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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 42); August 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0508

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

 No.

1

Culture Filtrates of Plant Growth Promoting Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) Strains VR1 and VR2 Inhibit Growth and Sclerotia Germination of Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro

 

Poonam Dubey, G.P. Gupta and R.C. Dubey

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar – 249 404, India. profrcdubey@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Six isolates (VR1-VR6) of Bradyrhizobium sp. from Vigna mungo were evaluated for their plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes and antifungal properties in vitro. All the isolates produced IAA but none of them produced HCN. Isolates VR1 and VR2 produced siderophore, and enzymes chitinase and ACC deaminase besides phosphate solubilisation and antagonism against M. phaseolina. Cell-free culture filtrates of Bradyrhizobium strains VR2 resulted in maximum growth inhibition of pathogen in dual culture causing several deformities in hyphae and sclerotia such as fragmentation, shrinkage and lysis of hyphae, cytoplasm vacuolation, loss of mycelial pigment, and inability of sclerotia formation and germination. However, complete inhibition in mycelial dry weight and sclerotia germination of pathogen was recorded at 45% concentration of culture filtrates of strain VR2. Moreover, patterns of sclerotia germination varied with concentration of culture filtrates of VR1 and VR2. The number of hyphae produced per sclerotium was more in control than the culture filtrate-amended plates. The number of sclerotia producing less hyphae got increased with increasing the concentration of culture filtrate of strains VR1 than VR2. These results suggest that the presence of inhibitory properties in culture filtrates of Bradyrhizobium strains help to act as potential biocontrol agent for control of M. phaseolina.

[Dubey P, Gupta GP, and Dubey RC. Culture Filtrates of Plant Growth Promoting Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) Strains VR1 and VR2 Inhibit Growth and Sclerotia Germination of Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):1-9]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.01

 

Keywords: Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) strains VR1 and VR2 - cell-free culture filtrates - mycelial yield - Macrophomina phaseolina - sclerotia germination

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2

Subsurface Geoelectrical Investigation around Bomo Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

Fadele, S.I.1 Sule, P.O.2 and Patrick, N.O3

 

1, 2 Department of Physics (Applied Geophysics), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

3 Department of Geology and Mining, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

fadeleidowu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Electrical resistivity investigation was carried out around Bomo area, Kaduna state, Nigeria in order to study the subsurface geologic layer with a view of determining the depth to the bedrock and thickness of the geologic layers. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at fifteen (15) VES stations. ABEM terrameter (SAS 300) was used for the data acquisition. The field data obtained have been analysed using computer software (IPI2win) which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The VES results revealed heterogeneous nature of the subsurface geological sequence. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of hard pan top soil (clayey and sandy-lateritic), weathered layer, partly weathered or fractured basement and fresh basement. The resistivity value for the topsoil layer varies from 40m to 450m with thickness ranging from 1.25 to 7.5 m. The weathered basement has resistivity values ranging from 50m to 593m and thickness of between 1.37 to 20.1 m. The fractured basement has resistivity values ranging from 218m to 520m and thickness of between 12.9 to 26.3 m. The fresh basement (bedrock) has resistivity values ranging from 1215m to 2150m with infinite depth. However, the depth from the earth’s surface to the bedrock surface varies between 2.63 to 34.99 m. The study further stressed the importance of the findings in civil engineering structures and groundwater prospecting.

[Fadele, S.I. Sule, P.O. and Patrick, N.O. Subsurface Geoelectrical Investigation around Bomo Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):10-17]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.02

 

Keywords: Electrical Resistivity, Vertical Electrical sounding (VES), Top soil (TP), Weathered basement (WB), Partly Weathered Basement (PWB) and Fresh Basement (FB).

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3

Pyrolytic Conversion of Poultry Litter into Medium-Grade Biomass Fuels

 

Oladeji, J.T.

