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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 35); January 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0501

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Titles / Authors

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Magnetized Water and Saline as a Contrast Agent to Enhance MRI Images


Samir M. Badawi 1, Wael Abou EL-wafa. Ahmed 2, Yasser M. Kadah 3


1. Industrial Electronics and Control Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Monoufia University, Egypt

 2 Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Egypt

3 Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt 



Abstract: MRI image enhancements have been carried out using different contrast agents. This research started with testing the effect of accurately pre-specified magnetized water on MRI received signal, and then considered the magnetized-saline (MS) as a new MRI brain contrast agent (CA).A 40 years old 80kg male injected with 250ml MS. Couple groups of MRI images were performed over the same circumstantial conditions and MRI protocol; before and after the injection. The focused study on MRI showed a significant difference in image intensities after injecting the MS compared to normal MRI images, and water contour of the white matter in T2 WIS is more obvious than before saline injection series. Further quantitative measurements applied using MATLAB genetic algorithm. Leading to the result; magnetized saline injection affect signal intensity and enhance contrast in MRI brain images.

[Samir M. Badawi, Wael Abou EL-wafa. Ahmed, Yasser M. Kadah. Magnetized Water and Saline as a Contrast Agent to Enhance MRI Images. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):1-5]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1



Keywords: Image contrast; MRI; magnetized water; enhancement.

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Study on Home Range of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary (SPWS) Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)


1Ajay Kumar and 2Girish Chopra


1,2Department of Zoology (Wild life and animal behaviour laboratory), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India). 1e-mail - ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com


Abstract: The present study was carried out from February, 2008 to July, 2008 to record home range of rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary (SPWS), Haryana (India). Three troops (T-I, T-II, T-III) of Rhesus monkey were selected in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary. Troop-I resides nearby the Seonsar forest rest house, troop II was located toward the main gate of the Sanctuary forest and troop III was positioned in between troop I and troop II in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary. To study, home range of rhesus monkey direct contact method (Barwer, 1971) was followed. During periodic fortnightly visits (February, 2008 to July, 2008), each troop was silently followed in the morning active phase (6:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M.) and later in the evening active phase (3:00 P.M. to 7:00 P.M.) maintaining appropriate distance to avoid their distractions as per standard methodology. Home range of selected three rhesus monkey troops is varied from minimum 0.169 Km2 of troop-I to maximum 0.263 Km2 of troop-II with an average 0.205 Km2.

[Ajay Kumar and Girish Chopra. Study on Home Range of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary (SPWS) Kurukshetra, Haryana (India). New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):6-12]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2



Keywords: Rhesus monkey, Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary, Home range, Haryana

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Amylase Production by Aspergillus flavus Associated with the Bio-deterioration of Starch-Based Fermented Foods


Ileasanmi F. Fadahunsi1, Oluwaseun, E. Garuba2


1 Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University Iwo, Iwo, Nigeria



Abstract: In this study, attempt was made to investigate the production of amylase using Aspergillus flavus implicated in the bio-deterioration of starch-based fermented foods. Temperature studies revealed that 30 șC was optimum for amylase production by this isolate. The optimum pH supporting the highest amylase production was found to be 6.0 (stimulated amylase titre of 10.1 U/ml), closely followed by pH 5.0 that stimulated an amylase titre of 8.5 U/ml. Among the various carbon sources investigated for amylase production in, 2% (w/v) starch stimulated the highest amylase production of 30.1 U/ml closely followed by 2% (w/v) maltose concentration (22.0 U/ml). Studies involving the effects of Nitrogen sources on amylase production showed that NH4NO3 stimulated the highest amylase titre of 23.1 U/ml. Effect of incubation time (days) on amylase production revealed that an incubation period of 6 days was optimum for amylase production by this isolate.

