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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 5 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 46); December 25, 2012, ISSN 1554-0200, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0512

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Floristic Composition & Biological Spectrum of Darlaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

 

*Meenakshi Thakur1, V. K. Santvan2 & Amrita Nigam3

 

1Govt. Degree College, Nagrota Bagwan, Kangra (H.P.) ; 2IIHS, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer hill, Shimla-5 (H.P.); 3School of Life Science, IGNOU, New Delhi. mins_pk@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Floristic composition and biological spectrum of Darlaghat Wild Life Sanctuary (DWLS), located in district Solan of Himachal Pradesh, was studied from July, 2010 to July, 2012. Vast altitudinal variation (1075-2069 amsl) and jagged topography in this Protected Area (PA) has resulted in occurrence of much diverse climate, and this is well reflected in its floristic composition. A total 302 plant species belonging to 99 families were recorded from the study area. These include: 27% trees; 24% shrubs; 35% herbs; 5% climber; 5% fern; 2% grasses and 2% Sedges. Out of the total number of 302 species Dicots were the dominant group with 87%. The Monocots were 6% with 17 species. The pteridophytes were 5 % with 14 species and gymnosperms 2% with 6 species. Fabaceae with frequency percentage of 10% was the most dominant family. However, Asteraceae 9 % with second highest dominant family in the study area. Life form classes and percentage distribution was analysis showed that 302 species comprised of: - Phanerophytes: 47 %, Therophytes 36 %, Cryptophytes 9 %, Hemicryptophytes 5% and Chamaephytes 3%. It was found that Phenerophytes percentage was approximately the same as that of normal spectrum, but Chamaephytes, Cryptophytes and Hemicryptophytes were less then the normal spectrum. However, the therophytes showed variation from normal spectrum and were significantly higher than the normal spectrum.

[Meenakshi Thakur, V. K. Santvan & Amrita Nigam. Floristic Composition & Biological Spectrum of Darlaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):1-14]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.01

 

Key words: Dharlaghat wild life sanctuary, Floristic composition, Biological spectrum.

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Investigating the Probability of the Implementation of ABC System in the Petrochemical Companies Located in the Special Economic Zone of Imam Khomeini Port

 

Ebrahim Alizadeh

 

Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: this study is an attempt to study the effective factors on activity based costing (ABC) using in petrochemical companies in Bandar-e- Emam Zone. The SPSS was used to analysis the data. The questionnaires were collected and the data were analyzed. The findings show that the executing of activity based costing is possible in Bandar-e-Emam Zone.

[Ebrahim Alizadeh. Investigating the Probability of the Implementation of ABC System in the Petrochemical Companies Located in the Special Economic Zone of Imam Khomeini Port. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):15-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.02

 

Keywords: activity based costing (ABC) , costing system, cost management

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Comparative studies on antifungal, anti-oxidant and phytochemical potential of Momordica charantia and Moringa oleifera

 

aJonathan, SG1; bOlawuyi, OJ1; Aina, DA2; Odeniyi, SO2; Adediji, IO3 and Ikhedia, A2

 

a Mycology & Biotechnology Unit, b Genetics & Molecular Biology Unit, 1Department of Botany& Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria2 Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, 3 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Nigeria. olawuyiodunayo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Phytochemical, antifungal and anti-oxidant activities of Moringa oleifera and Momordica charantia leaves were evaluated in this study using the methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts. The phytochemicals identified in of the extract of these plants include; steroids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids and terpenoids. The antioxidants levels determined in the extracts of Momordica charantia and Moringa olifera are; total reducing power, total flavonoid content, total phenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The fungal agents used are; Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albican and Rhizopus. The anti fungal activities of each of the plant extract were determined using the filter paper disk methods. The extracts possessed an antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albican, while there was no antifungal activity against Rhizopus sp.These results were discussed in relation to medicinal potentials of these plants.

[Jonathan, SG; Olawuyi, OJ; Aina, DA; Odeniyi, SO; Adediji, IO and Ikhedia, A. Comparative studies on antifungal, anti-oxidant and phytochemical potential of Momordica charantia and Moringa oleifera. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):17-28]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.03

 

Keywords: Moringa olifera, Momordica charantia, antifungi, antioxidants, phytochemicals

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BIOREMEDIATION OF EFFLUENT FROM LOCAL TEXTILE INDUSTRY USING Bacillus licheniformis

 

Ogunjobi Adeniyi Adewale, Oyinloye Iyadunni Adesola and Sanuth Hassan Adeyemi

 

Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan. dunnibright@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Microbial treatment of effluent from local textile industries was studied in this work. Effluent samples were collected from dye-houses at Itoku, Abeokuta (Southwestern, Nigeria). Bacteria were isolated from samples collected. The bacteria isolated were screened for their ability to decolourize dyes used in the local textile industries. The isolate with the highest decolourization ability on the dyes was used to decolourize effluents from the dye-houses. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis and Brine Shrimps Cytotoxicity test was carried out using cell free supernatant of the effluent to determine the degradative ability and the detoxification potential of the isolate. Bacillus licheniformis showed the best decolourization ability for the dyes having 90.32% and 63.76% decolourization potential on Gambia gold and army green respectively. It was therefore used in the treatment of effluent from local textile industries and it had 43.23% decolourization potential. GC-MS analysis of the B. licheniformis treated effluent revealed reduction in the percentage concentration of compounds such as quinoline and 7-methylquinoline which had a concentration of 19.74% and 5% in the untreated effluent and a final concentration of 2.85% and 0% respectively in the treated effluent. Also, compounds such as eicosane and eicosanoic acid which were absent in the untreated effluent were formed during the microbial treatment of the effluent as revealed by GC-MS analysis. Brine shrimps cytotoxicity test revealed a decrease in the cytotoxicity of the treated effluent which had an LC50 of 642.72 compared to the untreated effluent which had an LC50 of 1.61.

[Ogunjobi Adeniyi Adewale, Oyinloye Iyadunni Adesola and Sanuth Hassan Adeyemi. BIOREMEDIATION OF EFFLUENT FROM LOCAL TEXTILE INDUSTRY USING Bacillus licheniformis. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):29-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.04

 

Keywords: Army green, Effluent, Gambia gold, Microbial treatment, Textile Industries.

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Relationship between the firm size, growth opportunity level, profitability and the tangible assets combination and long term and short term debts in drug companies in Iran.

 

Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

Email: Azadvar.acc@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Generally, companies believe that financing resources consist of shareholders' liabilities and equity and different factors can affect the ratio of either of these two financing methods. The effects must be examined in the frequent periods of time. Due to their repayment priority and specific amount and due date as well as interest rate matters, creditors believe that liabilities have lower risks than capital. Therefore, short term and long term liabilities will be investigated and their variations according to company size, growth opportunities, tangible assets and profitability will be studied in this research.

[Relationship between the firm size, growth opportunity level, profitability and the tangible assets combination and long term and short term debts in drug companies in Iran. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):34-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.05

 

Keywords: company size, profitability, assets tangibility, growth opportunities, short term and long term liabilities.

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Relationship between the firm size, growth opportunity level, profitability and the tangible assets combination and long term and short term debts in drug companies in Iran.

 

Iman Azadvar

 

Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

Email: Azadvar.acc@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Generally, companies believe that financing resources consist of shareholders' liabilities and equity and different factors can affect the ratio of either of these two financing methods. The effects must be examined in the frequent periods of time. Due to their repayment priority and specific amount and due date as well as interest rate matters, creditors believe that liabilities have lower risks than capital. Therefore, short term and long term liabilities will be investigated and their variations according to company size, growth opportunities, tangible assets and profitability will be studied in this research.

[Iman Azadvar. Relationship between the firm size, growth opportunity level, profitability and the tangible assets combination and long term and short term debts in drug companies in Iran. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):38-41]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.06

 

Keywords: company size, profitability, assets tangibility, growth opportunities, short term and long term liabilities.

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Analysis of the factors influencing the adoption of rice versus sugarcane plantations by farmers’ association in Gasaka marshland, Gakenke district, Rwanda

 

Alphonse Nahayo,*,Marcellin Sebahire, Young Mo Kim

 

Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)-Busogo; Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation; P.O. Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted in Muhondo sector of Gakenke district from25th May to 25th July 2012, where the farmers’associations carrying out their agricultural activities in Nyabarongo valley are growing rice since 2009 on 3 hectares of land. The main purpose was to know the factors that influenced the farmers to replace the sugar cane by rice plantations in Gasaka marshland located in Muhondo sector. This objective was achieved by identifying and analyzing social, economic and ecological factors, through the survey done over 68 farmers, selected from 17farmers’associations. The results indicated that the most important reasons influencing the farmers to leave the sugarcane plantation were the change in marshland use by Government policies and thefts against sugarcane in fields before harvesting period with mean ranks of 1.93 and 2.29 using 5 point Lickert scale. Friedman test showed also that the topography of land associated with the soil conditions and available water resources are main factors that luckily influenced the farmers in Gasaka marshland to adopt rice as their new plantation choice with mean ranks of 2.29 and 2.91 respectively using 5 point Likert scale. The comparison between Net income from sugarcane to that one from rice, through Cost-Benefit analysis showed that the annual Net Income from sugarcane were 939,000Rwf, smaller compare to that one generated by rice; 1,150,400 Rwf per ha per year. The planting of rice in the Gasaka marshland was influenced by the availability of sufficient water within plots because the farmers have declared the shortage of water within plots as the main challenges and constraints lowering the yield of rice. The rice is more profitable than sugarcane. It was recommended to work into cooperatives in order to get agricultural credits, training inputs, and to respect the advice and recommendations given by extension workers and local authorities for the best use of the marshland.

