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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

( N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 43); September 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover(online), Cover(print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0509

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Titles / Authors

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A Survey of Spore Ornamentation in Ectomycorrhizal Fungi – Is Ornamentation an Adaptation for Short Distance Dispersal?


Kumaresan V1, Ravindran C2, Senthilarasu G3 and Veeramohan R4


1PG Department of Plant Science, Mahatma Gandhi Govt. Arts College, Mahe - 673311, India.

2National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403004, India.

3Mycology Group, Agharkar Research Institute, GG Agarkar Road, Pune - 411004, India.

4Department of Plant Science, Bharathidasan Govt. Arts College for Women, Puducherry - 605003, India.



Abstract: Survey of spore ornamentation in basidiomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungi revealed that 70% of the species produced ornamented spores. Scanning electron micrograph study showed the possible evidence for the resistance, due to the presence of spore ornamentation, offered by ornamented spores against getting washed off by water, leading us to propose that ornamented basidiospores have advantage over their smooth-spored counterparts, the former adapted for short distance dispersal to retain the spores within the host range.

[Kumaresan V, Ravindran C, Senthilarsu G, Veeramohan R. A Survey of Spore Ornamentation in Ectomycorrhizal Fungi – Is Ornamentation an Adaptation for Short Distance Dispersal? N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1



Keywords: Ectomycorrhiza; basidiospore; spore-ornamentation

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Using of Chitosan as Antifungal Agent in Kariesh Cheese


El-Diasty, E.M.1; Nesreen, Z. Eleiwa2 and Hoda, A. M. Aideia3


1Mycology Department, 2Tanta Lab. and 3Food Hygiene, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Egypt


Abstract: In this study, the mycological quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese treated with different concentrations of chitosan was investigated. Kareish cheese was treated with 0.5% and 1.0% chitosan solutions prepared with 1.0 % acetic acid. The samples were packed into plastic bags. All samples were stored at 40C and examined every 3 days until appearance of deteriorative changes. Kareish cheeses were evaluated for sensorial properties and mycological counts on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of storage. On The chitosan treated cheese (o.5% and 1%) showed an improvement of shelf-life extended up to the 18th day of storage. While in the control group of cheese, the changes of taste and texture were observed on the 6th day while the changes in colour appear by the 9th day. The moulds and yeasts counts ranged from 2.18 to 3.70 log cfu /g at the end of storage period in cheese samples treated with chitosan 1%, while in the control (non-treated) cheese was 3.40 log cfu /g of cheese at the 0 day of examination. This count increased during storage and reached to the high level (5.40 log cfu /g) by the end of storage period. The results indicated that the application of chitosan on the Kareish cheeses improves the mycological quality and extends the shelf-life, which could an alternative to chemical protective additives.

[El-Diasty, E.M.; Nesreen, Z. Eleiwa and Hoda, A. M. Aideia. Using Of Chitosan as Antifungal Agent in Kariesh Cheese. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):5-10]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2.



Key words: Chitosan , kariesh cheese , fungi

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Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment


Edwin Zong


Oasis Medical Group. Bakersfield, CA 93305, USA. R4gomed@yahoo.com


Abstract: The origin of universe, the big bang, modern observations of paradox phenomenon in Phantom Physics and surprisingly accelerated peripheral galaxies have been the center of confusion in contemporary scientific world. In this paper, a possible cause is discussed base on classic physics. Since the energy in the universe is constant, when the background temperature drops, the heat energy transforms into a different form of energy -- that is momentum. In space, the galaxies are the most significant masses that gather in random movements when their speed drops (due to aging) and they cannot offset inter-mass attractions or gravities; on a macro level, the mega aggregation of galaxies/matters provide them ever-increasing heavier mass by collecting more aged galaxies/mass/comic rayalong the way. On the other hand, lost matter in the background means lost energy, which means a drop in universe background temperature. Gigantic numbers of regional galaxies/masses will eventually join together and reach a critical mass level or a critical energy level that can be labeled as a blast point, which will trigger a gigantic explosion, similar to our nuclear reaction. The gigantic blast is also known as a big bang that simply bombs everything within to its most primitive state. The blast spits out those most primitive particles, which one day will again form atoms, then molecules -- first inorganic, then organic. The universe is nothing but an unending cycle of merging and collapsing first-forming a pre-blast mass/energy that triggers a gigantic explosion when the mass/energy reaches a critical blast point. The blast then spits out primitive particles that once again form molecules and then form galaxies/planets. The mother blast also fuels the mass with initial momentum/kinetic energy. When the kinetic/momentum energy declines to certain levels, those galaxies cannot resist the attractions of gravity. They once again merge and collapse, then trigger another explosion; then a new collection of galaxies will be formed, then they age, then merge, collapse and blast again. The big bang/particle explosion is triggered by a certain level (quantifiable) of mass/energy. It cannot be an infinite level of mass/energy. It is another logical call. To express this in a more organized way, I will have to coin a new term for each part of the universal system – Zolaxy, which is created by a single mother blast. The Zolaxy is a family of galaxies created by a single big blast. In other words, the galaxies of any Zolaxy should have the same birth origin/mother bang. In the micro world of sub atom level (Phantom Physics), any unrelated particles/energies existing in experiment environment will greatly alter the experiment results. Since a theoretical space of temperature 0k has never been accomplished in any man-made labs, I am afraid to say that none of those experiments is valid in Phantom Physics. In other words, there is no evidence support quantum mechanics or quantum laws.

