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Science Journal


New York Science Journal


(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 36); February 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (printe) Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0502

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Titles / Authors

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A First Survey of Phytoplankton Community Richness in Lamingo Reservoir, Jos, Nigeria: A Wake-up Call for the Continuous Monitoring of Microalgae in surface waters serving as drinking water sources in Nigeria.


Cyril C. Ajuzie


Applied Fisheries and Hydrobiology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Jos, Nigeria

E-mail: efulecy@yahoo.com


Abstract: Lamingo reservoir was investigated twice (one week apart) during the month of May 2011 in order to document a preliminary inventory of phytoplankton occurring in the system. Physico-chemical parameters (i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus) were equally monitored. 22 species of diatoms, 18 species of green algae, 9 species of blue-green algae, and 5 species of dinoflagellates were recorded in samples collected from the reservoir. The cyanobacteria group included the potentially harmful genus Microcystis. A suggestion is made for the continuous monitoring of surface drinking water sources in Nigeria if a good-status water body is desired.

[Cyril C. Ajuzie. A First Survey of Phytoplankton Community Richness in Lamingo Reservoir, Jos, Nigeria. A Wake-up Call for the Continuous Monitoring of Microalgae in surface waters serving as drinking water sources in Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):1-8]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1



Key words: Lamingo Reservoir, Jos, Nigeria, Phytoplankton, potentially harmful Microcystis species

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Growth and Survival of Gastroenteritis Pathogens in Dried Cassava Powder (Garri)


B.T.Thomas1*, H.I.Effedua3, O.D.Popoola2 and A.Oluwadun1


1. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Public Health, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.



Abstract: Gastroenteritis rank with respiratory tract infection as the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans. However, the survival of the commonly implicated gastroenteritis pathogens on the most popular staple food in Africa has yet to be investigated despite food borne gastroenteritis been the etiology of over 15-30 percent of all death in developing countries. This research therefore aimed at investigating the growth and survival of selected gastroenteritis pathogens in dried cassava powder (garri) at room temperature and at different time. Prior to inoculation of the garri samples with each of the gastroenteritis pathogens, the garri samples were autoclaved before being inoculated with 0.1 ml of 0.5 McFarland standard and incubated at room temperature. The enumeration of the gastroenteritis pathogens were carried out according to standard microbiological method at six hour intervals. Counts of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 decreased by approximately 5log units from 5 to 1.3 log in white garri and 5 to 1.31 log units in yellow garri. The cells decreased rapidly at a death rate of 0.0371 and 0.0374 per hours in white and yellow garri respectively.This mean that at a specific time, the number of cells in white and yellow garri were decreasing by 3.71 and 3.74% per total number of cells at that points. The type of garri samples have no significant effect (t=-4.00, p>0.05) on the specific death rate of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 per hour but does had an apparent effect on the survival of this organism (t=11.00, p<0.05). However, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella gallinarum, and Staphylococcus aureus were all very sensitive to the garri environment as they were not detectable after 24 hours of inoculation in both yellow and white garri. The counts of these organisms decreased rapidly from 5log unit to 1.2,1.3, and 1.21 respectively in white and yellow garri. No obvious difference occur in the specific death rate of these organisms for both yellow and white garri samples (t=0.00, p>0.05). Also, the type of garri samples have no significant influence on the survival of these organisms (t=0.00, p>0.05). This study showed that all the tested organisms cannot grow but all survived in the two garri samples to varying degrees of time[B.T.Thomas, H.I.Effedua, O.D.Popoola , A.Oluwadun. Growth and Survival of Gastroenteritis Pathogens in Dried Cassava Powder (Garri). New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):9-14]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2



KEYWORDS: Dried Cassava Powder(Garri),Gastroenteritis pathogens, Survival, Growth.

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Bioaccumulation and Histopathological Alterations in the Flat Backed Toad, Bufo maculatus Exposed to Sub Lethal Concentrations of Lead.


Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Alex Ajeh Enuneku


Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Nigeria. lexadena@yahoo.com


Abstract: The toad Bufo maculatus was exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00mg/l lead for 28 days. There was hepatic bioaccumulation of lead at the end of the exposure period. Bioaccumulation of lead increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in concentration of lead. There was high accumulation of lead in the liver which may cause liver damage. At the end of the study, the liver of control toad showed normal structural pattern. Toad liver exposed to 0.25mg/l lead after 28 days showed normal liver structure. At 0.50 mg/l lead exposure, the histopathological finding was congestion of blood vessel which increased in severity in the 1.00mg/l and 2.00mg/l lead exposures. Haemorrhage was also observed in the liver exposed to the highest concentration of lead (2.00mg/l). The observed changes may be due to the toxic effects of lead on the hepatocytes. The results of this study showed that B. maculatus manifested histopathological changes in the liver when exposed to lead concentrations. The discharge of effluents containing heavy metals like lead into aquatic ecosystems should be discouraged as this may affect the health of amphibians that are exposed in their habitats. This may help in arresting the phenomenon of global declines in amphibian populations.

[Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Alex Ajeh Enuneku. Bioaccumulation and Histopathological Alterations in the Flat Backed Toad, Bufo maculatus Exposed to Sub Lethal Concentrations of Lead. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):15-19]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3



Keywords: Toad; lead; histopathology; liver; Nigeria

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Dynamic Satellite Based Distributed Web Caching


Namit Gupta and Rajeev Kumar


Computer Sc. & Engg. Department, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

namit.k.gupta.coe@tmu.ac.in, rajeev2009mca@gmail.com


Abstract: The World Wide Web is growing exponentially and already accounts for a big percentage of the traffic in the Internet. The Distributed Web Caching System suffers from scalability and less robustness problem due to overloaded and congested proxy servers. Load Balancing and Clustering of proxy servers helps in fast retrieval of pages, but cannot ensure robustness of system. In this paper we have given solution for scalability and robustness of Distributed web caching System and for load balancing Clustering and metadata manageability. We have also refined our technique using extensively analyze the log entries of the Eurecom and other Squid caches [8] in order to show what hit rates might be achieved with dynamic allocation of requests. We devised an algorithm for Distributed Web Cache concepts with satellite based clusters of proxy server based on geographical regions. It increases the scalability by maintaining metadata of neighbors. Based on which hit ration will be high. It increases the scalability by maintaining metadata of neighbors collectively and balances load of proxy servers dynamically to other less congested proxy servers, so system doesn’t get down unless all proxy servers are fully loaded so higher robustness of system is achieved. This algorithm also guarantees data consistency between the original server object and the proxy cache objects using semaphore.

[Namit Gupta and Rajeev Kumar. Dynamic Satellite based Distributed web caching. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):20-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4



Keywords: Distributed Web caching; satellite based Clustering; Latency; Hit Ratio; Metadata; Robustness.

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Insects in Forensic Science for Detection of Crime


S.S. Chandna


Forensic Science laboratory (Serology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India). Email: chandnass@yahoo.com


Abstract: The use of maggots (insects) has provided to be an important factor in death time duration. Estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) using faunal diversity, development and succession in human death investigations is based on a number of assumptions. Generally, maggots of house fly (Musca domestica), flesh fly (Sarcophaga spp.), skipper fly (Piophila casei) and blow fly (Calliphora vomitoria) was sent in the Forensic Science laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal. For determination of death time duration of a dead body crime solving method (Smith, 1986) was followed. In solving study maggots was measured with scale in millimeters. On the bases the length of maggots the duration of time period of dead body was determined.

[S.S. Chandna. Insects in Forensic Science for Detection of Crime. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):27-31]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5



Keywords: Forensic Entomology, Insect Fauna, Blow Fly, House Fly, Flesh fly, Skipper fly, Maggots, Haryana

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Quality Preservation in Salted Fermented Debs sp. (Lebeo sp.) During Storage Period


Ghada A. El Hag*, Babiker Y. Abu Gideiri٭, Mohamed E. Ali†, Isam M. Abu Zied††


*Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fisheries Science, University of Alneelain, Khartoum, Sudan.P.O.Box:12702. ٭ Faculty of Sciences, Department of Zoology, University of Khartoum, Sudan. † Fisheries Research Center (Al Shagara), P. O. Box. 1489, Khartoum, Sudan. †† Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Fish becomes spoiled within 12 hours at tropical regions when a complicated series of chemical and bacterial changes triggered by high temperature, take place within the fish. Spoilage begins as soon as the fish dies and processing should therefore be done quickly to prevent the growth of spoilage bacteria. Salted fermented Debs sp.( Lebeo sp.) was assessed for its proximate and microflora composition in order to establish its nutritive and technological usefulness. A decrease in chemical composition of fermented species was observed. The magnitude of change between fresh and treated materials during storage was differing significantly. The dominant species of bacteria which was isolated and identified from both the fresh fish and salted Lebeo sp. was Staphylococcus. The number of microorganisms increased rapidly during the first fermentation days and then it began to decrease.

[Ghada A. E., Y. B. Abu Gideiri, M. E. Ali and I. M. Abu Zied. Quality Preservation in Salted Fermented Debs sp. (Lebeo sp.) During Storage Period. New York Science Journal 2012; 5(2):32-38]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6



Key words: Salted fermented fish, Lebeo species, nutritive value, microbiological changes, and storage.