[Nahayo A, Sebahire M, Kim YM. Analysis of the factors influencing the adoption of rice versus sugarcane plantations by farmers’ association in Gasaka marshland, Gakenke district, Rwanda. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):42-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.07

 

Keywords: Sugarcane production, rice production, Gasaka marshland, Rwanda

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Vitamin D Receptor Genotypes, Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Egyptian Premenopausal Women with Graves ' Disease

 

Soma S Abd El Gawad, Elham R Abdul Samea, Mohamed Sherif * and Mohamed M Elrakhawy**

 

Clinical Pathology Department, Internal Medicine Department* and Diagnostic Radiology Department**, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. somaabdelgawadn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To find out the correlation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (BsmI, TaqI and ApaI) with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in premenopausal female patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methodology: The study included 65 premenopausal Egyptian female patients with GD, aged 27-45 years and 30 healthy women with matched age. The genotyping was performed by the use of the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Also, BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover (as serum calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphtase, carboxy terminal telopeptide of type l collagen and osteocalcin as well as urinary deoxypyridinoline/urinary creatinine ratio) were evaluated in patients and controls. Results: The distribution of genotype frequencies differs between GD and controls (BsmI: X▓=7.57, P= 0.022; ApaI X▓=7.88, P= 0.020; TaqI X▓=6.23, P= 0.044). We found over representation of the VDR BsmI ''bb'' (odds ratio 2.48; 95% CI 0.93-6.61), ApaI ''aa'' (odds ratio 2.68; 95% CI 0.82-8.74) and TaqI ''TT'' (odds ratio 3.21; 95% CI 1.24-8.25) genotypes in GD patients compared with controls. However, no significant association was seen between BMD and VDR (BsmI, TaqI and ApaI) genotypes in GD patients. Moreover, the VDR genotypes did not differ in serum concentrations of carboxy terminal telopeptide of type l collagen (▀-CTx) and osteocalcin as well as urinary deoxypyridinoline/urinary creatinine ratio. Conclusion: Although there was an over representation of VDR BsmI, TaqI and ApaI risk alleles in women with GD, these were not associated with BMD or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

[Soma S Abd El Gawad, Elham R Abdul Samea, Mohamed Sherif and Mohamed M Elrakhawy. Vitamin D Receptor Genotypes, Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Egyptian Premenopausal Women with Graves Disease. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):54-61]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.08

 

Key Words: Graves' disease, VDR polymorphism, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers

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Relationship between the firm size, growth opportunity level, profitability and the tangible assets combination and long term and short term debts in drug companies in Iran.

 

Iman Azadvar

 

Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

Email : Azadvar.acc@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Generally, companies believe that financing resources consist of shareholders' liabilities and equity and different factors can affect the ratio of either of these two financing methods. The effects must be examined in the frequent periods of time. Due to their repayment priority and specific amount and due date as well as interest rate matters, creditors believe that liabilities have lower risks than capital. Therefore, short term and long term liabilities will be investigated and their variations according to company size, growth opportunities, tangible assets and profitability will be studied in this research.

[Iman Azadvar. Relationship between the firm size, growth opportunity level, profitability and the tangible assets combination and long term and short term debts in drug companies in Iran. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):62-65]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.09

 

Keywords: company size, profitability, assets tangibility, growth opportunities, short term and long term liabilities

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Gestational Diabetes in UNRWA health clinics in Gaza Strip: Impact of Educational Program.

 

1Ahmad A. Elshair ,, 2 Mona S. Shenouda, and 2Shadia A. El-Kader

 

1UNRWA, Health Program, Nursing Department Gaza, 2Cairo University, Faculty of Nursing, Egypt