[Edwin Zong. Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):11-17]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3



Key words: big bang; origin of universe; black matters; particles; time; odds; single bang; numerous bangs; quantum

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Application of Response Surface Methodology for Preparation of Activated Carbon from Palmyra Palm Nut


Nwabanne, J.T and Igbokwe, P.K


Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria. joe_nwabanne@yahoo.com


Abstract: Optimization for the preparation of activated carbon obtained from palmyra palm nut (PPN) was studied using response surface methodology. A three-variable Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to correlate the preparation variables (activation temperature, activation time and acid/precursor impregnation ratio) to the lead uptake from aqueous solution. The preparation variables for the production of activated carbon were optimized based on the percentage removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. The adsorption tests were used to analyze the best activated carbon for Pb2+ adsorption under different conditions of temperature, time and acid/precursor ratio. Chemical activation method which employed phosphoric acid was used for the preparation of activated carbon. The result showed that the optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from PPN for Pb2+ uptake were activation temperature of 5000C, activation time of 1hr and acid impregnation ratio of 1.5:1 (acid/precursor, wt basis) which resulted in 95.85% removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution. The experimental result obtained was in agreement with the model prediction. The adsorption studies showed that activated carbon produced from PPN is an efficient adsorbent for Pb2+ removal from aqueous solution.

[Nwabanne, J.T and Igbokwe, P.K. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Preparation of Activated Carbon from Palmyra Palm Nut. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):18-25]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4




Keywords: Preparation, adsorption, lead, palmyra palm nut, activated carbon, response surface methodology.

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Effectiveness of Exercises and Ozone Cabinet Forankle Sprain Injuries Male in Kuwait


Nawaf Hajji Saad qatwan


Physiological Center, Ministry of Education, Kuwait. nhsq1@hotmail.com


Abstract: The most commonly injured ligament in about 70% of ankle ligament injuries, only this ligament disrupts. Ankle sprain is one of the most spreader injuries of athletes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of therapeutic exercises and medical ozone for rehabilitation of foot, injured with internal distortion of second degree 8 volleyball players, 18-24 years. on the following variables degree by physiological analysis' using Foot Maxx, the range of movement of foot joint, foot diameter, physiological variables (Potassium, creatine, Phosphokinase). The statistical protocol was used Mean, Standard deviation, Analysis of Differences, Welkacson test, Percent changes, The result of the study , that exercise rehabilitation programs may lead to increased in muscle force working on the injured joint and increase range of motion and that it help in prevention of recurrences of injury in the future. The researchers recommended Using medical ozone plus rehabilitation exercises program in curing ankle joint injury.

[Nawaf Haji saad qatwan. Effectiveness of exercises and ozone cabinet forAnkle sprain injuries male in Kuwait. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):26-32]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5



keywords: Exercise; Ozone; Cabinet; Forankle; Sprain; Injurie; Male; Kuwait

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Adedeji OB1, Okerentugba PO2, Innocent-Adiele HC, Okonko IO2


1Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Uniport Post Office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891


