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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 44); October 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0510

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

New Queuing Algorithm for Ad Hoc Networks (Custom Queuing Algorithm)

 

1Ashraf Diaa El-Den; 2Hosny Ahmed Motaafy, 3Ibrahim Fathy Torad; 1Atef Lofty Salama and 2Adel Fouad El-Kabbany

 

1Military Technical College, 2Higher technology Institute, 3Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University

kabany_2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Multi-hop wireless networks are challenging, due to the unique characteristics of these networks. In this paper we consider the presence of both guaranteed and best-effort flows in the network. The aim is to ensure minimum required bandwidth to the best-effort flows and provide an equal share of residual bandwidth to all the flows. Such a network is expected to support advanced applications such as communications in emergency disaster management, video conferencing in a workshop or seminar, communications in a battlefield. This class of mission-critical applications demands a certain level of quality of services (QoS) for proper operations. In Fair scheduling each flow f is allowed to share a certain percentage of link capacity based on its flow weight indicated as W(t1, t2) denote the aggregate resource received by flow f and g respectively in time interval [t1, t2]. The allocation is ideally fair if it satisfies (1)

For all flows f and g. Adapting fair queuing to an ad hoc network is challenging because of the unique issues in such a network [7].

[Ashraf Diaa El-Den; Hosny Ahmed Motaafy, Ibrahim Fathy Torad; Atef Lofty Salama and Adel Fouad El-Kabbany. New Queuing Algorithm for Ad Hoc Networks (Custom Queuing Algorithm). New York Science Journal 2012;5(10):1-7]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.01

 

Keywords: Queuing; Algorithm; Ad Hoc Networks

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Exloring Semantic Web using Ontologies

 

Digivjay Singh M.Tech-CSE Moradabad R. K. Mishra

 

Department of CSE DBGI, Dehradun Chandrashekhar

Department of CSE SKIET, Kurukshetra

 

ABSTRACT: Virtually unlimited potential of data is available on web as time is passing away. But it is more difficult to extract the required data because keyword search in being used which is based on text of the data not on the semantic of data. Recently, researchers are trying to explore the potential associating with web content with explicit meaning in order to create a Semantic Web to minimize the manual efforts in search results. The semantic web is the next generation of syntactic web enriched by meaningful relations and tagging in the data management. World Wide Consortium (W3C) also trying to develop the standards creating and maintaining the semantic web like RDF, OWL and SPARQL etc. In those standards power of XML is being utilized to connect documents by creating the ontologies. This paper gives an overview of where the syntactic web is lacking and the standards which are currently used in semantic web.

 [Digvijay singh, r.k. mishra, chanrashekhar. Exloring Semantic Web using Ontologies. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):8-12]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.02

 

Keywords: syntactic web, semantic web, ontologies, WWW, W3C, rdf.

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Gender Analysis of Income Inequality and poverty among Rural Households in Nigeria: Evidence from Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State

 

 Awotide Bola Amoke, Awoyemi Taiwo Timothy, Oluwatayo Isaac Busayo

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. bawowtide@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Despite the wide believe that income inequality and poverty differ among the female and male headed households in Africa, very few studies have been conducted to empirically substantiate this. Therefore, this study assessed income inequality and poverty in rural Nigeria from a gender perspective. The study revealed that income was more evenly distributed among the female headed households than the male counterparts. Poverty incidence, depth and severity were higher among the male headed households than the female counterparts. Number of dependants and household size were the variables that significantly increased the probability of falling below the poverty line among the respondents. Access to credit and contact with extension agents had significant poverty reducing effects. It is recommended that more family planning awareness should be created, there should be social security particularly for the female headed households with large number of dependants, constraints limiting farmers’ access to credit should be identified and eliminated and the extension system in Nigeria should be developed in order to increase number of extension visits to the farmers.

[Bola Amoke Awotide, Timothy Taiwo Awoyemi, Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo. Gender Analysis of Income Inequality and poverty among Rural Households in Nigeria: Evidence from Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State. New York Science Journal 2012;5(10):13-19]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.03

 

Keywords: Gender, Income Inequality, Poverty, Rural, Nigeria

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Statistical Model for Predicting the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Aluminium Alloy Sand Castings under Different Process Parameters

 

Oji, J.O.1 Pamtoks, S.H. 1, Idusuyi, N.2 Aliu, T.O.1,

 

1.Prototype Engineering Development Institute Ilesa. Osun State, Nigeria.

2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan. Oyo State, Nigeria.

ojiortega@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study presents a statistical multiple regression model for predicting the ultimate tensile strength of aluminium alloy castings under different sand casting process parameters. Three sand casting process parameters namely mould temperature; pouring temperature and runner size were selected for the work. While other casting parameters were kept constant, the selected parameters were varied to produce cast specimens which where tested to obtain their ultimate tensile strengths. The model results obtained shows a unity multiple correlation coefficient (R-value) of 1 for the test data, and a low mean square error (MSE) of 0.01. The statistical regression model equation using mould temperature, pouring temperature and runner size as predictors was obtained as . Validation of the derived statistical model gave rise to correction factors not greater the 0.7% indicating the reliability of the model. The result of this work can be employed for research purposes and in sand casting production processes where it is obvious that the percentage of defective castings is still high.