ahmadelshairl@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is still considered one the most a serious health problems worldwide affecting 1 to 14% of pregnant women, in Gaza Strip (GS)5.5%. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of educational program in reducing the prevalence of GDM and its associated health problems among pregnant women in GS. Two hypothesis were addressed: 1) Pregnant women who will receive educational program have higher post-test knowledge & practices scores related to GDM than those who do not. 2) Prevalence of problems associated with GDM receiving the educational program will be lower than those among pregnant women than who do not. Quasi-experimental design was used, the sample consisted of 188 pregnant women, 87 subjects who attended the educational program & 101 controls who received the routine prenatal care. Data were collected through self structured interviewing questionnaire for data related to previous and current pregnancy status, & the pretest-post test sheet to examine knowledge & practice related to the problem of GDM & maternal health records. The educational program consisted of 4 main sessions, given jointly with an educational booklet for subjects. Data were collected twice, at the booking visit & at the postnatal visit. The main results were: participant's in the stud group who adherence to healthy habits & decrease sugar intake were significantly higher in the post test compared with the pretest and those of the control group at α=0.05. Mean age of participants was 34 years, 65.9% had basic education, family size were between 5-6 members, the vast majority were 89-92.1% was multiparous, with mean BMI more than 31, CS delivery slightly declined, insulin treatment increased, complications of the mothers declined & problems to the infants was declined, the mean weight of infants below 3500 gram. The study concluded that the education program had a positive impact on knowledge and practice regardig GDM. The study recommended that midwives & nurses who works at the MCH clinics should effectively utilize their roles as educators and counselors to contribute to the decrease problems of GDM among pregnant women in Gaza Strip, & to conduct further similar studies on larger, more representative sample of pregnant women in Gaza strip.

[Ahmad A. Elshair,, Mona S. Shenouda, and Shadia A. El-Kader. Gestational Diabetes in UNRWA health clinics in Gaza Strip: Impact of Educational Program. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):66-72]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.10

 

Key words: Birth Trauma , Birth Weight, Blood glucose level, pregnant complications.

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Sql Injection Assessment Of E-Commerce

 

Matin Katebi *, Milad Katebi **

 

* Master of Information Technology, Islamic Azad University of Bahar Branch, Iran matinkatebi@gmail.com

** Master student of Information Technology, University of Khaje Nasir Toosi (K.N.Toosi), Iran mkatebi@kntu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: By increasingly development of electronic commerce and providing different electronic situations such as internet and mobile commerce, electronic commerce has been changed to one of important issues in 21 century. By development of electronic commerce related problems including keeping the security of information and transactions between seller and purchaser seems necessary. Every year attacks and financial and information losses resulted from these attacks are increased. So increase in efficiency of electronic business requires attention and practical measurements for keeping security and countering with possible risks by hackers of these programs. Most attacks are attacks to program level and today one of the most important attacks to this level is attack to data base of sites by the approach of SQL injection. In this paper it is tried to examine the SQL injection which leads to fetch and manipulating the information of data base. It is also tried to identify vulnerabilities in electronic commerce programs particularly sites which are based on business to customer (B2C) and finally while stating the strategies for managers of these sites for keeping their site in safe, approaches for encountering these attacks are introduced.

[Matin Katebi, Milad Katebi. Sql Injection Assessment Of E-Commerce. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):73-79]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.11

 

Keywords: SQLinjection, e-commerce, inband & outband attack, database hijacking

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The Appropriate Approach To Renewal The Historical Center Of Shiraz City, Iran

 

Neda Rafiee1, T.M. Mahesh2, Javaid Ahmad Tali3, Mohammad Reza emtehani4

 

1, 2 & 4 Institute of Development Studies, University of Mysore, Karnataka 570006, India

3 Departments of Studies in Geography, University of Mysore, Karnataka 570006, India

neda.rafiee14@gmail.com, maheshprourp@yahoomail.com, javaid.26.mu@gmail.com, emtehanimohd75@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Rapid urbanization is bringing in its wake the urbanization of poverty, as well as pressure on urban land and resources, unchecked, and sometimes unplanned economic development. It remains combined with incoherent policy, a fragmented institutional frame work, lack of political will, and limited capacities of implementing organizations, often results in the neglect and destruction of historic districts within cities. This has been seen both in the developed and the developing world. Developing countries like Iran face to the concept of blighted areas recently due to early stages of economic development. Urban blight it not just a cause but also it is caused of socio-economic changes and improper management too. Renewal our cities is the penalty for neglect. It causes new phenomena such as urbanization, migration and dualism. During the last two decades Iran’s population has increased from 49.4 million in 1986 to 70.4 million in 2006. Urbanization has also grown very rapidly during this time period, in fact, urban population increased from 47% to 68.4 % from 1986 to 2006. The present paper has analyzed blighted areas of central area of Shiraz city, Out of the total area of Shiraz city (18622.79 hectares), 1691hectare (9.09%) area is blighted area which it covers 375.82 hectares of the whole historical area of the city. With the growth of city the central area has shown drastic change in land use as well as in demographic profile. Due to the out migration historical centre the residential area has shown the change of (-12.52) hectares during the period of 1992 to 2003 and the Decennial growth rate have showed the change of -16.48 per cent from 1996 to 2006. This paper give the proper approach to renewal the blights in the central area of Shiraz city which customized to the local conditions of this area based on a set of parameters and finally explain the advantages of this method compared to the other possible approaches.