ABSTRACT: This paper gives an overview of the benefits, public health hazards and risks associated with fish consumption. The comprehensive data regarding the environmental occurrence and levels, niches, survival, seasonality and strain diversity will be helpful for developing sea food strategies which helps to eliminate the risk of pathogens in exporting sea foods. Fish has become an increasingly important source of protein and other element necessary for the maintenance of and healthy body Fish and seafood constitute an important food component for a large section of world population. They come after meat and poultry as staple animal protein foods where fish forms a cheap source of protein. Fish and fish products constitute an important part in the international trade, more than 50 billons indicating increasingly consumer interest in commodity. The quality of our fish is of major concern to the food processors, consumers and public health authorities and provisions of safe, wholesome and acceptable fish and its product as food to consumers and control of microorganisms is essential to meet these objectives. The quality of fish degrades, due to a complex process in which physical, chemical and microbiological forms of deterioration are implicated. However, some sea foods are processed in a modern fish industry which is technologically advanced and complicated industry in line with any other sea foods industry and with the same risk of products being contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. Although only a few infectious agents in fish are able to infect humans, some exceptions exist that may result in fatalities. However, the greatest risk to human health is due to the consumption of raw or insufficiently processed fish and fish products. Fish acts as an important food vehicle for some zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella and vibrios. Contamination of fish with pathogen is a major public health concern. The presence of Salmonella in seafood has been reported in Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and Nigeria. Pathogenic and zoonotic Vibrios species have also been isolated from stool of diarrheic patients in recent studies, and associated with consumption of undercooked shellfish of which these microorganisms are implicated in outbreaks of food poisoning and diarrhea in humans. Some zoonotic vibrios have been detected in water samples. Pathogenic Vibrios have been a public health concern for seafood consumers and have been cause of import bans, detentions and rejections in international fish trade. V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus among other pathogens poses a significant health threat to humans who suffer from immune disorders, liver disease, or hemochromatosis. Vibrio species carrying tdh gene in fish, oyster and diarrheic stool using PCR could be useful as basis for a preventive consumer protection policy. Recent studies have recommended further investigation for other virulent genes in pathogenic Vibrios. The public should be enlightened on the inherent danger that may accompany handling fresh fish or consumption of improperly cooked fish. HACCP Programs designed to prevent unsafe foods from reaching the consumer should be employed. Seafood processors must also keep in mind that HACCP does not replace GMPs or guard against fraudulent practices. Good manufacturing practices should always be observed by trade to minimise the risk of cholera and vibrio food poisoning associated with the consumption of seafood products. Hygienic qualities of fish tank water in particular the source water for keeping live seafood is also important.

[Adedeji OB, Okerentugba PO, Innocent-Adiele HC, Okonko IO. BENEFITS, PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS AND RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH FISH CONSUMPTION. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):33-61]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6



Keywords: Benefits, Risk, Public Health, Hazard, Seafood, Hygienic qualities, Pathogenic Vibrios, zoonotic vibrios

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Soil and Plant Nutrient Composition, Growth and Yield of Cassava as Influenced by Integrated Application of NPK Fertilizer and Poultry Manure


Ojeniyi, S. O., Adejoro, S. A., Ikotun, O, and Amusan, O.


Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo state,

Nigeria. solomonadejoro@yahoo.com


Abstract: The effects of combined application of reduced levels of NPK fertilizer (NPK) and poultry manure (PM) on soil and plant nutrient composition, growth and yield of cassava was studied at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria. The treatments were the control, 600kg/ha NPK fertilizer (recommended), 10t/ha Poultry manure (PM), 5t/ha PM+300kg/ha NPK and 2.5t/ha PM + 450kg/ha NPK. Initial soils were low in organic matter (OM), very low in N and P and acidic. The PM used had relatively high N and P and good percentages of K, Ca and Mg. Results show that relative to control, NPK, PM, and their combinations increased soil OM, N, P, K, Ca and Mg significantly. The 2.5t/ha PM + 450kg/ha NPK gave highest values of the soil properties. Poultry manure alone, and in combination increased soil pH, while NPK reduced soil pH compared to the control treatment. There were significant increases in OM, P, K, Ca and Mg contents of cassava as a result of application of NPK, PM and their combinations. Nutrient content in cassava, growth and tuber yield parameters increased in the order of Control <NPK<PM<5t/ha PM + 300kg/ha NPK < 2.5t/ha PM + 450kg/ha NPK. Addition of NPK fertilizer to PM increased nutrient availability and performance of cassava. Relative to control, NPK fertilizer, PM, 5t/ha PM + 300kg/ha NPK and 2.5t/ha PM + 450kg/ha NPK increased tuber yield by 34, 28, 66 and 133% respectively, application of 2.5t/ha PM + 450kg/ha NPK is recommended.