[Oji J O, Pamtoks S H, Idusuyi N, Aliu, T O. Statistical Model for Predicting the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Aluminium Alloy Sand Castings under Different Process Parameters. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):20-24]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.04

 

Keywords: model, mould temperature, pouring temperature, ultimate tensile strength, aluminium alloy, sand castings, multiple regression.

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Assessment of the Effects Tacit Knowledge, cognition and self -awareness on Informal Learning Process: A Study on Private Universities in Malaysia

 

1Benoush Roumi, 2Zeinab Seyed Saleki, 3shabnam alsadat seyedmehdi, 4Hani samimi sabet, 5Noushin Roumi Nejad

 

1Master of business administration, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Email: behnoush.roumi@gmail.com. Tel: +60-142257831

2Master of business administration, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Email: sana_saleky@yahoo.com. Tel: +60-176107959

3Master of business administration, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Email: shabnamse@gmail.com. Tel: +60-193910158

4Master of business administration, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Email: hanisamimi@yahoo.com. Tel: +60-176108580

5Master of urban planning-Geography, Islamic Azad University, khoramabad, Iran

Email: noshin_roumi@yahoo.com. Tel: +98-9168497011

 

Abstract: Informal learning may have different facets such as participation in quality circles, job rotation, mentoring, but it may also be fully work integrated, taking place as people go about their daily work. Thus, in an informal learning process, the main task is on the people’s shoulders that are exposed to highly innovative technologies, which have made them professional in implementing technical tools and processes. Among the human intellectual capabilities, self-awareness and cognitional power have more contributions to informal learning process. Informal and formal learning are happening among the team members and teams are made up of employees from different cognitional and different level of self-awareness. The way to understand the importance of communication between and among the company members, is to notify that people naturally demonstrate various cognitive power and they may have diverse levels of self-awareness capabilities. With tacit knowledge, people are not often aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others. Effective transfer of tacit knowledge generally requires extensive personal contact and trust that are deeply rooted in cognitive and self-awareness levels of employees. Thus, it is proposed that there must be a relationship between self-awareness, cognition, and tacit knowledge with informal learning.. In this study we desire to discover those most notable aspects of these dimensions on informal learning among 150 respondents in private universities in Malaysia. Results of the data analysis show that there is significant coherency between tacit knowledge: (social skill, experience), cognitive skill: (Concentration, Perception, Memory) and Self-Awareness variables with informal learning.

[Benoush Roumi, Zeinab Seyed Saleki, shabnam alsadat seyedmehdi, Hani samimi sabet, Noushin Roumi Nejad. Assessment of the Effects Tacit Knowledge, cognition and self -awareness on Informal Learning Process: A Study on Private Universities in Malaysia. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):25-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.05

 

Key words: Informal learning, Tacit knowledge, Social skill, Experience, cognitive skill Concentration, Perception, Memory, Self-awareness

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Comparative Effects of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and NPK Fertilizer on the Growth and Marketable Yield of Celosia argentea L.

 

Oroka, Frank O.

 

Agricultural Science Unit, Department of Vocational Education, Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria

orkfra@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during the January to March early dry seasons of 2010 and 2011 in Southern Nigeria. Municipal solid wastes were collected from urban food market bins and composts (municipal sold waste compost. MSWC) were made using the windrow method. The composting process was over a 60 day period. The treatments consisted of six nutrient levels, namely: 0, 100% NPK, 100% MSWC, 50% MSWC + 50% NPK, 75% MSWC + 25% NPK, and 25% MSWC + 75% NPK. The six treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Data on vegetative growth, dry matter and marketable yield were obtained. 100% municipal solid waste compost and organo-mineral fertilizers significantly (p<0.05) increased plant height, leaf number, leaf area, number of offshoots over zero application and %100 NPK.Shoot dry matter and harvest index also increased significantly with organic and organomineral applications. Results showed higher growth and yield parameters from 75% MSWC + 25% NPK with dry matter and marketable yield of 1.31 and 8.58kg -1 respectively. A mixture ratio of 75% MSWC: 25% NPK is recommended for organomineral soil amendment from municipal solid waste compost in other to obtain optimum marketable yield from Celosia argentea.

