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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 38); April 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0504

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Effect of oral and intra-rectal Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccination on immune response against Newcastle Disease in chicks

 

1Oguoma, O.I., 2Ezeifeka, G.O., 2Egbuonu, A.V., 3Mbata, T.I and 1Amadi, E.S

 

1Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe Univesity, Awka, Anambra State

3Department of Biology and Microbiology, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Okeyonline4u@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to ascertain the best vaccine regimen for infectious Bursal Disease virus (IBDV) vaccination. It also determined the best regimen for IBDV vaccination using oral and intra-rectal routes, which will minimize the effect of IBDV on Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) vaccine response. One hundred and twenty Isa-brown day old cockerels were divided equally into ten groups, which were each subdivided to two subgroups of six birds each. The groupings were based on the ages in days pre-inoculation. All the birds were given normal Newcastle disease vaccination of Hitchner B1, Lasota and Kamarov vaccines. Six groups were given single inoculation of IBDV vaccine, while four groups were given double inoculation of the IBDV vaccine. Each group received the IBDV vaccine by two different routes of oral and intra-rectal. Single IBDV inoculation using oral route was observed to be the best for IBDV vaccination, which will minimize the effect of IBDV on NDV vaccine response. Serologically, double intra-rectal IBDV inoculation on the 14th and 28th days against IBDV infection was the best vaccine regimen. Histological, the bursa of fabricus of the birds with single intra-rectal IBDV inoculation showed severe disintegration of follicles, necrosis of cells and loss of lymphoid cells.

[Oguoma, O.I., Ezeifeka, G.O., Egbuonu, A.V., Mbata, T.I and Amadi, E.S. Effect of oral and intra-rectal Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccination on immune response against Newcastle Disease in chicks. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):1-6]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.01

 

Key Words: Vaccine, intra-rectal, intra – oral, inoculation.

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2

The Image Enhancement Algorithm Xilinx and Modelsim Tool Using VHDL and MAT Lab

 

Vinay Rawat1 and Raj Kumar Mishra2

 

1Department of Computer Science DBGI, Dehradun

2Associate Professor DBGI, Dehradun

 

Abstract: Image processing modifies pictures to improve them (enhancement, restoration), extract information (analysis, recognition), and change their structure (composition, image Editing). Images can be processed by optical, photographic, and electronic means, but image processing using digital computers is the most common method because digital methods are fast, flexible, and precise. VHDL is a hardware language which is used to define the functionality of any hardware into textual form, leading to chip design and fabrication. MATLAB is used for pictorial presentation of any algorithm and scripts are used to simulate the design. I will design and simulate the image enhancement algorithms in Xilinx and Modelsim tool using VHDL and MATLAB.

[Vinay Rawat  and Raj Kumar Mishra. The Image Enhancement Algorithm Xilinx and Modelsim Tool Using VHDL and MAT Lab. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):7-10]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.02

 

Keywords: VHDL tool, MATLAB tool, algorithm, Image Processing

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3

Efects Of Rhazya Stricta Leaves Extract In Root Tip Meristems Of Vicia faba

 

Mohammed H. Z. Mutawakil

 

Biological Science Department,  Faculty of Science, P. O. Box 80203, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. mmutwakil@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity of environmental genotoxicants . Rhyza stricta (R.stricta ) Decne is small glaborous erect shrub with a smooth central stem and dense semi-erect branches which grows commonly in the Arabian Gulf region and the Indian subcontinent. This study has con-cerened ware took care of the answer of an important cooestaon waths is das the leaves of R.stricta water extract of genetic effect or no ? and if there is a genetic effect is it positive or negative or in another word the leaves of R.stricta water extract cause a decrease or an increase in the activity of environmental genotoxicants. To determine the effect of R.stricta , plant extracts from fresh leaves were prepared using liquid nitrogen . The seedling of vicia faba will be treated with R.stricta extracts at different doses (5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 150, 200g/l) and different intervals. The result of the last seven treatments can be summarized as follows: In all treatments have lead to the increase of mitotic index, when compared with the control. Also, in all treatments have lead to the increase of mutation frequency, when compared with the control. In addation, in all treatments have lead to a decrease of normal mitotic stages, when compared with the control. Moreover, in some treatments have lead to a decrease of mutation mitotic stages, and some treatments have lead to a decrease of mutation mitotic stages, when compared with the control. All treatments have caused different kinds of mitotic abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations, which were generally as follow: change percentage of mitotic phases, C-Metaphase, Stickiness, Break and Fragments, Bridges, Tripolars, Polyploidy, Rings, Binucleates, and disturbancee. In single treatment with heavy metal the highest percentage of aberration ( 41.87%) appeared after the treatment with (30g/L), and the most frequent kind of these aberrations was Break, fragments (76,91%), and little frequent kind of these aberrations was Polyploidy(0.6).