[Ojeniyi, S. O, Ikotun, O. Adejoro, S. A. and Amusan O. Soil Plant Nutrients Composition, Growth and Yield of Cassava as Influenced by Integrated Application of NPK Fertilizer and Poultry Manure. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):62-68]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7



Key words: Poultry manure; Organomineral; Cassava

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Effect of acrylamide in presence of vitamin E on sperm parameters and testosterone hormone in mice


Talebi AR 1Ph.D , Anvari M2Ph.D, Pourentezari M 3 M.Sc. Khalili MA4ph.D, Mangoli M3M.Sc


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences and Department of Andrology, Reproductive Sciences Institute Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd. Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences and Reproductive Sciences Institute Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd. Iran.

3 M.S student. Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd. Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences and Reproductive Sciences Institute Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd. Iran.

Email: m.pourentezari@gmail.com, Tel: ( +98) 9131565651


Abstract: Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical primarily used in the production of polyacrylamide and as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of other chemicals. The discovery of acrylamide in a variety of human foods including heet processed starchy foods such as potato chips and bread has been reported. Acrylamide is an animal carcinogen, neurotoxin, and reproductive toxin. AA is able to induce sperm damage in male mice. The present study is carried out to investigate the protective effect of vitamin E (Vit.E) against sperm damage induced by acrylamide(viability, count , motility and morphology).32 adult male mice were divided equally into for groups each conaining 8 mice . mice of group 1 served as control fed on basal diet ,group 2 received basal diet and acrylamide (10 mg/kg, water solution) ,group 3 received basal diet and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and group 4 received basal diet, acrylamide and vitamin E for 35 days. Blood was taken for the determination of serum testosterone. Finally, right tail of epididymis was cut in Ham’s F10. Released sperm were used to analyze number, motility, viability (eosin-Y stsining) and morphology (Papanicolaou stain) of the sperm. In acrylamide mice, a significant decrease was found in sperm viability, normal morphology and sperm motility compared to control and acrylamid + vitamin E groups. A significant increase was also found in sperm viability in vitamin E group compared to both acrylamide and control groups. Vit.E not only is able to compensate the toxic effects of acrylamid on sperm viability, normal morphology and sperm motility, but also increases sperm count in mice.

[Talebi AR, Anvari M, Pourentezari M, Khalili MA, Mangoli. Effect of acrylamide in presence of vitamin E on sperm parameters and testosterone hormone in mice. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):69-74]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8



Key words: Mice, Acrylamide, Vitamin E, Sperm parameters, Testosterone

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Effect Of Mucuna Seed Coagulant On Total Dissolved Solid Particles Removal Efficiency In Pharmaceutical Effluent Medium By Coag-flocculation Process


*V.I Ugonabo1, M.C Menkiti2, O.D Onwukwuli3


1,2,3Department of Chemical Engineering Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: *E-Mail: deprimepro@yahoo.com, Phone No. +2348033481851

Abstract.:In this study, total dissolved solid particles removal from pharmaceutical effluent by coag-flocculation process has been investigated at room temperature using various dosages of Mucuna Seed Coagulant. A conventional standard jar test method was employed for the turbidity measurement while Mucuna Seed Coagulant was prepared in line with the procedure reported by Adebowale and Adebowale (2007). The influence of coag-flocculation kinetic parameters such as coagulation period t1/2, coag-flocculation reaction order α, and αth order of coag-flocculation constant K, etc were determined. The maximum Mucuna Seed Coagulant kinetic parameter performances were all obtained at (α = 2), K of 6.0 x 10-3 m3 k/kg. S, dosage of 0.3 x 10-3 kg/m3, pH = 10 and t1/2 of 0.24 Secs. The maximum coag-flocculation efficiency E (%) obtained is 92%, dosages of (0.1, 0.2) x 10-3 kg/m3.Conclusively,Mucuna Seed Coagulant is very effective in the treatment of pharmaceutical effluent sample tuned to alkaline medium.

[V.I Ugonabo, M.C Menkiti, O.D Onwukwuli. Effect Of Mucuna Seed Coagulant On Total Dissolved Solid Particles Removal Efficiency In Pharmaceutical Effluent Medium By Coag-flocculation Process. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):75-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9



Keywords: Particle Removal, Pharmaceutical Effluent, Mucuna, Coag-Flocculation.