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. jtoladeji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Efficient utilization of energy is of paramount importance for economic and social development of a nation. A nation cannot develop beyond her energy generation capacity. Power generation from animal biomass is considered one of the best alternatives to the growing issue of poultry litter management. This work, therefore, investigated the products of thermo-chemical conversion of poultry litter to medium grade-fuels and chemical preservatives. A pyrolysis chain that consists of brick furnace, condensate receiver, retort and gas collection unit was developed and used for the experimental aspect of this work. The moisture content of poultry litter was determined, while the weight of pieces of wood used for pyrolysis was measured and recorded. Oven-dried sample of poultry litter was heated up in the furnace chamber. The products collected were weighed and recorded. The pyrolytic gas collected was taken to laboratory for further chemical analysis in other to establish constituents of the gases. It took 35 minutes for complete pyrolysis to take place. The products of the pyrolysis expressed in percentage of the oven-dried weight of feedstock were 42.56% char, 38.76% mixture of pyrolytic oil / pyroligneous acid and 18.68% of pyrolytic gas. The pyrolytic gas was further analyzed and it contained 74.78% of carbon, 25.22% of hydrogen. The pyrogas produced was found to contain 20.17% by volume of methane (CH4), 32.50% by volume of ethyne (C2H2), 21.82% by volume of ethane (C2H8), and 10.88% by volume of carbon monoxide CO. The study concluded that, poultry litter lent itself easily to process of pyrolysis and the products obtained could be used for domestic and industrial cottage applications.

[Oladeji, J.T. Pyrolytic Conversion of Poultry Litter into Medium-Grade Biomass Fuels. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):18-21]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.03

 

Keywords: - Poultry litter, energy, pyrogas, pyrolysis, tar oil.

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4

Training as a Strategic Decision and Its Relation with Performance Enhancement (Comparative Study)

 

Mohamed Bakry Abdel Aleem

 

Faculty of Commerce, Benha University. drmbakry@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Training and development are now firmly centre stage in most hotels. They have always seen training and development as the heart of the business. Training is a service function in the hotel, and a transformation has been driven by business requirements, particularly the growing pressure on management at all levels to cope with the new environment. Changing organizations and people is no easy task, requiring special skills, and expertise. But many training and development specialist do not own. The aim of this study was to illustrate and analyze the obstacles and problems of the training process, methods, and try to diagnose these problems. A lot of managers and organizations suffering from the failure of most training process- it does not match their needs, the main aim of this research is to find out these obstacles and illustrate some solutions.

[Mohamed Bakry Abdel Aleem. Training as a Strategic Decision and Its Relation with Performance Enhancement (Comparative Study). New York Science Journal 2012;5(8):22-39]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.04

 

Key Words: Training Process – Training needs analysis – Training strategy and business strategy – Performance Enhancement – Traditional Training – Training Professional.

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5

Systematic reading and its influences on academic progress (A case study of the students of Jahrom Payam-e-Noor University)

 

Somayyeh Zarei

 

Department of Education, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran. ponam602001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reading, like any other activities, needs to be done properly. Talents, abilities and knowledge rely on the quality and the length of reading to develop and blossom. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of systematic reading on the students' academic progress in Jahrom Payam-e-Noor University. 30 male and 30 female students of educational sciences with average scores ranging from 12-15 (out of 20) were selected randomly and separately and were placed in 4 experimental and control groups and using the experimental method, systematic reading methods were performed for them. The results showed the systematic reading method had a significant influence on their learning. Also, the mean difference in learning between males and females was random, which means the influence is the same for both males and females.