[Ilesanmi F. Fadahunsi, Oluwaseun E. Garuba. Amylase production by Aspergillus flavus associated with the Bio-deterioration of starch-based fermented foods. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):13-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3



Key words: Aspergillus flavus, Amylase, Starch, NH4NO3, Temperature, Biodeterioration

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Impact of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in e-Governance


Rajeev Kumar1, Rahul Rathore2, Navin Agarawal3 and Dr. M.K. Sharma4


1Department of Computer Application, College of Management & Computer Application, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad U.P. (India)

2,3Department of computer Science, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad, U.P. (India)

4Associate Professor & Head MCA Program, Department of Computer Science, Amrapali Institute -Haldwani (Uttarakhand)

Email ID: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com


Abstract: In this Paper we discuss the Services of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and security & Challenges in different areas for e- Governance like Defense, Crisis, rural and emergency areas. We used the information and communication Technology to solve the problem in these networks. This has no networking & communication to the other person. It has used the mobile Ad Hoc networking. A Mobile Ad Hoc network also is used to provide crisis management services applications such as in disaster recovery. Where the entire communication infrastructure is destroyed and resorting communication quickly is crucial. So we solved & study these issues in this paper and phase the all problems.

[Rajeev Kumar, Rahul Rathore, Navin Agarawal and M.K. Sharma. Impact of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in e-Governance. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):19-21]. (ISSN:1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4



Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Information and Communication Technology, e- Governance.

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Future Threats to CBD: A Case Study of Bangalore CBD


Javaid Ahmad Tali1, Mohammad Reza emtehani2, Dr. Krishna Murthy3 and Dr. H. N. Nagendra4


Department of Studies in Geography and Institute of Development Studies, University of Mysore

E-mail: javaid.26.mu@gmail.com, emtehani_mohd75@yahoo.com galimane@yahoo.com, and nagendra@ids.uni-mysore.ac.in


Abstract: Rapid growth of cities has posed a threat to their Central Business District (CBD). This is evident form the growing eagerness of the people to seek accommodation in sub-urban areas. The interaction within the city limits has been studied by a number of scholar. It is very interesting to study the characters of CBD of any city. An attempt has been to analyze the changes in the Central Business District of Bangalore city from 1971-2001. Based on the data it is found that the land use pattern of CBD has shows a tilt towards commercial use which cover a greater portion of the CBD, and this is expected to increase in the next few years if the similar trend continues. The article also reviews the changes in its land use, demography, land value, socio-economic profile and future threats have been analyzed.

[Javaid Ahmad Tali, Mohammad Reza emtehani, Krishna Murthy and H. N. Nagendra. Future Threats to CBD: A Case Study of Bangalore CBD. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):22-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5



Key Words: CBD, Land value, Land use, sub-urban, Assimilation, Discard.

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Improving Some Nigeria Secondary Students’ Achievement In Geometry: A Field Report On Team Teaching Approach


1Emmanuel E. Achor, PhD; 2Benjamin I. Imoko, PhD & 3Nguuma Jimin


1 & 2. Department of Curriculum and Teaching Benue State University E-mail: *nuelachor@yahoo.com; talk2imoko@yahoo.com

3. Command Secondary School, Makurdi; e-mail: nguumajimin@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study examined the effect of team teaching on the achievement of students in geometry and how this effect varies across gender. The study used a non equivalent pre-test post-test control group quasi experimental design. Intact classes were therefore assigned to the experimental and control groups. The population consisted of 7184 SS one students out of which a sample of 288 students was selected from four secondary schools. Two of the selected schools were assigned as experimental group while the other two were the control group. Geometry Construction Achievement Test (GCAT) was the main instrument used for data collection and it is a 30 items multiple choice objective test with four options (A, B, C & D). ANCOVA was used to analyse data to test for the 2 hypotheses. The result reveals that there was a significant difference between the mean achievement of the group taught Geometry using team approach and the group that interacted with their class teachers only(F1, 287 = 117.961, p<0.05). However, male and female students taught Geometry using team teaching approach did not differ in their mean achievement significantly (F1, 287 = 9.690, p> 0.05). There was a significant interaction effect of gender and method on students’ achievement in geometry (F1, 287 = 6.551, p<0.05). The theoretical assumption that team teaching enhances students’ academic achievement has been tested and the findings have given practical support to the earliest proposition. Since the result in Nigeria especially geometry is along the pattern of the earlier findings in other countries and subjects, it implies that its use did not discriminate along subject, culture and location. It is recommended among others that adequate teaching and learning materials be made available for teachers who will be encouraged to use team teaching. That effort should however not be dissipated on gender rather on appropriate method such as team teaching since it has comparable effect across gender when used.