 [Mohammed H. Z. Mutawakil. Efects Of Rhazya Stricta Leaves Extract In Root Tip Meristems Of Vicia faba. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):11-18 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.03

 

Key word: Rhazya Stricta, Tip, Meristems, Vicia, Faba, Genetics

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Molluscicidal Activity of Eco-friendly natural compound (Rutin) Gained from Ethanolic Flowers Extract of Calendula officinalis on B. alexandrina, B. truncatus and Lymanea snails

 

El-Sheikh, Y. W. A. 1; Eltamny, H. M.2; Soliman, H. A.2; Farag A.A.1 and El Behary M.H.H2

 

1 Pesticide Formulations Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt  2 Suez Canal University Faculty of Science

yasserwahied@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Within 3000 intermediate host snails of Schistosomiasis and Fasciolasis were originated from Delta regions at Egypt mainly Beba in Beni Seuf governorate. They were selected on the basis of snails selection Schistosomiasis and Fasciolasis mainly Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola ova.  Preliminary screening of C. officinalis flower ethanolic extract showed molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulenus truncatus and Lymanea snails under studying. Rutin as eco-friendly natural compound was separated from the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis flowers by TLC and column chromatography and was identified by different tools of spectral analysis. Ten snails per one liter water jars were applied. Four serial concentrations of rutin with comparing to the recommended molluscicide niclosamide were prepared as (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 g). Mortality percentages were observed after six, twenty four, forty-eight and seventy two hours. Our study revealed that rutin separated from ethanolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers can be used in the control of both Schistosomiasis and Fasciolasis in Egypt.

[El-Sheikh, Y. W. A.; Eltamny, H. M.; Soliman, H. A; Farag A.A and El Behary M.H.H. Molluscicidal Activity of Eco-friendly natural compound (Rutin) Gained from Ethanolic Flowers Extract of Calendula officinalis on B. alexandrina, B. truncatus and Lymanea snails. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):19-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.04

 

Keywords: C. officinalis, rutin, snails, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulenus truncatus, Lymanea, spectral analysis

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Learning Styles of Community Health Nursing Students’ at Faculty of Nursing and Technical Institute of Nursing - In Alexandria

 

Amina Ahmed Mohamed and Houaida Anas Elwogoud Helal

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Learning styles and preferred learning approaches are believed to have an influence on students’ learning. Nurse educators need to be cognizant of their students’ learning styles in order to adapt their particular mode of teaching to complement the learner group. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the learning style preferences of nursing students at faculty of nursing & technical institute of nursing in Alexandria. Comparative descriptive study design was adopted to carry out this study. The study was conducted at Technical institute of nursing & faculty of nursing in Alexandria .Total sample was 288 nursing students registered at the course of community health nursing 169 students from faculty of nursing &119 from technical institution.  One tool was used by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data. It included two parts 1 interview questionnaire .part 2 VARK assessment sheet. The findings of the present study revealed that, the most prominent learning style among nursing students of faculty of nursing is auditory style; while among technical institute nursing student is Kinesthetic style. Statically significant differences was found between two group regarding their age and score of community health course. The study concluded that Learning styles helping in understanding the many different preferences that the students bring to. They also highlight that techniques and strategies that can be developed by teachers must be varied to encourage effective learning. It is recommended that    Assessment of students' learning style should be done to help the teacher and students to develop collaborative partnerships that will foster the acquisition of the knowledge and skills necessary to practice professional nursing .Nurse educators should provide positive reinforcement of students' active involvement in the learning process, which will stimulate continued self-direction. Encourage students to use all four learning styles when appropriate than to reply solely on one preferred learning style.

