentin (100.0%), and ciprofloxacin
(100.0%), except for Bacillus sp which were inhibited by
erythromycin (11.1%). Klebsiella sp showed the highest
percentage resistance (87.5%) and lowest sensitivity (12.5%).
This was followed by Salmonella sp, Proteus sp and
Citrobacter sp showing sensitivity to only 2(25.0%)
antibiotics and resisted 6(75.0%) antibiotics. E. coli
and Vibrio sp showed senstivity to 3(37.5%) and
resistance to 5(62.5%) antibiotics. The highest percentage
sensitivity was exhibited by Shigella sp, Bacillus
sp and Enterobacter sp (50.0%) and showed resistance to
4(50.0%) antibiotics. In term of the size of the zone of
sp was most sensitive to chloramphenicol, septrin and least to
gentamycin. This was followed by
which was also most sensitive to streptomycin, septrin and least
to gentamycin. On the contrary, gentamycin, streptomycin and
chloramphenicol was highly inhibitory to Bacillus species
in the same way as gentamycin and tetracycline was to
species were highly sensitive to
while the Klebsiella species was resistant to all the
antibiotics tested except for gentamycin which is of public
health concern. Proteus species was resistant to all the
antibiotics tested except for gentamycin and streptomycin. The
study showed the presence of multi-drug resistant (MDR)
organisms in these drinking water sources and this calls for
particular attention, as their presence indicate public health
hazard and possible occurrence of water borne intoxication.
AA, Okonko IO and Agbeyi EV.
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from different
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):50-56].
Antibiogram, drinking water, Muiti-drug resistance, Public
Effect of habitat diversification and temperature on
Aabid M. Rather *, Irshad A.Nawchoo **, Aijaz A. Wani, Aijaz
Economic Botany and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory,
Department of Botany, University of Kashmir,
Srinagar-190 006. J & K. India
corresponding author :*email:
is commonly known as Indian valerian, is critically
endangered medicinal plant of N. W. Himalaya. The species
is highly adaptable to prevailing environmental conditions and
diverse habitat. The varying developmental changes under
different environments are reflected in the leaf shape and
flower dynamics. The species avoids the fatal effects of
temperature by the development of unique floral characteristics
for its successful pollination It seems to be adaptation to a
basic climate of a particular population. During the present
investigation we have assessed the various eco -adaphic factors
in different habitats that may influence the reproductive
aspects and flower dynamics.
M. Rather, Irshad A.Nawchoo, Aijaz A. Wani , Aijaz H.Ganie,
Economic Botany and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory
Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006. J
& K. India.
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):57-60]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
adaptation; environmental conditions; flower dynamics;
Determination of Death Time Duration of Dead Body Using Maggots
Kumar, 2 Manoj Kumar Malik and 3Anita
of Zoology (Wild life and animal behavior laboratory),
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)
Science laboratory (Biology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001,
The use of maggots has provided to be an important factor in
death time duration. Estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) using faunal diversity, development and succession in human death investigations is based on a number of
assumptions. In present study, maggots of House fly (Musca
domestica) in case-I and maggots of Blow fly (Calliphora
vomitoria) in case-II was sent in the Forensic Science
laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal. For determination of death time
duration of a dead body CRIME SOLVING METHOD (Smith, 1986) was
followed. In both cases length of five number of maggots was
measured with scale in millimeters. In case-I, it is varied from
minimum 18mm (length of number 1 maggot) to maximum 26mm (length
of number 4 maggot) with an average 22.60mm. It is examined
average death time duration also varied from minimum 8 day
(number 1 maggot) to maximum 10 day (number 4 maggot) with an
average 9 day. Similarly, in case-II length of five number of
maggots varied from minimum 28mm (length of number 1 maggot) to
maximum 32mm (length of number 2 maggot) with an average
29.80mm. It is examined average death time duration also varied
from minimum 10 day (number 1 and 4 maggot) to maximum 12 day
(number 2 maggot) with an average 10.8 day.
Kumar, Manoj Kumar Malik and Anita Kadian. Determination of Death Time Duration
of Dead Body Using Maggots.
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):61-63].
Forensic Entomology, Insect Fauna, Blow Fly, House Fly,
Assessment of heavy metal Levels in the Environment, Egypt
Yasser H. Ibrahim, Alia A.
Shakour and Nasser M. Abd Ellatief and Nadia M. El-Taieb
Air Pollution Department,
National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.
The air pollution in Cairo is a
matter of serious concern. Particulate and heavy metals are
particularly high air pollutants. Soil represents a huge sink
for heavy metals ions, which can then enter the food chain
through plants or leach into ground water. The present study was
designed to investigate heavy metals in the environment. Samples
were collected from three compartments, air, soil, and the
selective cultivated plant (cucumber), at three different
districts of Egypt, and their contents of heavy metals,
including Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Aluminum (Al ) and
Cadmium (Cd), were analyzed. The six heavy metals were selected
from points of public concern. The concentrations of heavy
metals were determined using atomic absorption. The study showed
differences in metal concentrations according to the plant part
(root, leaf, and fruit).
[Yasser H. Ibrahim, Alia A.
Shakour and Nasser M. Abd Ellatief and Nadia M. El-Taieb. Assessment of heavy metal
Levels in the Environment, Egypt.
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):64]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Air Pollutants, Heavy Metals, Soil, and Plant
New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):65]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Stroke knowledge and
awareness among hospital workers in Fayoum University
Naglaa A. El Sherbiny1, Hadeer M. Abdel Ghaffar2
and Sherine El-Mously 3
Departments of Public Health
Fayoum University, Egypt
Stroke is a life-altering
public health problem in Egypt, hospital workers are important
source of knowledge on health issues towards stroke. We aim to
assess knowledge of Fayoum University hospital workers about
A cross sectional hospital based survey conducted on (202) of
Fayoum University hospital workers; divided into two groups:
health care providers (HCPs) and non health care providers (NHCPs).