[Neda Rafiee, T.M. Mahesh, Javaid Ahmad Tali, Mohammad Reza emtehani. The Appropriate Approach To Renewal The Historical Center Of Shiraz City, Iran. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):80-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.12

 

Key Words: Blighted Area, Renewal, Upgrading, Deteriorated Area

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Derivation of an Analytic Expression for the Mass of an Individual Fish Larvae in an Uncapped Rate Stochastic Situation

 

1ADEWOLE Olukorede. O and 2ALLI Sulaimon. G

 

1Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Department of Mathematics & Statistics, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Correspondence viz; koredeadewole@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: There is need to vividly examine the impact of stochastic variations in diverse processes as may apply to a typical growth model. A capped rate stochastic process could be described as bounded by some limit and thorough delineation of the various factors affecting the growth of fish larvae is highly essential. The change in mass of fish larvae was considered due to physiological and metabolic pathways and other relevant factors to vividly examine the concept of stochastic process as applicable to the capped rate model, and delineate an analytically derived expression for the mass of an individual larvae based on relevant stochastic differential formulation in an uncapped rate stochastic process inundating the Ito lemma. The uncapped rate situation is only a removal of a maximum or imposed limit from a capped rate stochastic process.

[ADEWOLE Olukorede O and ALLI Sulaimon G. Derivation of an Analytic Expression for the Mass of an Individual Fish Larvae in an Uncapped Rate Stochastic Situation. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):86-91]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.13

 

Keywords: Stochastic process, uncapped rate, Ito lemma

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Impact of Seed Quality Improvement on Rice Productivity: Evidence from Rural Nigeria

 

Bola Amoke Awotide*, Timothy Taiwo Awoyemi, Victor Olusegun Okoruwa and Bolarinwa Titus Omonona

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

*corresponding author: bawowtide@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Seed quality improvement has been recognised as one of the vital ways to boost agricultural productivity in developing countries, thus farmers access to seed of improved quality is expected to generate increase in yield. This study was conducted to empirically investigate the impact of seed quality improvement on rice productivity in Nigeria using a combination of approaches such as Inverse Propensity Score Weighting (IPSW) and Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE). The study used well structured questionnaire to collect a pre-intervention (2008) and post- intervention (2010) data, using multistage sampling procedure. In all, 600 rice farmers were selected based on probability proportionate to the size of rice farmers in the villages in 2008, out of which 160 farmers were randomly selected to have access to seed of improved quality (Treated) and the others did no (Control). The results revealed that the seed quality improvement impacted rice productivity significantly. Therefore, it is recommended that seed quality improvement should be incorporated into all the agricultural development programs and properly monitored for effective results.

 [Awotide BA, Awoyemi TT, Okoruwa VO, Omonona BT. Impact of Seed Quality Improvement on Rice Productivity: Evidence from Rural Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):92-100]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.14

 

Keywords: Impact, Seed quality, Productivity, Farmers, Nigeria

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Effect of some meteorological factors on seasonal abundance of Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in mango orchards of Haridwar (India)

 

P.C. Joshi and Sanjay Kumar

 

Insect Biodiversity Laboratory, Dept. of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University Haridwar. Emai: kumarsanjaynitin2011@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Present study deals with the effect of meteorological factors on seasonal abundance of mango hoppers in mango orchards of Haridwar. The mango Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is serious pest of mango in district Haridwar. Pest population remains low during winter and starts appearing with the panicle emergence. The damage is mainly caused by the hoppers due to sucking of sap from inflorescences, leaves and tender shoots. Meteorological factors viz. temperature, humidity and rainfall affect the mango hopper population. Peak hopper population (5.57) was recoded in May on temperature range of (37.10oC) as maximum, whereas, relative humidity was very, low (48%). With the increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity, hopper population raised. Thus, temperature positively affected the hopper population, whereas, relative humidity had negative effect, but rainfall showed no significant effect, as it was fluctuating. Experiments on influence of meteorological factors on the incidence of mango hopper were conducted at mango orchard of Haridwar. The mango hoppers correlated positively with temperature (r= 0.9383) on other hand negatively and significantly with relative humidity (r= - 0.1313) and non-significantly with rainfall (0.3530).

[P.C. Joshi and Sanjay Kumar. Effect of some meteorological factors on seasonal abundance of Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in mango orchards of Haridwar (India). N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):101-103]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.15

 

Key words-Meteorological factors, seasonal abundance, Idioscopus nitidulus

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Molar absorption rate coefficient -A short note

 

Manjunath. R

 

#16/1, 8th Main Road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Bangalore560010, Karnataka, India

 Email : manjunath5496@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The molar absorption rate coefficient is a measure of how fast a chemical species absorbs light at a given wavelength. The prime objective of writing this paper is to outline a formula for the calculation of the molar absorption rate coefficient.

