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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 39); May 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0505

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Effect of Some Antioxidants on Some Physiological and Anatomical Characters of Snap Bean Plants under Sandy Soil Conditions

 

Nour, K. A. M1; Mansour, N. T. S.1 and Eisa G. S.A2

 

1Vegetables research departments, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture. Research Center; 2Agricultural Botany and Plant Pathology. Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. dr_khaled_nour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in Egypt for both local consumption and exportation. As they are very rich in protein content which is essential for human nutrition rather than the role of such crops in improving soil fertility. Two field experiments were carried out during two successive summer seasons of 2010 and 2011 at the Experimental Farm, El Kassasein Research Station, Ismailia Governorate, to assess the response of snap bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Paulista to some antioxidants treatments on morphological characters, dry weight, yield and chemical constituents as well as leaf anatomy. Aqueous solutions of the antioxidants as foliar spray; i.e., acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) at 75and 150ppm, Salicylic acid at 50 and 100 ppm, citric acid at 0.25% and 0.5%, Vitamin E at 75 and 150 ppm and control. Obtained results reflected that Plant growth, total dry weight, yield and its components and chemical constituents of pods were significantly affected by treating snap bean plants with different antioxidants. Moreover, application of antioxidants altered leaflet blade anatomical characters; i.e., increased thickness of leaflet blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma as well as thickness of midrib region of the leaflet and increased the dimensions of the medvein vascular bundle, except Salicylic acid at 100 ppm that had the opposite effect on these leaflet anatomical characters. In general, the best treatments that gave the highest values were by spraying snap bean plants with citric acid at 0.5% followed by citric acid at 0.25% and vitamin E at 150ppm.

[Nour, K. A. M; Mansour, N. T. S. and Eisa G. S.A. Effect of Some Antioxidants on Some Physiological and Anatomical Characters of Snap Bean Plants under Sandy Soil Conditions. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):1-9]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.01

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Blood- Significant Clue in Detection of Crime

 

1Ajay Kumar, 2SS Chandna, 3Tanu Bamrah and 4Anita Kadian

 

1Forensic Science Laboratory (Diatomology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India); 2,3Forensic Science Laboratory (Serology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana; 4Forensic Science Laboratory (Biology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India). 1e-mail- ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Study has been conducted in serology division of forensic science laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal (29 40′ 48″ N, 76 58′ 48″ E), Haryana (27 39′ and 30 55′ N latitude, 74 27′ and 77 36′ E longitude), India. Two murder cases, one in district Ambala and second in district Jhajjar of Haryana (India) were examined. During the crime scene, blood spotting samples with various exhibits were collected by police and examined in the forensic science laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal (Haryana). Tests were duly applied on the exhibits received in the laboratory were further subjected to recent serological techniques including precipitation reaction for origin of blood and for grouping absorption elution techniques followed by (Ouchterlony immune diffusion technique). In case-I, blood present on all the exhibits were found to be in Human origin (AB blood group) of all three dead body as well as collected exhibits and grouping results obtained from exhibits (4a, lady’s shirt; 4b, salwar; 5a, baby’s t-shirt; 5b, baby’s pyjami; 6a, baby’s shirt; 7, (knife, 8, rope; 9b, banian; and 9c, t-shirt) collected from the crime scene were observed. Similarly, in case-II, blood present on the all exhibits was found to be in human origin (A blood group) of dead body as well as collected exhibits from the crime scene and grouping results obtained from exhibits (second number exhibit i.e., pipe; fifth number exhibit i.e., lathi; sixth number exhibit i.e., kulhari; seventh number exhibits i.e., inner jacket, kurta; ninth number exhibits i.e., lower; tenth number exhibits i.e., kurta. Inconclusive results observed from the rest of exhibits of studied case-I and studied case-II.

[Ajay Kumar, SS Chandna, Tanu Bamrah and Anita Kadian. Blood-Significant Clue in Detection of Crime. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):10-15]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.02

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Preparation And Characterization Of “Organic Solar Cells

 

Vani Pawar

 

Department of Physical Sciences, Banasthali University, Banasthali- 304022, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Email: vaniipawar@gmail.com

 

Abstract- Bulk hetero junction organic solar cells (OSC) were fabricated with an active polymer P3HT (acts as donor) and fullerene PCBM (acts as an acceptor). In the fabrication of OSC spin coating was used to deposit PEDOT-PSS thin film on ITO layer and P3HT-PCBM on top of PEDOT-PSS. Vacuum thermal evaporation processes were used to deposit Al as back electrode on P3HT-PCBM. The area of the device was 0.06 cm2. The thickness of the polymer layers were optimized using ellipsometric measurements. The calculated efficiency of the devices was found to be 1.3-1.5%.