[Emmanuel E. Achor, Benjamin I. Imoko, Nguuma Jimin. Improving Some Nigeria Secondary Students’ Achievement In Geometry: A Field Report On Team Teaching Approach. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):37-43]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7



Keywords: Team teaching, cooperative teaching, geometry achievement, collaborative teaching.

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Avoiding Pitfalls In Trauma Triage: Effect Of Nursing Staff Development


Soad M. Hegazy*1, Lamiaa A. El-Sayed2, Tarek Y. Ahmed3


Medical–Surgical Nursing Department1, Pediatric Nursing Department2, Faculty of Nursing, Ain shams University
 General Surgery Department 3, Faculty of Medicine, Ain shams University


Abstract: Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of nursing staff development on avoiding pitfalls in trauma triage Methods: A quasi experimental design was used. This study was carried out at emergency department of surgery at El-Demerdash Hospital and Children Hospital, affiliated to Ain Shams University. Sample: A purposive sample composed of 40 emergency nurses, 20 were dealing with children and rest of them 20 were dealing with adults, add to 200 trauma patients (100 adults and 100 children with school age) from the above mentioned settings. Tools: 1) Self administered questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge (pre/post tests), 2) Factors affecting triage process assessment sheet (pre- test) 3) An observation checklist to assess: nurses practice and potential errors in trauma triage (pre/post tests), 4) Nurses opinnionair sheet (pre- test) and 5) Clinical data sheet for trauma patients (pre/post tests) Results: There are insignificant differences between studied nurses reports regarding sources of information in triage decision making and factors affecting triage process , added to trauma triage errors reduction among them in post tests .Moreover, nurses knowledge and practice were improved post training . Conclusion: Nursing staff development through training sessions was helpful on avoiding pitfalls in trauma triage. Recommendations: The study reinforce the need for sustained training on triage intervention. Further studies should be done to assess the long term effects of such study on trauma patient's outcome at the emergency department.

[Soad M. Hegazy, Lamiaa A. El-Sayed, Tarek Y. Ahmed Avoiding Pitfalls in Trauma Triage: Effect of Nursing Staff Development] New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):44-52 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8



Key words: Trauma triage pitfalls, Nursing staff development.

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Extracellular Metabolites Produced by a Novel Strain, Bacillus alvei NRC-14:

 1. Some Properties of the Chitinolytic System


Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz*1, Maysa E. Moharam1, Hoda A. Hamed1 and Foukia E. Mouafi2


Microbial Chemistry Dept.1, Microbial Biotechnology Dept.2, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Bacillus alvei NRC-14, a bacterial soil isolate, constitutively produces chitosanase in presence or absence of the substrate chitosan. The strain was also found to produce a variety of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes into the culture medium. However, when chitin was used as a sole source of carbon, low levels of chitinase was detected in the culture broth. Studies on the chitinase-binding activity to the insoluble polysaccharides revealed that the enzyme adhered strongly to insoluble substrates such as chitin, Avicel and xylan. Dissociation of the bound enzyme was achieved using 0.5 M NaCl at pH 9.6, after which the enzyme was purified to study some of its properties. On other hand, the strain exhibited high levels of chitinase (1.9U/ml) when N-acetylglucosamine, the principle monomeric constituent of chitin, was used as a sole carbon source. When colloidal chitin was used as a carbon source, purification procedures yielded three chitinases, namely ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC. ChiA hydrolyzed N-acetylglucosamine, soluble chitosan, colloidal chitin, and powdered chitin by 178, 100, 77, and 70%, respectively. However, ChiB and ChiC showed specificity for cellulose and its derivatives. The crude enzyme produced by B. alvei NRC-14 showed potentiality against wide range of fungal pathogens, indicating its efficacy as a promising biocontrol agent. A heat-shock treatment trigger the production of an inhibitor substance by strain B. alvei NRC-14 which was found to inhibit the growth of some fungal pathogens.

[Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz, Maysa E. Moharam, Hoda A. Hamed and Foukia E. Mouafi. Extracellular Metabolites Produced by a Novel Strain, Bacillus alvei NRC-14: 1. Some Properties of the Chitinolytic System. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):53-62 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9



Key wards: Chitinase, chitin-binding activity, chitosanase, Bacillus alvei NRC-14, antimicrobial activity.

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Enumeration of Microorganism in Dried cassava Powder (Garri); a Comparative Study of Four Methods.


Thomas Benjamin Thoha1*,Effedua Hyacinth Izuka2, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat3,Adeyemi Michael Toyin4 , Adesoga Kehinde Omobowale4, Ogundero Oluwabunmi1, afolabi Oluwadun1


1. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Public Health, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State. Nigeria.

4. Department Obsterics and Gynaecology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

5. National Primary Health Care Agency of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.



Abstract: Evaluation and relative appraisal of various viable count techniques in individual food should be considered as a standard protocol of obtaining representative viable number of microorganisms in food samples due to differences in the chemical composition of such foods. This research was therefore carried out to compare four different viable count techniques viz ; pour plate, plate count, surface spread and miles and misra method for the enumeration of microorganism in garri.0.1ml of 0.5McFarland standard of Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 were inoculated in 10g of pre autoclaved garri samples and then enumerated using standard plate count techniques after six hour of incubation at 37oC. A variation in count between the methods were observed from 3.16% to 5.71%. The order of increasing of the viable counts for each of the methods investigated were pour plate<plate count <spread plate<miles and misra technique . The study showed that Miles and Misra count was significantly higher than other viable count techniques (P<0.05) and more economical in term of materials requirement. It should therefore be of interest for enumerating microorganisms in garri and for other food in developing countries including, Nigeria where resources are limited.

[Thomas Benjamin Thoha, Effedua Hyacinth Izuka, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat, Adeyemi Michael Toyin, Adesoga Kehinde Omobowale, Ogundero Oluwabunmi, afolabi Oluwadun. Enumeration of Microorganism in Dried cassava Powder (Garri); a Comparative Study of Four Methods. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):63-66]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10



Keywords: Enumeration, Microorganism, Garri.

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Awodun, M. A.1, Barros, N. F.2, Novais, R.F.2 and Dantas, S. V2.


1. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management; Federal University of Technology .P.M.B 704. Akure. Ondo State. Nigeria

2. Departmento de Solos, Centro De Ciencias Agrarias, Universidade Federal De Vicosa.Vicosa. Minas Gerais. Brazil.



Abstract: We investigated phosphorus and calcium uptake and their effect on the yield of Eucalyptus grandis L., in response to natural and concentrated phosphate sources at Carbonita and Bom Despacho in the State of Minas Gerais of Brazil. Application of the natural phosphate rock (Araxa – PA) was at the rates of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000kg/ha; Patos of Minas (24% P2O5 and 25% Ca) at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000kg/ha and the concentrated phosphate rock (Arafertil – CA) was at 1000kg/ha. Triple superphosphate (ST) was also applied at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000kg/ha. ST contributes more to the phosphorous content in the biomass than does PA and PP. Its contribution was 1,76% and 9,39% higher than that PA and PP, respectively. On the two sites, ST contributes more to P while the natural phosphates (PA and PP)both contributes more to Ca in the trees. Comparisons among fertilizers revealed that, the recovery efficiency in ST and PA were similar at Carbonita. Increasing fertilizer rates and the P supply, reduced the recovery percentages for all of the sources tested in the two localities. The recovery of P was higher at Bom Despacho when compared with Carbonita. The recovery of Ca. was always superior to that of P.