[Manjunath R. Molar absorption rate coefficient -A short note. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):104-105]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.16

 

Keywords: photon absorption; chemical species; molar absorption rate coefficient; refractive index

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Biological control of coffee antestia bugs (Antestiopsis lineaticolis) by using Beauveria bassiana

 

Alphonse Nahayo*, Joseph Bayisenge

 

Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)-Busogo; Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda, email: nahayo1@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: This study was conducted in order to contribute to the production of quality coffee free of pest damage and pesticide residues. Antestia bug is reported among insect pests that reduce coffee yield and quality as well. It is supposed that the use of natural enemies do not disturb ecosystem. With the same perspective, this study aiming at controlling coffee antestia bug “Antestiopsis lineaticolis’’ using Beauveria bassiana fungus╗ was carried out in Rwanda Agricultural Board, Rubona station labolatories with CG432 strain in the period between the 1st July and 31st September, 2011. During this research, we multiplicated Beauveria bassiana on synthetic cultural media (PDA and NA); we tested the viability rate of newly produced and old inoculum of B. bassiana and we tested the efficacy of bio-insecticide produced from B. bassiana to control coffee antestia bug. The results showed that Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) with controlled temperature (28oC) and in liquid medium favors mass multiplication of B.bassiana. The produced fungus spores (2kgs) were viable at 95% against 40% of old fungus spores. The average of died antestia bugs per day due to Dursban and B. bassiana produced as bio-insecticide showed that they are in the same homogenous group. With the last results, it is possible to substitute Dursban by bio-insecticide produced because it conserves the ecosystem more than the first one. Considering the fast antesia bugs, Dursban showed high significant difference to eliminate them. We found that it is necessary to pay attention while applying B. bassiana as bio-insecticide because it loses rapidly its viability rate with time and it requires the adequate good temperature to normally work. It is recommended to all coffee stakeholders to set different measures which can promote the use of natural enemies’ especially B. bassiana to control antestia bug and other different insect pests in order to conserve the agro- ecosystem.

[Nahayo A, Bayisenge J. Biological control of coffee antestia bugs (Antestiopsis lineaticolis) by using Beauveria bassiana. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):106-113]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.17

 

Keywords: Biological control, Antestiopsis lineaticolis, Beauveria bassiana, Coffee

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Leaching and Mechanical Properties of Cement- Polyacrylamide Composite Developed as Matrices for Immobilization of 137Cs and 60Co Radionuclides.

 

M. I. El- Dessouky1, E. H. El- Masry*1, A. M. El- Kamash1 and M. F. El- Shahat2

 

 1Hot Labs, Atomic Energy Authority Inshas, Kaliobia,

2Faculty of Science, Chemistry Dept., Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*emanelmasry74@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are produced from diverse applications of radionuclides in industry, medicine, radioisotope production facilities and fuel processing plants. These wastes need treatment to reduce the quantities of radioactive contaminants to the level, which allows safe discharge of the decontaminated liquid to the environment and safe disposal of the concentrated radionuclides according to the international requirements and national regulations. The objectives of the liquid waste processing are to immobilize the radioactive elements and to reduce the volume to be stored. The solidified product must be non-dispersible, insoluble and with good mechanical and structural stability. Portland cements are met the acceptance criteria for immobilizing radioactive wastes because of their low cost, high density, durability and amenability to simple processing techniques. In the present study, immobilization of spent polyacrylamide- zeolite and polyacrylamide- bentonite composites loaded with cesium and/or cobalt radionuclides with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been carried out. Several factors affecting the characteristics of the final solidified waste product towards safe disposal such as mechanical strength and leaching behavior of the radioisotopes have been studied. The obtained results showed that the presence of polyacrylamide composites in the cemented wastes improve the mechanical characteristics of the solidified cement matrix towards the safety requirements and reduce considerably the radionuclides leach rates.

[M. I. El- Dessouky, E. H. El- Masry, A. M. El- Kamash and M. F. El- Shahat. Leaching and Mechanical Properties of Cement- Polyacrylamide Composite Developed as Matrices for Immobilization of 137Cs and 60Co Radionuclides. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):114-119]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.18

 

Key Words: Immobilization / Radioactive wastes / Portland cement / polyacrylamide/ Zeolite/ Bentonite.