The two groups interviewed using a structured questionnaire
related to; knowledge of stroke in both adults and children.
The (HCPs) represented (65.8%) of the study
sample, (93.6%) of our sample had knowledge about stroke while
(30.7%) only knew that stroke might occur in the pediatric age
group. The main source of information was through dealing with
someone having stroke in both groups (34.6%, 21.7% respectively).
The first action during a stroke attack was going to a
hospital (85% of HCPs and 40.6% of NHCPs).
Huge gap of
knowledge about stroke symptoms was present between the HCPs and
NHCPs indicating the urgent need for community awareness program
A. El Sherbiny, Hadeer M. Abdel Ghaffar and Sherine El-Mously.
Stroke knowledge and awareness
among hospital workers in Fayoum University.
New York Science
Journal 2011;4(12):66]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
Key words: stroke – knowledge -– health workers
Somaclonal Variation of Three
Tolerance Streptomycetes Isolated
from Saline Soil
Seham M. Shash
Botany Department, Faculty of
Science, Benha University, Egypt
The present investigation amid to
the isolation of Streptomycetes from saline soil. The
isolates were varied in color to aerial vegetative mycelia,
morphology of conidospore surface, melanin production,
utilization of carbon; nitrogen source and fatty acid analysis.
As well as physical and chemical characters for their habitat
soil. Streptomycetes isolates exhibiting wide range of
variability. Analysis of variance for their characters revealed
the presence of genotypic differences. The tolerance of sodium
chloride indicates that almost the characters were less
influenced by the environment. DNA finger print analysis were
successfully revealed somaclonal and DNA genetic divesity among
three isolates closely related St. catvus; St.canaries
and St., nogalater. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) for identification of three Streptomyces isolates
were conducted on the screening of the primers and on the
extraction of template DNA. Three out of ten random sequence 10
mer primers were successful in the three isolates ST1, ST2 and
ST3 resemble to genus Streptomyces. PCR amplification
yielded reproducible PAPD fragments which differentiated the
three isolates examined. The difference was also recognized
among the RAPD Fragments especially of St. calvus.
RAPD-PCR analysis can be used to gain rapid and precise
information about genetic similarities and dissimilarities of
three Streptomycetes isolates.
[Seham M. Shash. Somaclonal
Variation of Three Tolerance Streptomycetes Isolated from
Saline Soil. New York Science Journal 2011;4(12):67-73].
RAPD- PCR; Genetic variability, Saline soil; Actinomycetes;
Getting the Academic
Management Concept More Practically Perceived: An
Amgad Hamed Omara
An Academic Staff, Business
Administration Dept. Faculty of Commerce, Menoufia University,
Despite of the widespread management practicing everywhere in
organizations, a grantee that this practicing was always
correctly occurred has never been established. The justification
to such an argumentative issue was too much hub revolving around
the managerial background of the organizations' managers. Do all
practitioners of management are originally specialist and/or
well qualified in this area? Whether the answer is far logically
no, do the organizations administered by those who are
management non-specialist practitioners could effectively
perform to the extent that may allow them to play their role as
it is expected? Answering these questions, this research is
striving to facilitate presenting the correct managerial
knowledge and/or concept to those managers who are management
non-specialists. Fulfilling this task it highlights the role to
be done by epistemology, as the field of knowledge that's
tackling the knowledge philosophy, origins, limits, foundations
and sources so as to specify, by the use of knowledge
sufficiency/ insufficiency criteria, to what extent the espoused
knowledge is true or false. In other words, the research focus
was to replace the incorrect concept of management, that's
espoused by management non-specialist practitioners based upon
their own opinions rather than the sufficient knowledge, with an
academically correct one that's based upon a sufficient
knowledge of the area. As so, within the context of a
methodical framework a literature review has to be conducted for
theoretically justifying the research subject by showing somehow
the negative gap to fill up. At the same direction an
exploratory study was conducted first for showing that the
governmental hospitals' failure to play the role expected by
them, second for initially showing that this most probably
occurs due to their top managers' non-adoption to the correct
management concept. A conceptual framework has been constituted
to build a theo-hypothetical model. The concern was
statistically testing a path of two interrelated hypotheses. One
was to examine the relation between the failure of these
hospitals to play the role expected by them and the non-adoption
of their top-managers to the academically correct concept of
management. The other was to examine whether the non-adoption of
the top-managers to the academically correct concept of
management is due to their need to get this concept
epistemologically simplified rather than specifically
specialized one or not. This was taken place through an
empirical study, within which a stratified random sample of
(214) sampling units, or doctors who are top-managing the above
mentioned governmental hospitals, has been targeted, as
representatives of a geographically distributed homogenous
research population of (539) individuals. Statistically
verifying the correction of these two hypotheses it was
concluded that there is a shortage in providing simply this
concept to be easily considered. Particularly by those managers
who are management non-specialist practitioners. The
recommendation was basically to turn the attention of management
authors to the use of epistemology for easily presenting the
management concept, so as to get it more practically perceived
and as a consequence widely adopted.
[Amgad Hamed Omara. Getting
the Academic Management Concept More Practically Perceived: An
New York Science Journal
2011;4(12):74-110]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
management government; hospital; population; epistemology;
The manuscripts in
this issue were presented as online first for peer-review,
starting from November 1, 2011.
All comments are
For back issues of the
Science Journal, click