[Awodun, M. A., Barros, N. F., Novais, R.F. and Dantas, S. V. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS ON BIOMASS, PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM UPTAKE BY EUCALYPTS. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):67-70]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11



Keywords: Phosphatic rock, P and Ca recovery; fertilizer effectiveness; natural and concentrated

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Subacute Toxicity Studies of Moringa oleifera Leaf


*A.yi Vandi Kwaghe1, Shehu Usman Hassan2 and Abdul-Ganiyu Ambali1


1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State.

2. Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State.



Abstract: Twenty five cockerels (5 weeks old) were used for the study and were divided into 5 groups (A to E) of five chicks each, while group A served as the control group and received normal saline, groups B, C, D and E were administered daily with an oral dose of 100, 200, 300 and 400mgkg-1 respectively for 28 days. Parameters such as body weight gain, hematological, gross and histopathological changes were obtained during this Period on weekly basis. The same parameters were also taken 1 week post treatment (day 35) to determine the effect of the withdrawal of this extract on the chicks. Despite the wide margin of safety of the extract, prolong exposure of birds to the extract resulted to lesions at histological levels in the tissues and organs suggesting that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf should be used with caution. The tissue lesions and hemathological parameters returned to normal by day 7 after the withdrawal of the extract treatment. Also further studies should be carried out before the commencement of its use clinically.

[A.yi Vandi Kwaghe, Shehu Usman Hassan and Abdul-Ganiyu Ambali. Subacute Toxicity Studies of Moringa oleifera Leaf. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):71-84]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12



Key words: Hematological, histopathological, Moringa oleifera

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Comparative surveying of related economics-social factors to vandalism among immigrant and non-immigrant students of Shiraz


Leila Nickpoor Ghanvati, Mojtaba Hemayatkhah


Payame Noor University. Maghjour11@gmail.com


Abstract: Vandalism, which in deviation sociology, has been used in means of subversion such as destroying public and private properties (Cohen 1955), has been known as a kind of Delinquent behavior. This kind of behavior has been done by people under legal age (Shoe maker 1990) and since it causes social threat and also provides high financial expenses, it should be surveyed as a social issue. Intellectual model of this research designed by use of “Strain Theory“, “Subculture Theory“, “Social Control Theory“ and research hypotheses depends on this model. Data of this research have been provided and analyzed through self-report questionnaire from a sample of 400 immigrant and non-immigrant high school boy students of Shiraz. The result of research shows that average of vandalism behavior had been higher among immigrants than non-immigrants. And the average difference of these behaviors is meaningful. Statistics surveying has been done by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” shows that parents preoccupation and parents consistency in accompany of being immigrant and non-immigrant of response with vandalism behavior has a meaningful relation. In addition, there is an inverted and meaningful relation between dependence of students to family and school and vandalism behavior and there is a direct and meaningful relation between feeling discrimination in school, family and society and vandalism behavior.

[Leila Nickpoor Ghanvati, Mojtaba Hemayatkhah, Comparative surveying of related economics-social factors to vandalism among immigrant and non-immigrant students of Shiraz. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):85-89]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13



Key words: vandalism, immigrant, non-immigrant, delinquent behavior, Shiraz city

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Diversity of Bacilli from Disease Suppressive Soil and their Role in Plant Growth Promotion and Yield Enhancement


*Pankaj Kumar, Satyajeet Khare and R.C. Dubey


Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, 249404, India. *guptapankaj23@gmail.com