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Clinicopathological, histopathological and immunolog1ical studies on animals exposed to lead and cadmium under experimental conditions

 

Randa, A. Hassan1; Dawlat M. Amin1; Nariman A. Rahmy1; Hatem, M.E.2 and Dessouky, M.I.3

 

1 Pathology Dept., Animal Health Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

2 Microbiology Dept., Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3Clinical Pathology Dept., Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

mogdasamei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lead and cadmium are recognized as the most toxic environmental pollutants. The effect of lead acetate (Lead acetate) and cadmium chloride (Cd Cl2) poisoning on the clinicopathological, histopathological and immunological parameters in guinea pigs was investigated. The possible protective role of cod liver oil as a natural supplement of vitamins (E, A, D) and omega 3 nutrients was also studied. The animals were divided into five groups, control and four experimental groups. The second and the third groups were administrated Lead acetate (5.5 mg Lead/kg b.w), while the fourth and fifth groups were administrated Cd Cl2 (2.5mg Cd/Kg b.w) orally three times a week. Cod liver oil was given to the third and fifth groups orally three times per week at a dose of 0.35 ml/ animal two weeks before and continued simultaneously to the administration of the chemical pollutants through the experiment. Guinea pigs were kept under observation for 9 weeks. Most of the guinea pigs administrated pollutants showed loss of body weight and weakness. Mortality rate reached 33.3% in Lead acetate group and 39.4% in Cd Cl2 treated group. Exposure to Lead acetate or Cd Cl2 induced oxidative damage to erythrocytes leading to observation of normocytic normochromic anemia, lymphopenia and toxic neutrophils. Increased activity of serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP, and elevation of urea and creatinine values reflected liver and kidney damage which was proven histopathologically. Gradually increased hyperglycemia was observed in Lead and Cd groups. Significant decrease of total protein due to hypoglobulinemia was observed in Cd group. Gradual increase in Lead and Cd levels in serum was recorded compared with control. Antibody titer decreased specially in Cd group. Viability of lymphocytes was reduced in Lead and Cd groups. Simultaneous administration of cod liver oil was reduced the mortality rate, hematological changes, hepatic biochemical alterations, decreased slightly the level of serum Lead and Cd and improved immune status of guinea pigs.

[Randa, A. Hassan; Dawlat M. Amin; Nariman A. Rahmy; Hatem, M.E. and Dessouky, M.I. Clinicopathological, histopathological and immunolog1ical studies on animals exposed to lead and cadmium under experimental conditions. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):120-136]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.19

 

Keywords: Clinicopathological; histopathological; immunolog1ical; cadmium

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Laser Interaction with ZnO Nanostructure Enhanced by Microwave Plasma

 

Noori S. Anad, Gamal Abdel Fattah*, Khaled A. Elsayed, and Lotfi Z. Ismail**

 

Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Cairo University, Egypt

* Laser science and Interaction Department National Institute of Laser Enhanced science (NILES).

Lotfizaki@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Pulsed Nd: YAG laser interaction with ZnO nanostructure have been carried out using both X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The applied ZnO nanostructure have been grown applying Microwave power enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). The radiated sample started with hexagonal crystalline structure. The particle size equals 60 - 70 nm. The laser radiation reduced the particle size to be in the range 30-40 nm and the nanotube coupling have been changed to orthogonal structure with clear connecting centers. By increasing the laser shots the morphology of the nanostructure replaced by a mish shape with a reduction of the crystalline planes.

[Noori S. Anad, Gamal Abdel Fattah, Khaled A. Elsayed, and Lotfi Z. Ismail. Laser Interaction with ZnO Nanostructure Enhanced by Microwave Plasma. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):137-142]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.20

 

Keyword: ZnO nanostructure, MPECVD, Laser interaction, nano-tubes

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Incidence Of Resistant Enterobacteria In Urine Samples Of Some Undergraduates In A Nigerian University

 

*Ayansina, A. D. V., Morolari, B. M. and Ihuoma, J.A.

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, P.M.B. 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

E-mail – ayandvt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Analysis was carried out on 120 urine samples (60 males and 60 females) obtained from some undergraduate students consulting the University Clinic primarily for the presence of antibiotic resistant enterobacteria. Samples were examined also for presence of pus cells, epithelial cells, crystals and red blood cells. The pH of the samples ranged between 7.8 and 10.7. Seventy samples (58.3%) showed the presence of 104cfu/ml and above of total viable bacteria. Seventy four samples (61.67%) showed the presence of Gram negative bacteria rods that were oxidase negative. Out the Gram negative bacteria 26 (35.1%) fermented lactose, producing acid and gas; were indole positive and were identified as Escherichia coli. Twenty two of the isolates (29.7%) fermented lactose; producing acid and gas; were citrate positive and were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Six of the isolates (8.1%) did not ferment lactose but were positive for urease test and were identified as Proteus spp. Antibiotic sensitivity test on the isolates showed that all the Gram negative enterobacteria were resistant to ampicillin and augmentin; 97.3% were resistant to cefuroxine and nalidixic acid and 89.2% were resistant to nitrofurantoin. E.coli, Klebsiella spp. and Protens spp. were most sensitive to ciprofloxacin followed by gentamycin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The implication of this finding was discussed.