[Amina Ahmed Mohamed and Houaida Anas Elwogoud Helal. Learning Styles of Community Health Nursing Students’ at Faculty of Nursing and Technical Institute of Nursing - In Alexandria. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):28-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.05

 

Key wards: Learning style, student nurses.

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Microbiological and physiochemical changes and its correlation with quality indices of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) sold in Itu and Uyo markets in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 

1Adebayo-Tayo BC, 2Odu NN, 2Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +2348035380891

 

Abstract : Shigella sp, Micrococcus sp, Salmonella sp and Staphylococcus sp was the dominant bacteria during the microbial, physiochemical and proximate analysis of tilapia fishes sold at Itu and Uyo market in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. In tilapia fish samples from Itu market, moisture content was highest with it ranging from (40.0-37.7) and lower in Uyo with (17.4-37.8). Crude protein was low in samples from Itu with (34.30-35.0) and highest in Uyo with (34.78-40.0); ash content for Itu is (43.40-44.80) and (43.40-59.30) for Uyo. Crude fibre was higher in Uyo with (44.50-55.33) and Itu with (35.33-40.33) while lipid content was highest in samples from Itu with (76.20-79.00) and Uyo with (69.70-75.10). It also showed the total heterotrophic count, total coliform count and total fungal count of the isolates obtained from fish samples from Itu market was greater than that from Uyo market. Samples from Uyo market have the total heterotrophic count which ranged from 9.0 x 107 cfu/g to 1.10 x 109 cfu/g, total coliform count 5.0x107 cfu/g to 1.1x108 cfu/g while the total fungal count from 7.0 x 106 cfu/g to 1.2 x 107 cfu/g. The total heterophic count of the samples from Itu market ranged from 1.5 x 108 cfu/g to 8.0 x 108 cfu/g, the total coliform count ranged from 6.5 x 107 cfu/g to 1.0 x 108 cfu/g while the total fungal count from 5.0 x 106 cfu/g to 9.0 x 106 cfu/g. Among the bacteria isolated from tilapia fish, Shigella sp [4(30.8%)] was the most prevalent. This was followed by Micrococcus sp [3(23.1%)], Salmonella sp [2(15.4%)], and Staphylococcus sp [2(15.4%)] while Pseudomonas sp and Escherichia coli was the least prevalent [1(7.7%). Of the fungal isolates identified Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp were the most predominant having 33.3% each. This was followed by Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp (16.7%). The findings of this study showed that the samples of tilapia fish from Itu and Uyo market were contaminated with potential pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, tilapia fish should be cooked properly before consumption.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC, Odu NN, Okonko IO. Microbiological and physiochemical changes and its correlation with quality indices of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) sold in Itu and Uyo markets in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):38-45]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.06

 

Keywords: Microbial load, physiochemical level, proximate analysis, tilapia fish, total fungal count, total heterophic count, total coliform count

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Microbiological and Physicochemical Level of Fresh Catfish (Arius hendelotic) From Different Markets in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

                               

Adebayo-Tayo BC1, Odu NN2, Igiwiloh NJPN2, Okonko IO2

 

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +2348035380891

 