[Vani Pawar. Preparation And Characterization Of “Organic Solar Cells”. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):16-17]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.03

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4

Effective Control of HIV-1 Disease Progression: Impact on Serum Concentration of β2-Microglobulin

 

Adedeji AL1,5, Adeleke AB2, Adekunle AS1, adebolu TT3, Fakande I4 and Olawoye TL5

 

1. Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2. Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, PMB 201, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria; 3. Department of Microbiology, The Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria; 4. Living Hope Care, POB 173, Ilesa, Nigeria; 5. Department of Biochemistry, The Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria. aladedeji@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Progressive defects in cell mediated immune function, are usual features of HIV-1 disease progression. Lack of HIV disease progression can be independently achieved by the host’s effective immune responses and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Serum β2-microglobulin (β2M) concentration is a known correlate of HIV disease progression. We thus determined whether different patterns of serum concentrations of β2M characterize immunological and pharmacological controls of HIV-1 disease progression in asymptomatic subjects and compared the potentials of the two conditions in restoring the abnormal concentration of serum b2M consequent to HIV-1 infection. Although different patterns of β2M characterized the two conditions, both tend to restore the abnormal serum concentration of b2M consequent to HIV-1 infection. Increased renal excretion of β2M was associated with HAART and may be a possible mechanism by which antiretroviral therapy reduces serum concentration of β2M. No significant association was found between the blood CD4 T-cell count and serum β2M concentration in subjects with CD4 T-cell >500/l in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. We also discovered additive effect of HAART/infection duration and clinical status on serum β2M concentration. Serum concentration of β2M may not be a useful marker of immune status in HIV-infected subjects with blood CD4 T-cell >500/l. We conclude that pharmacological control of HIV-1 disease progression had a higher potential than the host immunological response in restoring the impairments in serum concentration of β2M consequent to HIV infection.

[Adedeji AL, Adeleke AB, Adekunle AS, adebolu TT, Fakande I, Olawoye TL. Effective Control of HIV-1 Disease Progression: Impact on Serum Concentration of β2-Microglobulin. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):18-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.04

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5

Bacteriological Assessment Of Some Selected Antacid Suspension Products In Nigeria

 

Udeze AO1, Jayeoba TM1, Innocent-Adiele HC2, Okerentugba PO2, Nwanze JC3, Onoh CC3, Okonko IO2

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891

 

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to ascertain the bacteriological quality of some brands of antacid suspensions produced in Kwara State and Ogun State, Nigeria. Three different brands of antacid suspensions were assessed. The samples were examined for the presence of bacteria using standard techniques. The samples examined include, Magsil, Biomag and Mist Mag. The enumeration of total viable count (TVC) was done using pour plate method. The study showed that Magsil has the highest TVC of 5.0 x 103 CFU/mL, Biomag had a TVC of 3.0 x 103 CFU/mL while Mist Mag has the lowest TVC of 2.0 x 103 CFU/mL. The results obtained showed that none of the brands of these antacid suspensions conformed to the international standard. The bacterial isolated were identified to be Corynebacterium sp, Enterococcus sp, Lactobacillus fermenti, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus sp. However; no objectionable organisms such as Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli was detected. Proliferation of bacterial contaminants can lead to product spoilage, recalls and outcomes that are detrimental to health and business.

[Udeze AO, Jayeoba TM, Innocent-Adiele HC, Okerentugba PO, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC, Okonko IO. Bacteriological Assessment Of Some Selected Antacid Suspension Products In Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):28-32]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.05

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Prevalence of Tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS Patients Attending Zambuk General Hospital

 

Lynn Maori

 

Department of Medical Microbiology Zambuk General Hospital, Gombe State.

fly2lynn@yahoo.com, lynnmaori09@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The prevalence of Tuberculosis (TB) among HIV patients attending General Hospital Zambuk of Gombe State, Nigeria was carried out between August and November, 2011. Its association with age and gender was also determined. 180 sputum samples were collected from HIV patients and examined for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), in which 26 were positive to AFB showing 14.4% prevalence and 154 were negative to AFB. Based on the age ranges, age range of 41 - 60 showed 20 sputum samples were positive (15.6%) and age range of 21 -40 showed 6 sputum sample were positive (12.2%).