[Somayyeh Zarei. Systematic reading and its influences on academic progress (A case study of the students of Jahrom Payam-e-Noor University). N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):40-46]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.05

 

Keywords; systematic reading, academic progress, learning, students, Payam-e-Noor University

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6

Adsorptive Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution Using Natural and immobilized Chitin by Dithiazone

 

H. A. Omar

Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo, Egypt. Hodaatom@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The potential of biopolymer chitin for phenol adsorption from aqueous solution was studied. Batch kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of pH values, contact time, adsorbent dosage, phenol concentration, and temperature. The adsorption of phenol decreased with increasing pH. The Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium and it was found that the experimental data fitted very well to the Langmuir model. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo-first-order pseudo-second-order and intra-particle models, were applied to examine the kinetics of the adsorption. The results showed that kinetic data followed closely to the pseudo-second-order model.

[H. A. Omar. Adsorptive Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution Using Natural and immobilized Chitin by Dithiazone. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):47-55]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.06

 

Keywords: biopolymer, phenol, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, immobilization.

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7

Evaluation of Essential Fatty Acids, Folic Acid And Vitamin B12 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Ebesunun, Maria O., Adetunji, Kehinde J., Obajobi, Esther O.

 

Department of Chemical Pathology& immunology Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: Ebesunun Maria O.

E-mail Address: onoebe@yahoo.com; Telephone Number: +2348055307626

 

ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has linked low plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 concentrations with endothelial dysfunction, often found in type 2 diabetes mellitus. But no available study has associated decreased level of essential fatty acid with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigerians. This study was designed to evaluate plasma levels of essential fatty acids, folic acid and vitamin B12 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Sixty eight type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with a mean age of 63.48 10.91 years were recruited. Twenty six apparently healthy volunteers with a mean age of 38.32 12.26 years were included as controls. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were determined using standard techniques. The results showed significant decreases in plasma linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, folic acid and vitamin B12 (p < 0.05) compared with the control values. On the other hand, there were significant increases in fasting plasma glucose, body mass index (p < 0.001) and waist circumference (p < 0.05) compared with the control values. Significant correlation was obtained between arachidonic acid and folic acid levels (p < 0.05). The main findings from this study were decreased plasma linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and folic acid and vitamin B12 in association with increased WC and BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. Thus providing evidence that decreased levels of essential fatty acids, folic acid and vitamin B12 are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigerians.

[Ebesunun, Maria O., Adetunji, Kehinde J., Obajobi, Esther O. Evaluation of Essential Fatty Acids, Folic Acid And Vitamin B12 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):56-64]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.07

 

Keywords; essential fatty acids, diabetes mellitus, vitamin

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8

Romanticism Effects in Farzaneh Khojandi's Poems

 

SOHEILA HOSSEINI, AHMAD MANSOURIRAZI, AYYUB MANSOURI

 

Farhangian University. hosseiniso@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this article, the researcher has first studied the principals and doctrines of romanticism school. Then has analyzed the way in which formal and substantive effects have reflected in Farzaneh Khojandi's poems, the Tajik contemporary poet, in the axes of emotions, regarding the periods of spirituality and mysticism, returning to the nature, charm of speech, and emotional approach to religion. Finally, we introduce Farzaneh as a poet with a social romanticism orientation.

[SOHEILA. HOSSEINI, AHMAD MANSOURIRAZI, AYYUB MANSOURI. Romanticism Effects in Farzaneh Khojandi's Poems. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):65-69]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.08

 

Keywords: Romanticism, social romanticism, naturalism, childhood, intuitive religion orientation, new romanticism

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9

Molluscicidal Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) Leaf against the Different Developmental Stages of Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

 

Benson Otarigho and Olajumoke A. Morenikeji

 