Abstract: Bacillus is a Gram-positive aerobic endospore forming genera which has great diverse nature including antibiotic production, nitrogen fixation, degradation of cellulose, starch, pectin and protein and good plant growth promoting activities along with biological control of various fungal diseases involving various mechanisms such as antibiosis and lysis. Hence on the basis of functions of various microorganism soil may be classified as disease-inducing, disease-suppressive, zymogenic and synthetic soils. Bacilli isolated from disease-suppressive soil have many unique properties such as the production of various types of phytopathogenic compounds. Liquid, powder and granular formulations of spore-forming strains of bacilli have an advantage over the non-spore forming strains such as Pseudomonas (formulated as vegetative cells). Spores are more robust and resistant to the elevated temperature and high concentrations of chemicals. Moreover, the shelf-life of biological products based on bacterial spores can be up to 1-3 years. A disadvantage of the use of spores is that after application they need time to return to the metabolic active stage of a vegetative cell.

[Pankaj Kumar, Satyajeet Khare and R. C. Dubey. Diversity of Bacilli from Disease Suppressive Soil and their Role in Plant Growth Promotion and Yield Enhancement. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):90-111]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14



Key words: Diversity; Bacillus; PGPR; Suppressive soil; Antibiotic

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The use of Clay Minerals of the Dead Sea as Drugs


Sana Arab1 and Asia Alshikh2


1Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdulaziz University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jeddah.2Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, Jazan University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jazan.



Abstract: This work examines the beneficial effects of clay minerals for human health, describing their use in pharmaceutical formulations, spas and aesthetic medicine. which topical applications (dermatological protectors and cosmetics) is described. Among their uses in spas, clay minerals therapeutic activity, in geotherapy, pelotherapy and paramuds is commented upon. Moreover, the applications of the clay minerals in aesthetic medicine (to clean and moisturize the skin and to combat compact lipodystrophies, acne and cellulite) are also described. The concentration of trace elements in muds of Dead Sea were measured by Polargraph instrumental and Atomic absorption Spectra AAS and descriptive statistics of results was done. Physical properties and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mud samples also studied.

[Sana Arab and Asia Alshikh. The use of Clay Minerals of the Dead Sea as Drugs. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):112-115]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15



Keywords: Clay minerals; Pharmaceutical formulations; Spas; Aesthetic medicine.

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N.S. Mahmoud


National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic energy Authority, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt, 11762



Abstract: Remediation is a major problem faces the nuclear and radiological industries. The range of contamination levels and contaminants is wide and varied. There are many technologies that offer the potential for remediation but few processes that deal with all or most of the contaminants and even fewer that have been applied with confidence. The remediation technique selected in each case shall be assessed regarding environmental safety. Therefore, policy decisions should be based on an understanding of the potential effectiveness of remediation technique according to the type and level of contamination. Certain situation required an urgent remediation technique. Time, in this case, is considered very important factor that may increase the contamination problem. Therefore, the preparedness remediation phase is a needed process. Herein the present work evaluates the remediation phase through a safety assessment methodology. The safety assessment methodology of radioactive waste disposal is modified and adapted to be appropriate to the remediation phase.

[N.S. Mahmoud. SAFETY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY IN THE EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION PHASE. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):116-123]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16



Key words: Contamination; Safety assessment; Radio active waste; Remediation.

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Gender and Socio – Economic Differences in Public Attitude to Water Tariffs in Lagos and Abeokuta


A.A. Amori1, O.A. Idowu1 and A. A. Makinde2,*


1. Water Resources Management and Agrometeorlogy Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2. Farming System and Extension Department, National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria


Abstract: The study investigated the extent to which public attitude towards water tariffs was affected by gender and some socio –economic factors such as socio – economic background and marital status in two Nigerian cities; Lagos and Abeokuta. It involved the use of 400 respondents (212 males and 188 females) who were selected from three (3) Local Government Areas in Abeokuta and Seven (7) Local Government Areas in Ibadan respectively through stratified random sampling. Data collection involved the use of a questionnaire while data analysis employed the use of frequency counts, percentages and T- test statistics for independent groups. The result show that there were no significant differences in public attitude to water tariffs on the basis of gender and marital status whirl there was a significant difference on the basis of socio –economic background. The implications of the result were discussed and recommendations made as to how the public can be made to respond positively to the payment of water tariffs.