 [Oroka, Frank. O. Comparative Effects of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and NPK Fertilizer on the Growth and Marketable Yield of Celosia argentea L. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):34-38]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.06

 

Keywords: municipal solid waste, compost, marketable yield, harvest index

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Numerical Simulation of Thermoelastic Contact Problem of Disc Brake with Frictional Heat Generation

 

Moses Omolayo Petinrin1,2, John Ogheneortega Oji1

 

1.Prototype Engineering Development Institute Ilesa. Osun State, Nigeria

2University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

layopet01@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work models the heat generation and dissipation in a disc brake during braking and the following release period. The model simulates the braking action by investigating both the thermal and elastic actions occurring during the friction between the two sliding surfaces, represented by the maximum temperature on the contact surface. Brake pad and disc were selected, and parameters set to certain values from existing literatures. Three dimensional thermomechanical analysis model of the disc brake system was created, and governing dynamics and heat equations described. Comparison was also made of the selected pad material (aramid) with that of asbestos to ascertain its viability as an effective substitute and to improve conceptual designs. The verification and application of the simulation software showed that the models and technique adopted in this work are efficient and appropriate for numerical simulation of brake disc which could be employed to guarantee safety and durability of the braking system.

 [Moses Omolayo Petinrin, John Ogheneortega Oji. Numerical Simulation of Thermoelastic Contact Problem of Disc Brake with Frictional Heat Generation. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):39-43].(ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.07

 

Keywords: Thermoelastic behaviour, heat generation, thermomechanical analysis, thermal load, finite element analysis.

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SUBSURFACE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIONAL ANIMAL PRODUCTION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NAPRI), ZARIA USING 2D ELECTRICAL IMAGING

 

1J. Adamu, 2S.I. Fadele, 3P.O. Sule, 4K.M. Lawal

 

1,2,3,4 Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Email: 4johnny@yahoo.com; Fadeleidowu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The method adopted for this paper was the 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), using the ABEM LUND Imaging System. A Wenner configuration WEN32SX was carried out to map the electrical properties as an aid to characterizing the subsurface conditions. Eight profiles were occupied in the study area. For each profile, the layout geometry for the electrical imaging was such that two reels of cables were used with 5m intervals between the takeout electrodes. However, the two innermost electrodes adjoining the two reels of cables were connected together thus yielding a total of 41 electrodes and a spread length of 200m. The data obtained using ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 were processed using RES2DIVN software. Based on the electrical images obtained in the study area, the following deductions were made. The depth to the fresh basement is generally well beyond 30.0m. The study reveals the presence of two distinct layers; the topsoil and weathered basement with resistivity ranges of 20.6-100Wm and 25.9-406 Wm respectively. These layers constitute the overburden with a thickness of 29.3m revealed by the pseudosections. The topsoil composed of laterite and brownish sandy clay with an average thickness of 11.0m. The weathered basement underlies the topsoil with an average thickness of 18.3.0m and this is a good aquifer in the study area. The depth of probing which is 29.3m is above the depth to the fresh basement.

[J Adamu, SI Fadele, PO Sule, KM Lawal. SUBSURFACE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIONAL ANIMAL PRODUCTION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NAPRI), ZARIA USING 2D ELECTRICAL IMAGING. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):44-48]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.08

 

Keywords: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), ABEM LUND Imaging System and Pseudosections

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[N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):49-55]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

Withdrawn

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Studies on fat in some chicken products with trial to prevent its oxidation

 

El- Shater M.A*; Hanan, G. seadawy; ** and Maha, M. Mohamed**

 

* Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Department of Food Hygiene

** Department of chemistry food deficiency

Soshater 2020 @ yahoo. Com

 

SUMMARY: A total of 100 samples of frozen half cooked chicken nuggets and shawerma were collected from grocery market in Giza and Cairo governorates (50 of each). The samples were subjected to chemical analysis (Fat %, Cholesterol, g / 100 gm, free fatty acids Acid value %, peroxide value m Eq/ kg and TBA value mg MD/ Kg). The mean values of the aforementioned parameters for nuggets and shawerma were 17.78 0.36, 64.32 0.94, 1.88 0.14, 0.95 0.07, 10.13 0.52, 0.71 0.052 and 15.3 0.28, 57.98 0.69, 1.85 0.13, 1.099 0.17, 10.912 0.064, 0.74 0.035 respectively. There were significant decrease of fat % and cholesterol (mg/ 100 gm) at P < 0.01 in chicken shawerma lower than chicken nuggets. Due to ES (2005) and Codex Standard (1991), the rejected samples percent of both nuggets and shawerma were 40 and 43 which exceeded the recommends fat percent. On the other hand, the percent of rejected nuggets and shawerma due to the fat oxidation criteria exceeding limits (Acid value, free fatty acids, peroxide value and TBA) were 6 and 8 respectively. There is significant increase in shelf life at. P < 0.01 in the treated chicken nuggets and shawerma with ascorbic more than untreated sample when stored at (-18C). The results were statistically analysed and it was recommend to use natural antioxidant for preventing the fat oxidation and extending the shelf life during freezing storage.