Parasitology Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. otarighobenson152799@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The molluscicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus leaf against adult, juveniles and egg-masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi were investigated. Ten adults each of Biomphalaria pfeifferi were exposed to a serial dilution of 40, 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480ppm distilled water extracts and 20, 40, 80, 160, 240, 320ppm ethanolic extracts. Twenty juveniles of uniform size each were exposed to 8, 20, 28, 40, 80, 120, and 160ppm of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Thirty eggs each were exposed to 8, 20, 28, 40, 60, 80, and 100ppm of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Exposure period was 24hrs for adult and juvenile stage while 48 hrs for the egg stage. The lethal concentration LC50 against eggs, juveniles and adults were 73.27, 64.60 and 140.74ppm respectively for Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extract, 42.85, 43.87 and 61.79ppm respectively for Cymbopogon citratus ethanolic extract. The lethal concentration LC90 against eggs, juveniles and adults were 182.37, 244.42 and 254.92ppm respectively for Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extract, 113.20, 166.31 and 159.47ppm respectively for Cymbopogon citratus ethanolic extract. The plant extracts caused significant mortality rates of the different stages of B. pfeifferi (P<0.05). The result obtained show that Cymbopogon citratus is a promising plant molluscicide candidate and deserves further studies in order to identify and characterize its molluscicidal components.

[Benson Otarigho and Olajumoke A. Morenikeji. Molluscicidal Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) Leaf against the Different Developmental Stages of Biomphalaria Pfeifferi. NY Sci J 2012;5(8):70-77]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.09

 

Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus; Biomphalaria pfeifferi; plant extract; molluscicidal activities; aqueous extract; ethanolic extract

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10

Effect of Hydrophilic Polymer on wetting dimensions, under drip irrigation

 

Mohammad Habibollahi, Abd al-rahim Hooshmand

 

Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran

mhabibollahi2000@yahoo.com

 

In drip irrigation systems design, wetting patterns is an important feature that should be considered. The use of some materials such as hydrogels, in sand soils, usually reduced hydraulic conductivity (HC), but in heavy clay soil porosity will increased. The final swelling hydrogels in soil is less than the free state. In this study, was investigated effect of A200 super-absorbent on vertical wetting depth under drip irrigation, including the four treatments (control (0), 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt %). the moisture front advance was checked by IDRG SMS-T1 system. The investigation showed that the use of drip irrigation with super absorbent for 4 liters per hour discharge, in loam soil, the soil wetting front penetration depth has been reduced, and water accumulation in the surface layer (layer modified by the super- absorbent) increases. Experiments were performed on four occasions. First up to third irrigation was performed when soil moisture content had reached to neighbor wilting point. But, soil moisture content in fourth irrigation was limited to FC. Because of this, depth of wetting front advance in treatment 0.3 percent less than other treatments and was occurred significant differences between control and treatment. The lowest depth was seen in control and was occurred significant differences between control and treatments 0.2 0.3 percent.

[Habibollahi M, Hooshmand A. Effect of Hydrophilic Polymer on wetting dimensions, under drip irrigation. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):78-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.10

 

Keywords: Hydrogel, Wetting dimensions, Drip irrigation, Sensor

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11

Investigating the Relationship between Knowledge Management Processes and Organizational Culture

 

Ali Jokar

 Senior lecturer and Instructor of Shahid Sattari Aviation University, Tehran, Iran

alj_26478@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between organisational knowledge organisational culture in the civil industries in Iran. Today, the key global pressure on management practices is knowledge identification, creation, innovation, dissemination, and development of talent. Workforce diversity in globalized business reflects knowledge management practices. Keeping in view the theoretical and empirical importance, the present study investigates the predicting role of culture attributes (Collaboration, Formalization, Trust and Learning) with reference to knowledge management practices . The population of the research consists of 950 people of managers of the companies of civil industries in Iran. A sample of 295 subjects was selected as statistical sampling. They were administered questionnaires including Organizational culture scale (OCS) and Knowledge Management Practices Scale (KMPS). Multiple regression analysis results revealed that There is a significant relationship between Knowledge Management and organizational culture in the civil industries in Iran.