[A.A. Amori, O.A. Idowu and A. A. Makinde. Gender and Socio – Economic Differences in Public Attitude to Water Tariffs in Lagos and Abeokuta. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):124-127]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17



Key Words: Gender, Socio –Economic Background, Water Tariffs, Cost Recovery, Public Perception

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Socio-Economic Factors, Occupation and Family Size as Predictors of Public Perception of Water Resources Planning in Oyo State, Nigeria.


A.A. Amori1, O.Z. Ojekunle1 and A. A. Makinde2,*


1. Water Resources Management and Agrometeorlogy Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2. Farming System and Extension Department, National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: The study investigated the effects of five socio-demographic variables (age, gender, occupation, family size, and socio-economic background) on public assessment of water resources planning in Oyo State. It employed a sample size of 210 respondents (101 males and 109 females) spread over six local government areas in Oyo State. It used a questionnaire in obtaining information from the respondents. The data obtained was analysed using frequency counts and multiple regression. The result showed that the five variables when taken together had a low positive relationship with public assessment of water resources planning (R=0.182). The observed F ratio is significant at 0.05 alpha level which signifies that the R2 value of 0.033 is not due to chance. In essence, 3.3% of the variance in public assessment of water resources planning in Oyo State is accounted for by a linear combination of the give demographic variables. However, occupation stood out as the best predictor of public assessment of water resources planning while the rest never contributed positively to the whole prediction. The result poses critical issues that need to be fully considered if the planning of water resources in Oyo State is to be effective and meaningful.

[A.A. Amori, O.Z. Ojekunle and A. A. Makinde. Socio-Economic Factors, Occupation and Family Size as Predictors of Public Perception of Water Resources Planning in Oyo State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):128-131]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18



Key Words:Socio-demographic Factors, Occupation, Family Size, Assessment, water Resources Planning.

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The Effect of Some Natural Materials in the Development of Shoot and Root of Banana (Musa spp.) Using Tissue Culture Technology


Irini Beshir 1, Sherif El Sharbasy 2, Gehan Safwat1,3 and Ayman Diab1,4


1 Faculty of Biotechnology, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, Egypt

2The Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development, Egypt

3 Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

4 Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Egypt



Abstract: Banana is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide, as its production reaches approximately 70 million tones per year. By tissue culture, triploid and seedless bananas can now be produced in a high quantity, in a less time and at any time of the year without being limited to a season. The aim of this study is to substitute the artificial hormones used in the tissue culture such as, cytokinins and auxins by natural materials such as, Pineapple, Coconut milk, Cacao, Coffee, and Charcoal. Five different media composed of these natural materials were prepared in different concentrations, Pineapple (5,10 and 20cm), Coconut milk (5,10 and20cm,), Cacao (1,2.5 and 5 g), Coffee (1,2.5 and 5 g) and Charcoal (1,2.5 and 5 g) to study their effect on the development and browning of the bananas' shoots and roots in vitro, with the aid of various statistical analyses. The results indicated that the pineapple and coconut milk produced the highest number and length of both shoots and roots, as well as the soluble sugars contents, while the cocoa and coconut milk showed the highest protein content. The charcoal reduced significantly the phenolic content. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the coffee, cacao. This study has highlighted the benefits and advantages of using natural materials in producing high quality banana.

[Irini Beshir, Sherif El Sharbasy, Gehan Safwat and Ayman Diab. The effect of some natural materials in the development of shoot and root of Banana (Musa spp.) using tissue. New York Science Journal 2012;5(1):132-138]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 19.



Key words: Banana, Tissue culture, soluble sugars contents, Phenol content, Protein content

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 19, 2011
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