[El- Shater M.A; Hanan, G. seadawy; and Maha, M. Mohamed. Studies on fat in some chicken products with trial to prevent its oxidation. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):56-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.10

 

Key wards: Fat oxidation – Chicken products -Antioxidants

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Economies of E-commerce in Developing Countries

(A Case study of India and Sudan)

 

Mukhtar, ELfatih 1, Ali , Siddig 2

 

1. Department of Marketing Management, Community College , Taif University, KSA.

Email: drelfatih@hotmail.com

2. Department of English Language, Community College, Taif University, KSA.

Corresponding author: E-mail: drelfatih@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This research dealt with the description and analysis of e-commerce and its economic effects on developing countries (the case of India and Sudan). Showing the concept of e-commerce, pointing to the areas of e-commerce, analyze the economic impact of e-commerce on India and Sudan. The most Important results of this research that the most important factor in the success of the Indian experience in the IT sector and e-commerce is the interest in the development and the development of its human resources enormous by providing universities and technical institutes, as well as the presence of the structure of strong connections in the centers of the information industry and e-commerce, and the most important research results also that the most important factors responsible for the delay of Sudan and its underdevelopment in the optimal use of e-commerce is the lack of interest in the development and the development of its human resources by providing universities and technical institutes for coming out sufficient numbers of information technology specialists, in addition to the lack of structure strong connections in the centers of the information industry and electronic commerce. Based on the research results were the recommendations and proposals that Sudan should take advantage of the Indian experience in the IT sector, telecommunications and electronic commerce through its attention to the development and the development of its human resources by providing universities and technical institutes, as well as to provide a structure strong connections in the centers of the information industry and electronic commerce.

[Mukhtar, ELfatih, Ali, Siddig. Economies of E-commerce in Developing Countries (A Case study of India and Sudan). N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):64-68].(ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.11

 

Key words: e-commerce, IT, information industry , ecommerce system, human resources, economic effects.

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Biochemical Evaluation of Some Natural Products against Toxicity Induced By Anti-tubercular Drugs in Rats

 

Zeinab Yousef Ali

 

Biochemistry department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza 12553, Egypt. Zeinabyousef65@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicative disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that may cause death if it is left untreated. WHO (2010) recommended standard drugs as first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) therapy involved (HRZE): isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E) received as a fixed dose combination suspension according to the body weight. However, hepatic and renal toxicity are the most serious adverse effects of these drugs. Therefore, In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out include: antiradical activity by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity. Furthermore, this study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Mentha peprita, Origanum vulgare and Pimpinella anisum against toxicity induced during treatment with combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs compared with silymarin in rats. In vitro study revealed that all the tested extracts considered as a good source of natural antioxidants due to their high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and thus exhibited good antioxidant potential that decreased in the order of M. peprita > O. vulgare > P. anisum. In vivo study using a total of 56 female Sprague-Dawely rats divided into seven groups (8 rats each) as follows: Group 1 served as a normal control for 30 days; Group 2 received a combined suspension of anti-TB drugs (HRZE) in a fixed dose of 6.75, 13.5, 36.0 and 24.8 mg/Kg b.w/day, p.o., respectively for 30 days. Group 3-7 received a sole dose of M. peprita, O. vulgare or P. anisum extract or a combined polyherbal extract or silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w/day, p.o) 30 min prior to anti-TB drugs for the same period. The results demonstrated that administration of a combined anti-TB drugs induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced from a significant elevation in the serum enzyme activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], total bilirubin (T. Bil) and decrease in total protein (T.P), associated with renal disorder as confirmed from a market elevation in serum urea, creatinine and uric acid as well as oxidative stress confirmed from a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) along with marked elevation in both markers of lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA), Conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxides (ROOHs)], protein oxidation (protein carbonyl, PC) and DNA fragmentation. However, co-adminstration of the tested extracts with anti-TB drugs showed good hepato- renal-protection as evidence from maintenance of the aforementioned biochemical changes near normal. This improvement was decreased in the order of silymarin ~ polyherbal preparation > M. peprita > O. vulgare > P. anisum may be due to their high content of phenolic and flavonoids which might offer hepato-renal protection. This study revealed the synergistic effect of the hydroethanolic extract of Mentha peprita, Origanum vulgare and Pimpinella anisum to protect the liver and kidney tissues against toxicity induced during treatment with combined anti-TB drugs through increasing antioxidant defence capacity. In conclusion: These tested extracts may be used as a dietary supplement in polyherbal preparation by patients taking anti-tuberculosis medications. Further studies will be needed in different animal model with different doses to delineate the precise mechanisms underlying the effects of this polyherbal preparation.

 [Zeinab Yousef Ali. Biochemical evaluation of Some Natural Products against Toxicity Induced by Anti-tubercular Drugs in Rats. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):69-80]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.12

 

Keywords: Mentha peprita; Origanum vulgare; Pimpinella anisum; polyherbal; total phenolic; flavonoids, ferric reducing power, metal chelating activity, anti-tuberculosis therapy; hepatorenal function; total antioxidant capacity; lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation; DNA fragmentation

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Assessing the contribution of agroforestry species in the conservation of Volcanoes National Park (VNP) in Rwanda

 

Nahayo Alphonse *, Uwineza Marie Claire

 

Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)- Busogo, Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda; nahayalfa@gmail.com, +250 725 806 305