[Ali Jokar. Investigating the Relationship between Knowledge Management Processes and Organizational Culture. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):82-87]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.11

 

Key Words: Knowledge Management , Organizational culture, Formalization, Trust, Organizational learning

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12

Response of Some Cantaloupe Hybrids to Water Stress

 

Refaie, K. M.1, Hassanein, M. K. K.1 and Abdelraouf R. E.2

1The Central Lab.for Agricultural Climate, ARC, Egypt.
2 Water Relations & Field Irrigation Dept., N.R.C., Egypt.
Khaled_refaie@yahoo.com

Abstract: The experiment was conducted at Dokki protected cultivation site, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. Four cantaloupe hybrids (Rafigal, Arafa, Primal and Gal 152) were sown on March 5th in both years. Volumetric lysimeter was installed, to estimate water requirements with three water levels of daily water levels at 80, 100, and 120% of Etc. In this respect, a split design with three replicats was implemented. The main plots contained the irrigation treatments and the sub plot included the four cantaloupe hybrids. Actual crop evapotranspiration (Etc) was determined by weighing lyismeter ±1 gm with two plants on its plate surface. Potential evapotranspiration (Eto), utilizing Penman Monteih equation. The effect of water stress, during the different growth stages was studied, in order to determine the optimum water requirements. Obtained results indicated that, the plant vegetative growth was enhanced with 100% (Etc) treatment, the tallest plant was found with Rafigal F1, the highest leaf number was found on Arafa F1, compared with the other two levels of irrigation. The water level at 100% (Etc) optimized total yield and fruit quality. While, the lowest total yield with first grade fruit quality was recorded with water level at 80% (Etc). But, water level at 120% (Etc) increased significantly total yield with decreasing fruit quality. The highest total yield was obtained by Arafa F1 hybrid. While, Primal F1 hybrid fruits had the highest values of total soluble solids, total sugars, fruit volume and firmness.
[Refaie, K. M., Hassanein, M. K. K. and Abdelraouf R. E. Response of Some Cantaloupe Hybrids to Water Stress. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):88-95]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork . 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.12

Key Words: Water stress, Cantaloupe, Yield quality & quantity, hybrids and water level.

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13

Fatty acid Profile of oil Extracted from three Commercially available Noodles in Nigeria Market

 

Abiona O. O., Anifowose A. J., Awojide S. H. and Oyelade J. R.

Osun state university, College of Science engineering and technology, Department of chemical science. Osun state, Nigeria. Corresponding Author* oludapobiona@yahoo.com

Abstract: Noodles popularity among the different age groups in the country, has made it important to access the fatty acid profile of three different brands of noodles in Nigeria. The oil from noodles was extracted using petroleum ether with a soxhlet apparatus. Their fatty acids profile was determined using a Gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). A total of thirteen, fifteen and fourteen components were detected from samples A, B and C respectively. 120g of the noodles A, B and C yielded oil of 12.98%, 13.7% and 27.66% respectively. The fatty acids of highest percentage composition are Palmitic acid (36.8±0.1 to 42.6±0.1), Stearic acid (15.8±0.2 to 18.7±0.1) and Oleic acid (11.46±0.1 to 25.5±0.1) of the oil. Sample C had the highest composition of both total saturated fatty acids (TSFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), but had the lowest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFAs). The consumption of sample C, having the highest oil yield, could lead to obesity; also, having the highest saturated fatty acid, makes it risky to human health when consumed regularly. The result of this study indicates that sample B contains the least stable oil among the three samples in terms of C18:2/C16:0. The stabilities of samples A and B in relation to C18:2/C16:0 were significantly not different.

[Abiona O. O., Anifowose A. J., Awojide S. H. and Oyelade J. R. Fatty acid Profile of oil Extracted from three Commercially available Noodles in Nigeria Market. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):96-99]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.13

Keywords: Noodles, Saturated Fatty acids, Unsaturated Fatty acids and Lipids Extraction.