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Reported Drowning Cases from Various Districts of State Haryana (India)

1Ajay Kumar, 2Manoj Kumar Malik, 3Anita Kadian, 4S. K. Sangwan and 5Suresh Kumar

1Department of Zoology (Wild life and animal behavior laboratory), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

2, 3,4,5Forensic Science Laboratory (Biology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India)

1e-mail- ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

Abstract: In present study (from January, 2011 to December, 2011), 240 drowning cases, have been reported from the various districts of state Haryana (India). Generally, bone sample (clavicle, sternum, ulna, femur etc.) and water sample, where the possible drowning take place sent in Forensic Science Laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal (H) from the various district of Haryana. The “diatom test” is one of the most studied applicable method by which drowning cases can solve. Out of 240 drowning cases, the variation in reported drowning cases (from January, 2011 to December, 2011) may varied from minimum 1 case (in district Fatehabad and Mewat) to maximum 37 cases (in district Sirsa) followed 32 cases in district Hisar, 28 cases in district Rohtak, 19 cases in district Jhajjar, 17 cases in district Bhiwani, 15 cases in district Sonipat, 14 cases in district Jind and Yamuna nagar, 11 cases in district Karnal, 10 cases in district Panipat and Ambala, 8 cases in district Kurukshetra, 6 cases in district Faridabad, 4 cases in district Gurgaon and Karnal, 3 cases in district Panchkula and Rewari, 2 cases in district Mohindergrah and Palwal with an average 11.421.16 cases. The percentages of reported of drowning cases from various district varied from minimum 0.41 drowning cases (in district Fatehabad and Mewat) to maximum 15.47 drowning cases (in district Sirsa). The seasonal variation in reported drowning cases also varied from minimum 51 drowning cases (summer season) to maximum 68 drowning cases (monsoon season) with an average 60.003.42 drowning cases.

[Ajay Kumar, Manoj Kumar Malik, Anita Kadian, S. K. Sangwan and Suresh Kumar. Reported Drowning Cases from Various Districts of State Haryana (India). New York Science Journal 2012; 5(2):39-44]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7



Keywords - Drowning, Diatoms, Bone marrow, Centrifugation, Microscopy, Haryana

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Nutritive Value and Microflora of Salted Kawara (Alestes sp.) During Storage


Ghada A. El Hag*, Babiker Y. Abu Gideiri٭, Mohamed E. Ali†, Isam M. Abu Zied††


*Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fisheries Science, University of Alneelain, Khartoum, Sudan.P.O.Box:12702. ٭ Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Khartoum, Sudan . Fisheries Research Center (Al Shagara), P. O. Box. 1489, Khartoum, Sudan. †† Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: The present study was performed to investgate the influence of salt (25%) and storage time under temperature between 36 to 37 1˚C on the nutritive value and microbiological analysis of salted Alestes sp. Protein, crude fat, ether extract, ash content, dray matter, moisture content, pH, and some minerals content were analyzed. Chemical composition was reduced during storage period and the reduction was statistically significant (P<0.05) during 4-12 days of storag time. Total viable bacteria, total Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp. and yeast-mould were also measured to examine the microbial quality during storage time. Staphylococcus sp. was the dominant species, no yeast and mould were detected during the storage period. The total viable count of bacteria reduced duringe storage time. The result of this study indicated that, salted fish stored for three months had the best quality and shelf-life for Alestes species.

[Ghada A. El Hag, Babiker Y. Abu Gideir, Mohamed E. Ali, Isam M. Abu Zied. Nutritive Value and Microflora of Salted Kawara (Alestes sp.) During Storage. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):45-51 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8



Key words: Salted fish, Alestes species, Nutritive Value, Microbiological changes, Storage.

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Acidic pH-Shock Induces the Production of an Exopolysaccharide by the Fungus Mucor rouxii: Utilization of Beet-Molasses


Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz*1, Hoda A. Hamed1, Foukia E. Mouafi2 and Amber S. Gad3


Microbial Chemistry Dept.1, Microbial Biotechnology Dept.2, Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept.3, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Depending on specific environmental conditions, microorganisms can produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of particular composition and physiochemical properties, and this promotes the survival of microbial populations. An extracellular exopolysaccharide (EPS), synthesized by the fungus Mucor rouxii, was found to play an important role for the protection of cells against abiotic stress such as extreme pH values or elevated temperature. This EPS was produced during 48 hr of growth, at pH 3.5 and 28oC using beet-molasses as a low-cost substrate. The chemical composition of beet-molasses includes high concentrations of K+, Na+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ which could be additional stress factors trigger the formation of the EPS. The molecular weight of the EPS was found to be 1.78 x 106 Da, and it had good flocculating activity for precipitation and aggregation of soil and charcoal particles. The main backbone of this EPS is a polysaccharide. The infrared spectra analysis showed the presence of urinate, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups which are the important factors for the flocculating activity of a bioflocculant. This work is focused on studying the response of the fungus M. rouxii to produce an EPS under abiotic stress condition. An acidic pH-shock was found to be the strongest stressor for synthesizing the EPS, which showed flocculating activity of approximately 99%, exploiting beet- molasses as inexpensive carbon source. The produced EPS showed good flocculating activity, higher stability against enzymatic degradation, capability for metal removing, and is heat-stable. It may find possible applications in the industrial fields and in biotechnological processes.

[Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz, Hoda A. Hamed, Foukia E. Mouafi and Amber S. Gad. Acidic pH-Shock Induces the Production of an Exopolysaccharide by the Fungus Mucor rouxii: Utilization of Beet-Molasses. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):52-61 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9



Keywords: Abiotic stress, exopolysaccharide, Mucor rouxii, flocculating activity, Beet-molasses.

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Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of the Adsorption of Ni (II) using Spent Activated Clay Mineral


N. S. Mahmoud1, S. T. Atwa2, A. K. Sakr1, M. Abdel Geleel1


1National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, 11762, Cairo, Egypt

2Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt



Abstract: Storage of spent bleaching clays (SAC) used in refining and processing of vegetable oil is considered a big problem in the purification of vegetable oil company due to self burner. This study will be contributed to solve this problem by recovering residual vegetable oil contained in spent bleaching clay and reuse the bleaching clay as a low cost adsorbent material. This process will reduce the cost of waste treatment and provide alternative sorbent materials. Removing of Ni(II) from aqueous waste solution using this type of clay has been studied. Characterization of SAC, and treated SAC was reported using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption of Ni(II) on treated SAC has been studied as a function of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, and initial Ni(II) concentration. The adsorption amount of Ni(II) ions increased with increasing shaking time and temperature. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in approximately 180 min. The removal was favored at pH 11 and it was about 99.9%. The kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption process were evaluated and the data followed pseudo kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters for the present system including Gibbes free energy of adsorption ΔG, changes in enthalpy of adsorption ΔH, and changes in entropy of adsorption ΔS were calculated using van't Hoff equation. Negative value of ΔG suggests that adsorption is spontaneous. The positive value of ΔH may suggest endothermic process of adsorption.

[N. S. Mahmoud, S. T. Atwa, A. K. Sakr, M.Abdel Geleel. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of the Adsorption of Ni (II) using Spent Activated Clay Mineral] New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):62-68]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10



Keywords: Activated clay; Adsorption; Heavy metals; Radioactive wastes disposal.

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A Process of Optimizing Energy in Wireless Sensor Networks


R. K. Mishra and Amarjeet


Dev Bhoomi Group of Institutions, Dehradun


Abstract: In this paper we discussed about the process of optimizing energy in wireless sensor networks. We know that today has the technology used mobile, internet, Wi-Fi, etc. and Mobile computing will be the buzz of the next century. From our first breath, as soon as the umbilical cord is cut, the individual is free and undeterred. To be tethered is unnatural and soon to be unnecessary for computing environments. Consumers want personalized wireless computing services while they are mobile, and companies want to make money offering those services. The infantile paradigm of mobile computing is opening up new markets never dreamed of before. We are presently at the cusp of the mobile multimedia era. And in this paper we optimize the mobile technology problem. And learned and discussed it on this paper. We present a wireless framework that optimizes these problems.

[R. K. Mishra and Amarjeet. A Process of Optimizing Energy in Wireless Sensor Networks. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):69-71]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11



Keywords: Wireless networks, sensors, mobile computing, internet, Optimizing Energy.

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Frequency and Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infections among Women


Mohamed A. Fareid


Botany and Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University

* Present address: Medical Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, H’ail University, Saudi Kingdom



Abstract: This study aimed to study the frequency and susceptibility profile of bacteria causing urinary tract infections and associated risk factors among women at Hail province, Saudi Kingdom. A total of 320 mid-stream urine samples were collected from women between the ages of 15-45 years. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen. It was 7 (53%) in a healthy non-pregnant women, 9 (50 %) in pregnant non-diabetic women and 17 (37.7%) in diabetic pregnant women. Urine microscopy revealed the presence of pus cells in 62 (81.5%) urine samples collected. Higher incidence of UTIs was found in age groups 15-24 and 25-34 years, the percentage of the bacterial isolates were 51.1% and 37.8%, respectively. Also, we found a significant relation between high HbA1C level and the prevalence of bacteriuria. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that most of the urinary pathogens were highly susceptible to Augmentin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime and Ofloxacin. Statistically, our results indicated that a higher significant relation between UTIs and age, duration of pregnancy, number of pregnancy and level of HbA1C (P-value > 0.05).

[Mohamed A. Fareid. Frequency and Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infections among Women. New York Science Journal 2012;5(2):72-80]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12



Keywords: Frequency; Susceptibility; Bacteria; Urinary Tract Infections

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from 1/25/2012. 
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