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of Agroforestry species in the conservation of Volcanoes National Park (VNP) where illegal activities such as wood and water collection, beekeeping and illegal hunting were observed. In order to overcome these issues, the strategies for conserving VNP should consider the introduction of agroforestry practices around that protected area. This study aimed at providing the information on role of agroforestry species in supporting the conservation of VNP. This study was conducted in June and July 2011 in Gataraga Sector of Musanze district in Rwanda. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire containing open and closed-ended questions. The formal and informal interviews were conducted with 108 households ‘heads randomly selected. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The results showed that agroforestry practices provided the services to farmers such as homestead, farm boundary and multipurpose trees on farmlands (in their spatial structural arrangements). Agroforestry species such as Alnus acuminata, Grevillea robusta, Persea Americana, Cedrela serrata, Erythrina abyssinica, Polyscias fulva, Ricinus communis and Senecio manii were adopted by the majority of respondents. The major constraints of existing agroforestry species include small land holdings, lack of seedling for planting and lack of technical assistance. Firewood is the most important benefit gained from the agroforestry species. The respondents perceived positively the future potential role of agroforestry in VNP conservation because Agroforestry practices could help reduce the dependency of local communities on VNP resources. As agroforestry practice plays a significant role in VNP conservation, by improving the livelihood of local communities, more attention should be paid to its incorporation in protected area policy.

[Nahayo Alphonse, Uwineza Marie Claire. Assessing the contribution of agroforestry species in the conservation of Volcanoes National Park (VNP) in Rwanda. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):81-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.13

 

Keywords : Agroforestry species, local communities’ livelihood, Volcanoes National Park Conservation, Rwanda

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New Approach for the Synthesis of Planar 4-Bar Mechanisms for 2 Coupler-Positions Generation

 

Galal A. Hassaan1 , Mohammed A. Al-Gamil1 and Maha M. Lashin2

 

1Mechanical Design & Production Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

2Mechanical Engineering Department, Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Banha University

maha_lashin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Analytical synthesis of mechanisms is a useful tool towards computer-aided machinery design and production. 4-bar planar mechanisms have wide applications in industry and thus receive more attention from machinery design researchers. The proposed approach relies on forming a mathematical model for the mechanism position incorporating the 2 coupler positions. The model consists of 6 nonlinear equations considering the transmission angle of the mechanism in the 2 coupler positions. A case study is presented as a justification for the proposed approach. Exact coupler positions are attained with transmission angles not more than 7 % of the optimum value of 90 degrees.

[Galal A. Hassaan, Mohammed A. Al-Gamil and Maha M. Lashin. New Approach for the Synthesis of Planar 4-Bar Mechanisms for 2 Coupler-Positions Generation. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):86-90]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.14

 

Key words: Planar, Coupler-Positions

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Investigating the relationship between finance index and effective factors on determining the capital structure of accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange.

 

ALIREZA ZAMANPOUR

 

Department of Accounting, Masjed Soleyman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Masjed Soleyman, Ira

EALIREZA_ZAMANPOUR1@yahoo.com

 

 Abstrac: In the present study , the main issue is the finance index and effective factors on determining capital index in Tehran stock exchange .The sample study includes 162 companies in the time period from 2005-2006. The results of this study show that finance indexes are affected by effective factors on capital structure of accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange and basically dependent on free cash flow ,fixed assets of company ,profitability and investment opportunities variables. Although the findings of this study does not envy the prediction of finance options hierarchy theory and .information asymmetry hypothesis, is seems that companies at Tehran stock exchange practically pass finance options to provide their required financial resources. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests.

[ALIREZA ZAMANPOUR. Investigating the relationship between finance index and effective factors on determining the capital structure of accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):91-97]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.15

Key words: finance index, effective factors on capital structure, finance index options hierarchy theory, fixed balance theory

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The Effects of Time Budget Pressure on the Behavior of Internal Auditors

 

Behzad Teimouri1, Zahra Rahmati2, Bahman Gholami3

 

1 Maskan Bank Branches Mangement of Ilam, Darehshar Baranch, Employed in Maskan bank

2.Zahra Rahmati, Islamic Azad University, Dehloran Branch,Dehloran,Iran

3. Department of Management Payame Noor University. IR of IRAN

z_rahmatia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Every auditing instiute has to regulate and schedule timed budget of auditing operation as one of its current plans. Preparing an unreasonable and unsuitable time budget will lead to failure in achieving the defined goal in the predefined time; and these will give rise to unprofessional behaviors of the auditors. In such a case, the auditors' deviation from the predefined time table will look natural and this can lead to decrease in the quality of auditing. Among the most important unprofessional behaviors one can point to underreporting the real audit time and audit signoff without informing the superior manager. The results of this research show that internal auditors commit unprofessional behaviors against the pressures of time budgeting. Additionally, the pressures of time budgeting cause unsuitable work pressure on internal auditors.