ABSTRACT: The microbiological and physicochemical analyses of fresh catfish from different markets in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, were carried out using standard techniques. The physiochemical component of the catfish reveals that the fish sample serve as a good source of protein and minerals element. The bacterial counts ranged from, 1.0 x 104 -1.1x106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 5.0 x 105-12.0 x 106 cfu/g. It showed that of bacterial isolated from the Catfish, E. coli was the most predominant organism (23.2%). This was followed by Bacillus spp. (15.9%), Shigella spp. (13.0%), Staphylococcus spp. (13.0%), Micrococcus spp. (10.2%), Pseudomonas spp. (8.7%) and Enterococcus spp. (8.7%). Salmonella spp. was least prevalent (7.3%). It also showed that the catfish samples from different markets harboured different level of microorganisms. Majority (40.6%) of the bacterial isolated were obtained from fishes purchased from Akpan Andem market while 22(31.9%) of the bacterial isolates were from catfishes sold at the Itu market. Fishes from the Uyo market had the least bacterial contaminations (27.5%). Also, most of the bacterial isolates were isolated from skin (34.8%), gills (33.3%) and intestines (31.9%) of the catfishes. Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. (37.5%) were the most predominant fungal isolates, followed by Penicillum spp. (18.8%). Aspergillus spp. was the least prevalent (6.3%). Fishes purchased from Itu market had the highest number (50.0%) of the fungal isolates and Akpan Andem market had 31.3%. Fishes from the Uyo market also had the least fungal contaminations (12.5%). Aspergillus sp. was only isolated from skin of the fishes from Akpan Andem market. Penicillum spp. was not isolated from fishes sold at Uyo market and the skin of the fishes from other location. The findings of this study showed that catfish obtained from these various markets contain potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, catfish should be properly washed and cooked before consumption.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC, Odu NN, Igiwiloh NJPN, Okonko IO. Microbiological and Physicochemical Level of Fresh Catfish (Arius hendelotic) From Different Markets in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):46-52]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.07

 

Keywords: Microbiology; Physicochemical; Catfish (Arius hendelotic); Market;

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8

A study of Optimization HSPA/WCDMA Networks for Wireless Broadband Access

 

Deepak & Ranbeer Singh

 

Assistant Prof. Dept. of Computer Science, I.E.T. GROUP OF INSTITUTION, ALWAR

 

Abstract: Mobile and wireless communication systems are an important part of communication technology with great minimum amount of time, effort and social impacts in practically all parts of the world. The current state of wireless communication systems allows for a much wider scope of applications than what it used to be originally, that is, to be a mobile extension of the public switched telephone network. The convergence of mobile systems and the Internet has become a reality as new radio access technologies emerged with improved coverage, capacity, and latency. While the desire to develop and establish a truly mobile Internet dates back to the mid 1990s, it is only now that a significant increase in the volume of data is being witnessed by most cellular operators, not only in Europe and Japan, but also throughout North and Latin Americas. This work is about some of the underlying technological breakthroughs that allowed the evolution to the current state of development in wireless technology.

[Deepak & Ranbeer Singh. A study of Optimization HSPA/WCDMA Networks for Wireless Broadband Access. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):53-55]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.08

 

Keywords: Optimization; HSPA/WCDMA; Network; Wireless Broadband

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PLASMID MEDIATED AMPICILLIN RESISTANT BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN HEALTH CENTRE

 

Udeze AO1, Adeyemi AT1, Adeniji FO2, Nwanze JC3, Onoh C3, Okerentugba PO4, Okonko IO4

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria;

2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

4Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East/West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: A study on plasmid mediated Ampicillin resistant bacterial isolates from University of Ilorin Health Services Department was carried out. It showed that the Health Service Department environment comprises a mixture of bacteria that are resistant and susceptible to Ampicillin. Most of the isolates are Hospital Acquired Pathogens which cause nosocomial infections. The method of collection of the isolates includes swabbing (desk, bed and sink) with swab sticks and exposure of plates to air. They were analysed using standard bacteriological methods. It showed that – laundry section floor (LSF) has the highest count (7.80 x 103 Cfu/ml) while the injection room desk (IRD) had the lowest count (1.00 x 101 Cfu/ml). The organisms isolated from various sites include: Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogene, Alkaligenes feacalis, Chromobacterium spp, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates were tested for susceptibility using well diffusion method and confirmed by MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test respectively. The result showed that 3 of the isolates were susceptible to the antibiotic while 7 were resistant. It showed that Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to the different concentration of ampicillin. Chromobium spp., Alkaligenes feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to the different concentrations of ampicillin used. Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were only susceptible at ampicillin concentration of 120 g/ml of ampicillin and resistant to other concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus was resistant at ampicillin concentration of 30g /ml and 60g/ml and susceptible at ampicillin concentration of 90g/ml and 120g/ml. After subjecting the antibiotics to all the isolates, the susceptible ones were confirmed by checking for the MIC. All the three isolates show clarity at concentration of 7.50g/ml and 3.75g/ml respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) showed that there was a growth of Bacillus megaterium at concentration of 3.75g/ml of ampicillin, Staphylococcus aureus grew at the concentration of 30g/ml and 15g/ml while there was growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae at the concentration of 30g/ml. The resistant isolates were cured with plasmid curing method using acridine orange as an agent of knocking out bacteria with R plasmid. Four (4) were susceptible and 3 were resistant after the plasmid curing. It showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes were susceptible at 40g/ml, 20g/ml and 11g/ml concentrations of ampicillin after plasmid curing while Alkaligenes feacalis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Acinetobacter  spp were resistant at the same concentrations after plasmid curing.