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Assessment of the Impact of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill on Groundwater using Neighbouring, Opposite and Cross Methods of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT): Case study of Solous III, Lagos, Nigeria


A.S. Ogungbe*, C.O. Ogabi and A.A. Umar


Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria

*Email: ogungbea@yahoo.co.uk


Abstract: The contaminant impact of a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill on groundwater at Solous III landfill site, Lagos, Nigeria was investigated with the aim of identifying the presence of any possible contaminants at the site. Two (2) profiles, each employing the Neighbouring, Opposite and Cross methods of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) were conducted at 15m locations on the site. EIT is an imaging technique which calculates the electrical conductivity distribution within a medium from electrical measurements made at a series of electrodes on the medium surface and has been principally used in medical applications. The inversion of the data was accomplished using the Electrical Impedance and Diffuse Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) version 3.0 toolkits for MATLAB to obtain three – dimensional conductivity profiles called tomograms. The EIDORS package utilizes a finite element model for forward calculations and a regularized nonlinear solver to obtain a unique and stable inverse solution. The scheme utilized in this work is a forward solution solved with a mesh of 768 finite elements with 205 nodes. The reconstructed conductivity images reveal zones of local potential contaminant plume with conductivity > 1000 mS/m and non-conductive zones with negative conductivity response which could be associated with the presence of landfill gases. From the results of all the profiles, the opposite and the cross methods have more uniform current density distribution and therefore good sensitivity over the entire region. In the neighbouring method, the measured voltage is at a maximum with adjacent electrode pairs with higher noise level. In this method also, the current is non-uniform and there is low current density and therefore does not yield good sensitivity over the entire region. This is evident in the conductivity values obtained on all the profiles of the neighbouring method which are lower than those obtained on the profiles of the opposite and cross methods. From this result, it shows that there has not been much impact of leachate on the groundwater at Solous III landfill site. It is however, observed that in the absence of a properly designed leachate collection system, uncontrolled accumulation of leachate at the base of the landfill poses potential contamination risk to groundwater resource in the very near future [Ogungbe AS, Ogabi CO, Umar AA. Assessment of the Impact of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill on Groundwater using Neighbouring, Opposite and Cross Methods of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT): Case study of Solous III, Lagos, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):86-92]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10



Keywords: Electrical impedance tomography; municipal solid waste; leachate contaminant; groundwater; landfill site

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Neurotoxic Effect of Lambda-Cyhalothrin, A Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticide: Involvement of Oxidative Stress And Protective Role of Antioxidant Mixture


Zeinab Yousef Ali


Department of Biochemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza 35521, Egypt. zeinabyousef65@ymail.com


Abstract: Extensive application of pesticides is usually accompanied with serious problems of pollution and health hazards. Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC), a new generation type II synthetic pyrethroid, is widely used in agriculture, home pest control and protection of foodstuff. This study aimed to: 1. Investigate the acute toxicity (LD50) and evaluate the effect of two different sublethal concentrations of LTC (1/20th or 1/10th of LD50 values) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na+,K+-ATPase and arginase enzyme activities, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant status and oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain. 2. Evaluate the possible protective role of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol in combination with selenium (Se) at a dose of 100, 100 and 0.30 mg/kg b.w/day, p.o., respectively as antioxidant mixture (AM) during exposure to LTC. The acute toxicity test revealed that LTC has low oral LD50 value (84 mg/Kg) for male rats indicating its moderate cytotoxic effect. Also the results revealed that a daily exposure to LTC at a dose of 4.2 or 8.4 mg/Kg b.w, p.o. for 4 weeks was significantly inhibited the activities of AChE, Na+,K+-ATPase, arginase and antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase SOD; catalase CAT; glutathione peroxidase GPx; glutathione reductase GR; gluthione-S-transeferase GST) and a marked decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E a long with significantly increase the brain levels of NO, malondialdehyde (MDA) a product of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl (PC), a product of protein oxidation as compared to normal control rats. Daily simultaneous administration of AM along with LTC for the same period was significantly reduced the aforementioned changes. These results provided strong evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity of LTC in dose dependant manner and suggested the potential synergistic and protective effects of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and selenium against neurotoxicity induced by LTC. However, further studies are needed in different animal models with different doses to support this novel preventive strategy to slow down the symptoms of this LTC neurotoxicity.