[Lynn Maori. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS Patients Attending Zambuk General Hospital. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):33-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.06

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7

Occurrence of Gardnerella vaginalis in Women in Jos, Nigeria

 

Aboderin BW1, Motayo BO1, Idiong DU2, Okerentugba PO3, Innocent-Adiele HC3, Onoh CC4, Nwanze JC4, Okonko IO3

 

1Microbiology Unit, Federal Medical Center, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; 4Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891

 

ABSTRACT: Gardnerella vaginalis is the principal causative agent of bacteria vaginosis in women globally; it is one of the commonest complaints of women attending gynaecological clinics and lead to serious complications such as PID, premature labour, and post partum sepsis. We have therefore investigated the occurrence rate and some socioeconomic factors of Gardnerella vaginalis, in Jos, Nigeria. Two hundred high vaginal swabs were collected from females 15-45 years of age and examined microscopically by gram stain and wet mount preparation for the demonstration of clue cells. Samples were also tested for pH, and fishy odour. An overall prevalence rate of 23(11.5%) was recorded in all samples tested comprising 14(14.7%) of patients presenting with vaginal discharge, 6(9.2%) in patients presenting with PID and 3(7.5%) healthy controls as seen in Table 1. Age range distribution showed that age range 15- 25 had the highest rate with 15(18.0%) in subjects tested, followed by 7(9.3%]) in age 26-35 and lastly 1(2.5%). The result of G. vaginalis positivity according to socio-economic status revealed that, with respect to educational and marital status, a prevalence rate of 12.6% positivity was recorded for married women and 9.2% for singles. A prevalence of 14.1% was recorded for the uneducated women and 6.2% for the educated women. From the findings of this study, we conclude that routine testing for G. vaginalis bacteria vaginosis be recommended for gyneacological clinic attendees as well as antennal patients we also advocate for better enlightenment programs against this infection amongst women.

[Aboderin BW, Motayo BO, Idiong DU, Okerentugba PO, Innocent-Adiele HC, Onoh CC, Nwanze JC, Okonko IO. Occurrence of Gardnerella vaginalis in Women in Jos, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):37-40]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.07

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8

Role Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor In Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients On Dialysis

 

Prof. Samir Abd El hamid Ghait ,* Prof. Gamal El Sayed Madi S,* Prof. Khalid Zakria El Karmoty,* Dr. Inas El Khedr Mohamed,* Ass. Prof. Engy Yousry El Sayed*, Prof. Eman Abd Elmnaem,**

 

* Department of Medicine, ** Department of clinical Pathology , Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine, Egypt. ashorengy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent mitogen for hepatocytes. Hemodialysis increases serum level of HGF. Patients receiving hemodialysis are an excellent model for testing whether the course of liver disease is modified by increased availability of circulating HGF. This study aimed to assess the level and effects of HGF in HCV positive chronic renal insufficiency patients on conservative and regular hemodialysis treatment. Methods: We recruited 60 patients with chronic hepatitis C 20 patients on regular haemodialysis compared with matched 20 chronic renal insufficiency patients on conservative treatment and 20 patients without renal disease. Liver profile, serum HGF and liver biopsy were assessed for all participants. Results: In haemodialysis patients serum HGF increased markedly after dialysis (287.55 136.81 before dialysis Vs.696 189.55 after dialysis, P=6.17E-11). Grade of necroinflammatory activity and stage of fibrosis were significantly lower in haemodialysis patients than in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on conservative treatment and patients without renal disease. Conclusion: HCV-related liver disease is more benign in patients on haemodialysis. The phenomenon may depend on HGF release caused by dialysis.

[Samir Abd El hamid Ghait, Gamal El Sayed Madi S, Khalid Zakria El Karmoty, Inas El Khedr Mohamed, Engy Yousry El Sayed, Eman Abd Elmnaem. Role Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor In Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients On Dialysis. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):41-45]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.08

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Differential diagnosis of Egyptian Fasciola species by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) based on a PCRRFLP method

 

* Khaled Abd El-Aziz Mohammad1, Alaa Abd El-Aziz Mohammad2, Mohammad F. Abu El-Nour2 and Anwar Husainy Abu-Hashim3

 