[Udeze AO, Adeyemi AT, Adeniji FO, Nwanze JC, Onoh C, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. PLASMID MEDIATED AMPICILLIN RESISTANT BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN HEALTH CENTRE. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):56-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.09

 

Keywords: plasmid-mediated, plasmid curing, Ampicillin resistant, bacterial isolates, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration

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Applying Recursive Regression & Rolling Regression Methods for the Study ofStructural Change in Export Demand Function of Iran

Salman Sotoudehnia1 and Mohammad Daneshnia2

1Department of Economics, Islamic Azad University Bandar Abbas, Bandar Abbas IRAN
2
Visiting Instructor, Islamic Azad University Bandar Abbas, Bandar Abbas IRAN
Mosalanejadr12@gmail.com

Abstract: A considerable percentage of export in Iran is allocated to materials for the reason of lacking in an increase of value to the natural resources, including oil & gas. In fact, the most developing countries have turned into export of material for lacking adequate technology to convert primary materials into industrial goods with a high technology. In this study, the export demand function of Iran has been estimated by ARDL method and the changeability in non-oil export of Iran has been examined through a difference in an income elasticity of demand of export by the structural constancy tests. In this research, CUSUM, CUSUMQ, Recursive Regression, as well as Rolling Regression Tests have been used for the export demand function of Iran from 1350 to 1388. The results show that the export demand function in the period under study has passed a slightly fixed process and model parameters have not had significant changes, which it may be said that its most important reason is lacking of growth in industrial and semi-industrial products in export of non-oil goods of the country.

[Salman Sotoudehnia-Mohammad Daneshnia. Applying Recursive Regression & Rolling Regression Methods for the Study of Structural Change in Export Demand Function of Iran. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):64-71]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10.

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.10

Keywords: Export Demand, ARDL, Structural Constancy, Recursive Regression, Rolling Regression

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Spectroscopic characterization and biological activity of bis(benzaldehydediphenylphosphate)-p-phenylenediamine and its complex with Cobalt (II)

 

Usama M. Gomaa *(a), Ibrahim A. Sbbahm (b) and Rabie S. Farag (b)

 

(a) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jizan, KSA.

(b) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Osamah.said@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bis(benzaldehydediphenylphosphate)-p-henylenediamine was synthesized and the structure was elucidated on the bases of elemental analysis, 1H NMR,  UV-VIS, IR, and Mass spectroscopy. The Cobalt  complex was prepared and its structure was elucidated on the bases of elemental analysis, electronic, IR spectra, TGA, magnetic sus. and conductance measurements. Also, the biological activity of Schiff base, bis(benzaldehydediphenylphosphate)-p-phenylenediamine and its Cobalt complex were studied.

[Usama M. Gomaa, Ibrahim A. Sbbahm and Rabie S. Farag. Spectroscopic characterization and biological activity of bis(benzaldehydediphenylphosphate)-p-phenylenediamine and its complex with Cobalt (II). N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):72-76]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11.