[Behzad Teimouri, Zahra Rahmati, Bahman Gholami. The Effects of Time Budget Pressure on the Behavior of Internal Auditors. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):98-104]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.16 

 

Keywords: Time Budget, Time Budget Pressure, Unprofessional Behaviors, Unsuitable Work Pressure, Underreporting Real Work Time 

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Factors Affecting Quality of Work Life of Handicraft Workers- A Study of Handicraft Units in and around Moradabad

 

Vaishali Dhingra, Manish Dhingra

 

Faculty Incharge, HOD, Mechanical Engineering, College of Mgmt & Computer Applications, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad

 

Abstract: Indian economy is in need of a device to boost employment opportunities, raise income and its standard of living and to bring about a more balanced and integrated economy. Handicraft sector is the best solution for achieving all these goals.

[Vaishali Dhingra, Manish Dhingra. Factors Affecting Quality of Work Life of Handicraft Workers- A Study of Handicraft Units in and around Moradabad. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):105-113]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.17

 

Keywords: Indian; economy; employment income; goal

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Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of alcoholic extracts of Cantharellus cibarius – a Nigerian mushroom

 

Aina, DA.1 Jonathan, SG 2, Olawuyi, OJ.2, Ojelabi, DO3 and Durowoju, BM1

 

1 Department of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State.Nigeria

2 Department of Botany & Microbiology, University of Ibadan.oyo State Nigeria

3 Quality Asurance Department, Pharma Deko Plc. Agbara, Ogun state, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: gbolyjoe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The alcoholic (methanolic and ethanolic) extracts of Cantharellus cibarius were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical potentials. Both extracts were found to contain phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones and saponin. Both extracts had antioxidant activity, which was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. Methanolic extract of C. cibarius had an EC50 value of 2.68 mg/ml which presents a greater antioxidant capacity than the ethanolic extract with an EC50 value of 3.12 mg/ml making the methanolic extract a better scavenger of radicals. Both extracts inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, while methanolic extract possessed the ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi using the agar well diffusion technique. This indicated a broader spectrum of activity by the methanolic extract. Again, the ethanolic extract possessed greater antifungal activity with MIC value of 10 mg/ml compared to methanolic extract which gave 30 mg/ml. Results from this study indicate that methanol is superior to ethanol in the exudation of bioactive compounds from the fruiting body of C. cibarius. However, both extracts of C. cibarius possess bioactive metabolites and phytochemicals capable of scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the growth of microorganisms which suggests their potential for medicinal purposes.

[Aina, DA. Jonathan, SG, Olawuyi, OJ, Ojelabi, DO and Durowoju, BM. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of alcoholic extracts of Cantharellus cibarius – a Nigerian mushroom. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):114-120]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.18

 

Keywords: Cantharellus cibarius, organic extracts, phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial

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Effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium Singer and microorganisms on degradation of soil contaminated with spent cutting fluids

1Omasan E. Ejoh, 2Clementina O. Adenipekun* and 3Ogunjobi A. Adeniyi

1,3 Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

*oyinpek@yahoo.com

Abstract: The ability of Pleurotus tuber-regium and indigenous microorganisms isolated from the contaminated soil to remediate spent cutting fluids contaminated soil were investigated for 2months. The ability of these organisms to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon present in the cutting fluids, lignin content in the rice straw, their enzyme activity as well as their ability to accumulate heavy metals present in the contaminated soil were monitored. In each of the soil samples (unsterilized cutting fluids contaminated soil (US) and unsterilized cutting fluids contaminated soil inoculated with P. tuber-regium (USP)), significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in the nutrient content of the soil was observed; USP having higher nutrient content. The heavy metal contents of the two soil samples decreased showing that bioaccumulation of the heavy metals had occurred. The indigenous microbes alone in US accumulated heavy metals better than the indigenous microbes with P. tuber-regium in USP. The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) loss (36.23%) was recorded at 10% cutting fluids concentration in USP compared to US which had 19.61%. The unsterilized contaminated soil inoculated with P. tuber-regium recorded the highest lignin degradation, also the polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity of the organisms in all the samples showed gradual increase. The microorganisms isolated from the unsterilized soil samples were Bacillus licheniformis, B. cereus, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp, Corynebacterium sp, Neisseria sp, Trichoderma harzanium, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. glaucus, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp. 

[Omasan E. Ejoh, Clementina O. Adenipekun and Ogunjobi A. Adeniyi. Effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium Singer and microorganisms on degradation of soil contaminated with spent cutting fluids. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):121-128] (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.19

 

Key words: Bioremediation. Spent cutting fluids. Pleurotus tuber-regium. Microbial species

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Assessment of the contribution of cassava crop (Manihot esculenta) to the household income in Kamonyi district, Rwanda

 

Alphonse Nahayo *, Irene Mutuyedata

 

Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE), Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, P. O. Box 210, Musanze, Rwanda; email: nahayo1@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of cassava (Manihot esculenta) production to the increase of household income of farmers grouped in Umuhuza cooperative and individual farmers in Mukinga cell, Nyamiyaga sector, Kamonyi district, Southern province of Rwanda. Cassava is the most abundant crop in Kamonyi district but its input on the increase of household income is not estimated yet. Therefore, this study is an attempt to cover this gap. Data were collected in June and July 2011 by using a survey questionnaire through which open and closed-ended questions were asked to 128 respondents grouped in cooperative (61) and others working individually (67). Purposive, simple random selection and proportionate allocation sampling methods were used to collect data. Data analysis was done by using SPSS 17th version with Friedman test one way ANOVA and mean comparison. The results show that cassava price is 109 rwf/ kg of chips for Umuhuza and 98rwf/kg for individual farmers. The average production is 3.4556 kg for Umuhuza and 2.4524 kg for individual farmers. The average income is 181,493 rwf for Umuhuza and 140,570 rwf for individual farmers. The results also indicate that the first three services for which the income from cassava is used are food security, health insurance and children education with 2.30, 2.77 and 3.20 mean rank values respectively. The constraints in cassava production include climate variation, price variation, absence of credit bank and absence of technicians with 1.87, 2.15, 2.85, 3.13 mean rank values respectively. Cassava producers are advised to use monocropping method, to use both organic and chemical fertilizers which contribute to the increase of production. Working in cooperative is also recommended in order for farmers to gain more income.

 [Nahayo A, Mutuyedata I. Assessment of the contribution of cassava crop (Manihot esculenta) to the household income in Kamonyi district, Rwanda. N Y Sci J 2012; 5(10):129-135]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.20

 

Keywords: Cassava crop, household income, Umuhuza cooperative, farmers, Kamonyi district, Rwanda

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Utilization of nutrients for growth and lipase production by some selected lipolytic fungi

 

Adebayo-Tayo Bukola Christianah1, Haliru Musa2, AkandeTeslim Adeyinka2

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

2Kwara state Polythechnic, Department of Biology, Ilorin, Nigeria.

bukola_tayo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nutrient utilization for growth and lipase production by some lipolytic fungi isolated from oil polluted environmental samples was investigated. Olive oil was found to be the best utilizable carbon by the lipolytic strains. Sucrose and xylose was best utilized for growth by Trichoderma virens and Hypocrea patella. 90% of the strains utilized coconut oil maximally for lipase production. Tween80 was best utilized by T. viriens (2.80aU/ml) for lipase production. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was the best utilizable nitrogen source for growth of all the strains. The growth ranged from 0.000e – 0.035a, 0.000f – 0.051a and 0.00f – 0.031a for Hypocrea patella, Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma virens respectively. Urea was the best utilizable nitrogen source for lipase production (2.35U/ml) followed in order by ammonium chloride (2.05U/ml) and ammonium sulfate (2.00U/ml). Lipase production ranged from 0.90e – 2.05a, U/ml 1.25f – 2.35aU/ml and 0.30e – 1.60aU/ml for H. patella, Aspergillus sp. and T. virens respectively. The combination of MgSO. 7HO+CaCl was found to stimulate the highest growth of Hypocrea patella on the 3rd day of incubation while MgSO. 7HO stimulated the best growth on the 7th day of incubation. Maximum lipase production was observed when MgSO.7HO+CaCl (1.70aU/ml), MgSO.7HO+ CaCl + NaCl (1.15aU/ml) and MgSO.7HO+CaCl (1.10aU/m) was utilized at different days of fermentation. Zn2+ was the best utilizable metal ions for growth (0.168a) and lipase production (1.25 U/ml) by Hypocrea patella on the 7th day of incubation. There was no significant difference in the utilization of Cu2+ and Mn2+ on the growth of Hypocrea patella while significant difference was not observed in lipase production with all the metal ions on the 14th day of incubation.

[Adebayo-Tayo Bukola Christianah, Haliru Musa, Akande TA. Utilization of nutrients for growth and lipase production by some selected lipolytic fungi N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):136-141]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.21

 

Keywords: Fungi, Nutrient utilization, lipase production, Hypocrea patella.

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Genetic Analysis and Correlation Studies of Yield and Fruit Quality Traits in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

 

Firas Al-Aysh, Hussein Kutma, Mahmood Serhan, Abdulla Al-Zoubai, Mohammad Abdelsalam Al-Naseer

 

Dara'a Center of Scientific Agricultural Research, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research, Jellein Village, Dara'a Governorate, Syria. firasalaysh@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Estimation of the existing variability in the available germplasm and knowledge about association of various traits is helpful for multiple trait selection and necessary to develop desirable genotypes of tomato. Keeping this in view, evaluation of genetic parameters and association studies were conducted in a set of 14 landraces of tomato for 8 quantitative traits over 2 seasons (2010/2011 – 2011/2012) at Dara'a Center of Scientific Agricultural Research, GSAR, Syria. Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes for all the traits studied, indicating wide range of variability and providing ample scope for selecting the desirable types. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was greater than the respective genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits, denoting the environmental factors influencing their expression to some degree or other. High estimates of broad sense heritability (h2) and genetic advance as percent over mean (GA %) were observed for plant height, number of locules/fruit and pericarp thickness which might be assigned to additive gene effects. Correlation studies indicated that days to maturity, number of locules/fruit and pericarp thickness were positively and significantly correlated with fruit yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, indicating the importance of these traits as selection criteria.