1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of medicine (Damietta), Al-Azhar University, New Damietta City, Egypt; 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of science (Cairo), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Egypt; 3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of medicine (Cairo), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Egypt. *khaledsamn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fascioliasis is one of the familiar zoonotic health problems of worldwide distribution including Asian, African countries and Egypt. Morphological differentiation between the liver fluke species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica is difficult. Molecular characterization is important for discriminating Fasciola specimens having the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica. We have developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified DNA (PCR–RFLP) of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in Fasciola species. The band patterns of the fragments digested with a restriction enzyme, Rsa I, were accurately distinguished between both forms of Fasciola. Amplicons with the sequences of F. hepatica and F. gigantica were divided into fragments of about 360, 100, and 60 bp, and 360, 170, and 60 bp, respectively, and amplicons with the sequences of both Fasciola species yielded fragments of 360, 170, 100, and 60 bp. The results of PCR–RFLP completely coincided with those of sequence analysis, and thus PCR–RFLP is a useful technique for determining the ITS1 type in Fasciola species.

[Khaled Abd El-Aziz Mohammad, Alaa Abd El-Aziz Mohammad, Mohammad Fathallah Abu El-Nour and Anwar Husainy Abu-Hashim. Differential Diagnosis of Egyptian Fasciola species by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) based on a PCRRFLP method. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):46-49]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.09

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Comparative Study between Damiana and Thyme on Nervous System Impairment during Aging

 

Neven, M. M1, Sahar, A. Arafa1, Nematalla, Kh. M1 and Abdelaziz, M. H. M2

 

1Special Food and Nutrition Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre; 2Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Genetic Engineering, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: As we age, the brain begins to loose function and memory also concentration can be affected by age. Food has the ability to change the production or release of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers that carry information from one nerve cell to another, by altering the chemical composition in the brain. The brain generates more free radicals per gram of tissue than any other organ, so brain cells need extra antioxidant protection. This study was aimed to examine the effect of damiana and thyme leaves powders and water extracts on brain oxidative status in aged rats and measure serum levels of neurotransmitters in order to compare between these plants and find out the best source and the most effective way to maintain or improve nervous system functions during aging. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley aged male rats weighing 370 to 385 g were divided into 7 groups, each group contained 6 rats. The first group fed on basal diet and considered as a control group. The other 6 groups of rats were studied according to the following scheme for 30 days: (1) aged rats fed on basal diet and administered 2 mg aldomet (methyldopa, ), which is an effective antihypertensive drug but with adverse effect on nervous system and adrenergic receptors, Gr.(2) aged rats fed on basal diet + aldomet + 2 mg damiana water extract, Gr(3) aged rats fed on basal diet + aldomet + 2 mg thyme water extract, Gr(4) aged rats fed on basal diet + aldomet + 5% damiana powder, Gr(5) aged rats fed on basal diet + aldomet + 5% thyme powder and Gr(6) aged rats fed on basal diet + aldomet + 2.5% damiana powder + 2.5% thyme powder. Blood samples were taken from each rat. Antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH and GPx activities were assayed in blood and MDA and neurotransmitters levels in serum were also measured. At the end of the experiment, antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde levels were measured in brains which also histopathologically examined. It could be found that thyme water extract achieved the highest increase in antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH and GPx in aged rats brains. Thyme leaves water extract and powder caused the highest reduction in MDA in rats brains. The highest increase in antioxidant enzymes in serum of aged rats was achieved by using thyme water extract and reached about 66.73%, 62.69% and 25.17% for SOD, GSH and GPx activities, respectively, followed by thyme leaves powder. The highest reduction in serum MDA level was 17.32% by using thyme leaves water extract. Administration of aldomet to aged rats caused a significant increase in serum neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and adrenaline compared with control aged rats. Studied materials caused significant increase in serum neurotransmitters levels compared with control aged rats, while caused significant decrease compared with control rats administered with aldomet which had a favorable effect on nervous system functions during aging. The most abundant phenolic compounds found in thyme leaves were catechein, pyrogallol, caffeic acid and catechol. Chlorogenic acid and chrisin were not detected in damiana leaves. From chemical, biological and histopathological examination of the studied materials, It could be concluded that thyme leaves were more effective than damiana leaves in achieving the desired results and water extracts were better than powders when administered to aged rats to improve nervous system functions during aging.