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.11

 

Keywords: Schiff base; diphenylchlorophosphate; phosphate Schiff base; antifungal; antibacterial

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Experts training system evaluation and development outlook in Iran higher learning institutions

 

Mashaallah Rasoulirad, Hassan   Bigonah, Farhangian University, Iran. Rasoulirad@gmx.com

 

Abstract: This research wants to present outlook of involved system evaluation in training experts and specialist in universities and higher education institutions. For this purpose, first we introduce expert training system evaluation and development priorities in higher education institutions and academic education and then we name politicians system in national section and in Iran.  In benefit section, we survey methods and principles of system evaluation in experts and specialist training. At last, we survey workforce training system evaluation  by considering economical needs changes  and assess investing in education by considering effective factors in economic changes  aspect that are assessed for clarifying subjects and in the end of research , we show the same researches in countries, results shows that investing on human resources  have more return than investing on physical agents.

[Mashaallah Rasoulirad, Hassan   Bigonah. Experts training system evaluation and development outlook in Iran higher learning institutions. N Y Sci J. 2012; 5(4):77-80]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.12

 

Keywords: development, evaluation, scientific and training principles, higher education

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Bacterial Cellulose of Kombucha Mushroom Tea

 

Soheir S. Abd El-Salam

 

Botany Dept.Fac. Sci. Benha Univ. Egypt. aia_hassan20@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Kombucha is composed of yeast and acetic acid bacteria especially, Acetobacter Xylinum which forms a cellulose pellicle on tea broth. The yield and properties of cellulose produced were investigated in this study; the tea broth was fermented naturally for 14 days in the presence of different amounts of black tea and sucrose as nitrogen and carbon sources. 8.7g/L black tea produced highest weight of bacterial cellulose (55.46g/L) and 100g/L sucrose also exhibited high amount of pellicle (63.58g/L). The bacterial cellulose production increased with the increase of surface area and depth of the broth. Temperature was essential factor on growth, where the pellicle was formed at range (20oC - 50oC) and higher temperature over 50oC depressed the bacterial cellulose formation. Bacterial pellicle was separated from kombucha tea preparation and purified; the pellicle was reticulated structure consisting of fine cellulose threads, where it could be detected by carrying out transmission, scanning electron microscope and FT.IR spectroscopy.

[Soheir S. Abd El-Salam. Bacterial Cellulose of Kombucha Mushroom Tea. N Y Sci J. 2012;5(4):81-87]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.13

 

Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria Kombusha; Acetobacter; cellulose production; electron microscope; FT.IR spectroscopy

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Estimation of Area under Winter Vegetables in Punjab Districts: through Remote Sensing & GIS Technology

 

1 Singh Avtar, 2 Khanduri Kamlesh

 

1 M. TechGIS, Bharathidasan University, Truchirapalli ,Tamilnadu, India

2D. Phil Research Scholar, Dpt. of Geography,HNBGU, Uttrakhand,India

ecnhas@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Study area consists of five northern districts (ex.Gurdaspur)   of Punjab State, namely, Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur. In this study, Acreage Estimation of Vegetables in northern Punjab is carried out by using Multidate IRS - P6 AWiFS Data sets of seven dates viz., September (30), October (14, 24), November (17), December (25), January (4, 13). The aim of this study is to detect area estimation under winter vegetables in Punjab districts between 2005 - 2008 using satellite images. Vegetable area carried out by decision rule based classification: two models are created, one for acreage estimation of vegetables the other for generation of NDVI of all date satellite data. After classification of the image, classified image is recoded to merge different classes of the single output category in one category. Winter Vegetables have been detected by image processing method in EDRAS imagine9.3, ArcGIS9.3.  In study area, as a whole there is positive change (14.9%) in area under vegetable crop. But two districts, namely, Kapurthala and Jalandhar have experienced negative change .But in another three districts Amritsar, Tarn Taran and Hoshiarpur districts have recorded positive change in area under vegetable.

[Singh Avtar, Khanduri Kamlesh. Estimation of Area under Winter Vegetables in Punjab Districts: through Remote Sensing & GIS Technology. N Y Sci J 2012;5(4):88-93]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys050412.14

 

Keywords:  Winter Vegetables, Acreage Estimation, Pixel Classification, GIS

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from February 15, 2012
 
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