13

14

Systematic reading and its influences on academic progress (A case study of the students of Payame Noor University)

 

Somayyeh Zarei

Department of Education, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran. ponam602001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reading, like any other activities, needs to be done properly. Talents, abilities and knowledge rely on the quality and the length of reading to develop and blossom. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of systematic reading on the students' academic progress in Bastak Payame Noor University. 30 male and 30 female students of educational sciences with average scores ranging from 12-15 (out of 20) were selected randomly and separately and were placed in 4 experimental and control groups and using the experimental method, systematic reading methods were performed for them. The results showed the systematic reading method had a significant influence on their learning. Also, the mean difference in learning between males and females was random, which means the influence is the same for both males and females.
[Somayyeh Zarei. Systematic reading and its influences on academic progress (A case study of the students of Payame Noor University). N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):100-105]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.14

Keywords; systematic reading, academic progress, learning, students, Payame Noor University

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15

Impact of Mathematical Programming Approach to Optimization using Fritz John Conditions

 

Taruni Singh1 & Mayank Pawar2

 

1Research Scholar Mewar University Chittorgarh (Rajasthan)
2Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (U.P.)

 

Abstract: In mathematical programming it is customary to distinguish linear and convex programming. In nonlinear programming the objective function becomes nonlinear or one or more of the constraints inequalities have non-linear inequalities have non-linear relationship or both. Non-linear programming which has the problem of minimizing a convex objective function in the convex set of points is called convex programming where the constraints may taken to be non-linear.
[Taruni Singh, Mayank Pawar. Impact of Mathematical Programming Approach to Optimization using Fritz John Conditions. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):106-108]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.15

Keywords: mathematical programming with optimization, Fritz John theorems, duality problems.

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The Investigation of Groundwater Pollutions around Ramhormoz City in Khuzestan Province, Iran

 

Mahdi Rahmanian1, Hossein Sedghi1, Mohammad Nakhaei2, Mohammad Manshouri3

 

1-Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2-Tehran Teacher Training University, Iran
3-Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Meidavood, located in the northeastern part of Khuzestan, and one of the environs of Ramhormoz, is located between latitude 31° 10´ to 31° 25´ north and longitude 49° 10´ to 50° 10´ east. This region consists of two stratum water units : a) the Karsti unit consisting Asmari and Gachsaran formations, b) the alluvial unit or the Eidavood-Daloon plain. The underground water in unit b, feeds through precipitations and lateral seepage from the water leaking through leakages from adjacent formations and the water flows mostly from east to the west of the unit. In order to investigate the quality of the underground water in this region, water sampling was conducted by standard methods of EPA 2001. The results of the titrated measurement and flame photometry showed the main components of these bodies of water which, due to the dissolution of the Gachsaraan formation, the dominant facies is the calcium-phosphate. Also, the results of the ICO-OES analysis of the underground water showed that the concentration of Arsenic is more than the permissible global ones (10 bbp) in almost 81% of deep wells and the concentration of iron, manganese, nickel, and vanadium is high in those wells. The results of the XRE analysis of the surrounding geological formations and the aquifer sediments suggested that the original source of Arsenic can be attributed to the Asmari and Gachsaran formations. It seems that the key process responsible for the release of Arsenic in the Meidavd-Daloon alluvium aquifer deep wells is biological disintegration of organic materials associated with oil hydrocarbons. This process causes the dissolution of arsenic oxy-hydroxides of iron and manganese and, as a result, iron and nickel in organic materials enter underground water. Given the oxidation-reducing conditions, the Meidavood-Daloon alluvium aquifer can be categorized into 4 regions:1)partly reducing, medium- reducing, and highly - reducing. In this aquifer, the arsenic-contaminated wells are located in highly and medium reducing parts.
[Mahdi Rahmanian, Hossein Sedghi, Mohammad Nakhaei, Mohammad Manshouri. The Investigation of Groundwater Pollutions around Ramhormoz City in Khuzestan Province, Iran. N Y Sci J 2012;5(8):109-113]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys050812.16

 

Keywords: Ramhormoz, Groundwater, Pollution, Meidavood

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 8, 2012. 
 
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