[Neven, M. M, Sahar, A. Arafa, Nematalla, Kh. M and Abdelaziz, M. H. M. Comparative Study between Damiana and Thyme on Nervous System Impairment during Aging. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):50-61]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.10

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11

Mud Stadium

 

Hesham Gerisha

 

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, MUST University-Egypt

Con_develope@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Yemen is a wonderful land with a history in the past. The main point in this culture considerate the area of shibam (mud building with about 20 meter lounge). This paper discuss that we didn’t have mud building in the horizontal level with a large span. We rich the highest level in shibam but we didn’t elaborate the horizontal level.

[Hesham Gerisha. Mud Stadium. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):62-69]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.11

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The Sparks When Integrated Marketing Communications Meets Word-of-Mouth Marketing and Experience Marketing

 

Tai-Liang Lin

 

Department of Business Administration, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

csu_taylen@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: This study explored the relationships among integrated marketing communication (IMC), word-of-mouth marketing and experience marketing on the medicine cosmetology industry. It also explored on the attraction and influence of the marketing of the medicine cosmetology industry on people. Similarly, it proposed concrete suggestions to improve the marketing of the medicine cosmetology industry. The value brought by integrated marketing communication (IMC), word-of-mouth marketing and experience marketing to consumers exceeds the product itself and it can create a brand new economic worth. However, medicine cosmetology entrepreneurs don’t understand how to apply this knowledge or ignore the importance of the feelings of the consumers. Due to the development of communication media and the frequent exchanges among cultures, the plastic surgery culture and demands of people on beauty rapidly affects Taiwan society. In addition, the progress and quality promotion of Taiwan’s medical beauty technology, masses, the discussion of the media and beauty shows on plastic surgery or beauty experience and reports and the improvement in the economy and living quality of the people made the medicine cosmetology industry grew vigorously these recent years. This study used the potential customers of medicine cosmetology as subjects and obtained the results through survey and analysis. The results showed that integrated marketing communication (IMC), word-of-mouth marketing and experience marketing have positive correlation. In the integrated marketing communication (IMC), anything that can achieve publicity is worth to be given importance. Word-of-mouth is the most important factor that affects the intention of consumers to undergo medicine cosmetology. Because the services obtained from the medicine cosmetology clinic are to be paid by the customer him/herself, aside from properly adopting word-of-mouth to mould the image of the clinic and the products, experiment marketing can make customers have the desire the experience medicine cosmetology and can create better word-of-mouth results.

[Tai-Liang Lin. The Sparks When Integrated Marketing Communications Meets Word-of-Mouth Marketing and Experience Marketing. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):70-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.12

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A Comparative Study of Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Approach in Teaching English Language

 

Nitish Kumar Mondal

 

English Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh. Email: nitish.english@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Approach have both played important roles in English language teaching. Which is better, the Grammar Translation Method or the Communicative Approach? This paper aims to compare the controllability and feasibility of these two approaches and find out which one is more suitable for English language teaching in Bangladesh. College level students were selected (as the sample of the study) and taught them the Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Approach respectively. The result, on the basis of these students, showed that Communicative Approach is far more significant than the Grammar Translation Method. Though this approach must have to go to the current proper utilization in context of Bangladesh. Nevertheless, the Grammar Translation Method emphasizes fluency of Grammar learning which enables the learners learning and expressing Communicative Approach wholeheartedly with accuracy. So the best way to improve the situation is to combine both methods in teaching English Language.

[Nitish Kumar Mondal. A Comparative Study of Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Approach in Teaching English Language. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):86-93]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.13

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Flexible Manufacturing System Selection Using of Logarithmic Fuzzy Preference Programming and ELECTRE Methods

 

Mansour Momeni 1, Mohammad Reza Fathi 2 and Ehsan khanmohammadi 2

 

1 Associated Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.S. Candidates of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: reza.fathi@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Selection of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a challenging task because of the insufficient experience and data about this still-evolving technology. Further, the large investment involved makes the selection process critical. The purpose of this paper is applying a new integrated method to flexible manufacturing system selection. Proposed approach is based on Logarithmic fuzzy preference programming and ELECTRE (Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalite) methods. LFPP method is used in determining the weights of the criteria by decision makers and then rankings of flexible manufacturing systems are determined by ELECTRE method. A numerical example demonstrates the application of the proposed method.

[Mansour Momeni, Mohammad Reza Fathi, Ehsan khanmohammadi. Flexible Manufacturing System Selection Using of Logarithmic Fuzzy Preference Programming and ELECTRE Methods. N Y Sci J 2012;5(5):94-99]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys050512.14

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 13, 2012. 
 
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