[Firas Al-Aysh, Hussein Kutma, Mahmood Serhan, Abdulla Al-Zoubai, Mohammad Abdelsalam Al-Nasser. Genetic Analysis and Correlation Studies of Yield and Fruit Quality Traits in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):142-145]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.22

 

Keywords: landraces; correlation; variability; germplasm; tomato.

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The relationship between organizational spirituality and organizational loyalty in Telecommunication Company of Fars province

 

Alireza Mooghali

 

Department of Management, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

 

Abstract: The current research examines the relationship between organizational spirituality and loyalty in Telecommunication Company of Fars province. Based on the research results, there is a positive and significant relationship between organizational spirituality and loyalty. So, in order to enhance the loyalty of employees to the organization, its spirituality ought to be increased by the managers.

[Alireza Mooghali. The relationship between organizational spirituality and organizational loyalty in Telecommunication Company of Fars province. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):146-148]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.23

 

Keywords: Loyalty, Empowerment, Spirituality, Telecommunication

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The impact of organizational empowerment on Organizational Loyalty

 

Alireza Mooghali

 

Department of Management, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

 

Abstract: The current study investigated the impact of organizational empowerment on organizational loyalty. For this purpose 187 questionnaires distributed and 161 questionnaires collected. Data analayzed using the LISREL software conducting path analysis. Data analysis showed that empowerment exerts a significant impact on the organizational loyalty. Also the results showed that there is a significant relationship between the psychological and structural empowerment (two types of organizational empowerment) and organizational loyalty.

[Alireza Mooghali. The impact of organizational empowerment on Organizational Loyalty. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):149-150]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 24

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.24

 

Keywords: Loyalty, Empowerment, psychological empowerment, structural empowerment.

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Determination of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Local Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from Edo State, Nigeria.

 

Jonathan Osariemen Isibor ⃰ and Afe Omolola Ekundayo

 

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. ⃰ Corresponding author: - Tel: (234) 803 5515 110; E-mail: joe_isibor@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered one of the most serious of known food borne pathogens with a disease spectrum ranging from non bloody diarrhea to bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and other complications . To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of isolates, we collected one thousand (1000) stool specimens from subjects within Edo State between May 2006 and April 2011. 316 (32%) of these yielded E.coli on culture, while 27 isolates tested positive for O157:H7 serotype. Susceptibility tests were performed by Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion on Mueller Hinton Agar (CM337-Oxoid) using the following antibiotics: Nitrofurantoin (300μg), Amoxicillin (25μg), Erythromycin (5μg), Tetracycline (10μg), Cloxacillin (5μg), Gentamicin (10μg), Cotrimoxazole (25μg), Chloramphenicol (30μg) (ABTEK Biologicals Ltd), Ofloxacin (30μg), Ciprofloxacin (5μg) and Cefuroxime (30μg) (Hi Media laboratories Ltd), and results were interpreted according to criteria developed by NCCLS. Most of the isolates displayed a high degree of resistance pattern (50% and above) in the following increasing order; Nitrofurantoin (40.7%), Ciprofloxacin (48.1%), Ofloxacin (51.8%), Cefuroxime (70.3%), Gentamicin (74.0%), Erythromycin (77.7%), Cloxacillin and Cotrimoxazole (85.1%), Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol (88.2%) and Amoxycillin (100%). There was joint resistance of E. coli isolates to almost all antibiotics tested, with the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ranging from 0.54 to 1.0. Because antimicrobial resistance patterns are continually evolving and multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms undergo progressive antimicrobial resistance, there is need to continuously update data on antimicrobial susceptibility profiles not only for epidemiological reasons but to also update information for use by those medical personnel that prescribe and dispense and use these antibiotics.

[Jonathan Osariemen Isibor and Afe Omolola Ekundayo. Determination of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Local Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from Edo State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):151-157]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 25

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.25

 

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Edo State, Nigeria.

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Security policy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in Baluchistan

 

Zia Khazaei

 

Department of Political Science, Zahedan branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran. KhazaeiZ@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The issue of insecurity is one of the main affairs that Baluchistan region is concerned about and come into view in specific form during different period of times. Since the formation of the modern state in Iran by Mohammad Reza Shah, dealing with security issue by a new and modern approach found its special place in government policies. Mohammad Reza Shah tried to have deeper and various look to security issue. Security either from hardware (military) or from software (economic, cultural) aspects have been considered by the government. So, the paper attempts to address security policy toward Baluchistan district in the Period of Mohammad Reza Shah.

[Zia Khazaei. Security policy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in Baluchistan. N Y Sci J 2012;5(10):158-163]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 26

doi:10.7537/marsnys051012.26

 

Keywords: Security policy, Baluchistan, Mohammad Reza Shah, insecurity

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 15, 2012. 
 
All comments are welcome: newyorksci@sciencepub.net.

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