[Zeinab Yousef Ali. Neurotoxic Effect of Lambda-Cyhalothrin, A Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticide: Involvement of Oxidative Stress And Protective Role of Antioxidant Mixture. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):93-103]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11



Keywords: Lambda-cyhalothrin; ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; selenium; acute toxicity; neurotoxicity; acetylcholinesterase; Na+,K+-ATPase; arginase; antioxidant status; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; protein oxidation; brain; rats

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A Probit Analysis of the Propensity to Adopt Improved Rubber Clones among Small Holder Farmers in Southern Nigeria


Giroh D. Y1*, Joyce D. Moses2 and Korieocha, J. N1


1Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria.



Abstract: The propensity to adopt improved rubber clones among small holder rubber farmers in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria was evaluated using 300 rubber farmers randomly selected and served with a well structured interview schedule. Data collected were analyzed using probit model to determine factors that influenced the probability of farmers to adopt Hevea clones. Empirical analysis of the result revealed that 76.67 percent of the farmers adopted improved clones. The probit analysis indicated that farm size, extension contact and income significantly influenced the propensity to adopt improved clones among farmers.

[Giroh, D.Y., Joyce D.Moses, Korieocha JN. A Probit Analysis of the Propensity to Adopt Improved Rubber Clones among Small Holder Farmers in Southern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):104-107]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12



Keywords: Clone, adoption, smallholder, probit, analysis, Nigeria

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Ultrastructure Study Of The Scolex And Tegument Of Bothriocephalus Acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) From Schizothorax Species Of Kashmir


Tanveer A. Sofi* And Fayaz Ahmad


P.G. Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar – 190006

* stanveer96@gmail.com


Abstract: Immature, mature, and gravid specimens of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi from Schizothorax spps. were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM of the heart-shaped scolex revealed long, deep, pear-shaped bothria. A bilobed apical disc was present, although it was not prominent. The scolex tegument possessed microtriches which were morphologically distinct from those of the strobila. Microtriches had a more slender appearance within the bothria than on the surrounding tegument. SEM also revealed the presence of tumuli which were numerous and uniformly spaced on the scolex, but became less abundant posteriorly along the strobila. TEM revealed that tumuli contained dense-staining inclusions. Sensory cilia extended through the tegument of mature and gravid proglottids. The distal cytoplasmic layer was connected to the perikarya by cytoplasmic bridges. Muscle bundles were observed in longitudinal and cross-sections within the perinuclear region. Various organelles, including ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi bodies, were present and within the cytons.

[Tanveer A. Sofi And Fayaz Ahmad. Ultrastructure Study Of The Scolex And Tegument Of Bothriocephalus Acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) From Schizothorax Species Of Kashmir. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):108-113]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13



Key words: Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Schizothorax, SEM, TEM, Scolex, Tegument, Bothria.

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Improvement the Growth and Quality of Green Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Plants by Some Bioregulators in the New Reclaimed Area at Nobaria Region, Egypt


Mohamed, E. El-Awadi and Mohamed, S.A. Abd El Wahed


Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 12311. el_awadi@yahoo.com


Abstract: The field experiments were carried out to study the effect of some bioregulators (glutathione, cysteine and methionine) on growth, quality and some biochemical constituents of green onion (Allium cepa, L. Giza 6 cv.) plants. Foliar spraying of glutathione, L- cysteine and L- methionine at four concentrations, 0, 25, 50, and 75mgL-1 after 33 days from sowing was used. Obtained results indicated that the foliar spraying of the bioregulators significantly promoted the growth and quality of green onion criteria: shoot length, white part length, bulb diameter, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of onion plant. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents were significantly increased by L- cysteine (25mgL-1) concentration at sprout growth stage as well as L-methionine (25mgL-1) concentration at vegetative growth stage. Biochemical constituents were significantly influenced by bioregulators treatments especially in plants treated with the different concentrations of glutathione, L-cysteine and L-methionine. The results cleared significant increase of the biochemical constituents; fixed oil percentage, total protein, free amino acids, phenols, flavonoids and indoles content of green onion at sprout and vegetative growth stages compared with control treatment. Total sulphur content was significantly increased by glutathione as compared with control at both growth stages of onion plant.

[Mohamed, E. El-Awadi and Mohamed, S.A. Abd El Wahed. Improvement the Growth and Quality of Green Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Plants by Some Bioregulators in the New Reclaimed Area at Nobaria Region, Egypt. N Y Sci J 2012;5(9):114-120]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14



Key words: bioregulators, green onion, chemical constituents, glutathione, cysteine and methionine

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from , 2012. 
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