[Ayansina, A. D. V., Morolari, B. M. and Ihuoma, J.A. Incidence Of Resistant Enterobacteria In Urine Samples Of Some Undergraduates In A Nigerian University. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):143-147]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.21

 

Keywords: Enterobacteria, urine, antibiotic, resistance.

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Synthesis of Dy- doped CaSrS Nanophosphors and Characteristic Glow peak study

 

Talaat. S. A.1 H. S. Hafez 1 , H. S. A. Aly 2, Naglaa. Y.A 1, Hosnia. M. A 2 and Basyouni. A. Henaish 1

 

1Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority.

2Physics Department, College for Women (Arts, Science and Education), Ain Shams University

shokryhanaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Calcium strontium sulphide (CaSrS) has been prepared by the solid state diffusion reaction and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which shown the formation of compound in ring like structure with average particle size 24nm. The effect of different concentration of calcium and strontium has been studied. The optimum was found to be Ca0.65 Sr0.35 S which increases TL-sensitivity 15 times than previous work. The dysprosium (Dy) doped to CaSrS by different concentrations for the sake of improving the TL-sensitivity. The optimum concentration of dysprosium was found to be (0.22wt %). CaSrS:Dy (0.22wt%) has five glow peaks at (117.5, 185, 345, 410 and 430 ˚C). High gamma doses as TL-sensitization method have been used. By these means the TL-intensity of treated samples proved about 24 times enhancement, which make it very promising detector and dosimeter suitable for ionizing radiation.

[Talaat. S. A. Hanaa. S. Hafez, H. S. A. Aly, Naglaa. Y.A, Hosnia. M. A and Basyouni. A. Henaish. Synthesis of Dy- doped CaSrS Nanophosphors and Characteristic Glow peak study. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):148-151]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.22

 

Keywords: Thermoluminescence, Nanomaterials, Sensitization, Dysprosium and CaSrS.

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Globalization in Iran; Challenges and Issues

 

 Samad Ranjbar Ardakani, Alifath Ghobadpour, Mostafa Ranjbar Ardakani

 

1Department of Management, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran

2Department of Management, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

3Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran

samadranjbarardakani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Globalization and freeing have been complicated in developing and industrial countries during long years regarding to producers and free capitalism , we can pointed to a free business .Freeing and globalization cause not lonely economy faster growing, but we should provide occupation and economy growing for constancy in these countries. This paper reviews the Iranian globalization challenges and necessities.

[Samad Ranjbar Ardakani, Alifath Ghobadpour, Mostafa Ranjbar Ardakani. Globalization in Iran; Challenges and Issues. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):152-153]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.23

 

Keywords: Globalization, Necessities, Challenges, Iran

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The Impact of Targeted Subsidiary Plan on Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Reza Yousofvand, Samad Ranjbar Ardakani

 

Assistant Professor, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

Department of Management, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

samadranjbarardakani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Capital market took positive effect from the loan targets design and after the time this law be performed, shareholders showed positive action, so that bourse indexes became positive after adjusting prices. The main biases that have important effect on market, is biases on deciding about future expectations and capitalists are deciding base on expectation of future. This Paper reviews the impact of subsidiary targeted plan on Tehran stock exchange.

[Reza Yousofvand, Samad Ranjbar Ardakani. The Impact of Targeted Subsidiary Plan on Tehran Stock Exchange. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):154-155]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 24

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.24

 

Keywords: Subsidiary plan, Tehran, Stock Exchange

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Hypsometric Properties Of Drainage Basins In Karnataka Using Geographical Information System

 

Ramu1 and B. Mahalingam2

 

1Course Coordinator, 2Faculty, Department of Geography (GIS), Maharaja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore 560 005 Karnataka. mahabose.geo@gmail.com. , drramumysore@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: This study has been conducted to analyze the hypsometric properties of drainage basins in Karnataka. In constructing the hypsometric integral curve, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 300 m spatial resolution has been created based on the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN). The topographical map has been used as a base map for generating contours to create the TIN model. The hypsometric integral curve results, derived from the DEM, show that six drainage basins are in Maturedly Dissected Landforms while the South Ponnar basin is in an old state of dissection. The result of hypsometric curve shows that the drainage basins are significantly different from each other. The Moran’s I shows a negative spatial autocorrelation between the drainage basins and it indicates that HI values are random in the study area.

[Ramu and B.Mahalingam. Hypsometric Properties Of Drainage Basins In Karnataka Using Geographical Information System. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):156-158]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 25

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.25

 

Key Words: Digital Elevation Model, Triangulated Irregular Network, Hypsometric Integral, Hypsometric Curve, GIS.

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Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Produced by Bacillus species Isolated from Garden Soil

 

Okwuobi Patricia Ngozi, Ogunjobi Adeniyi

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

triciaexcel1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Plastic materials which have made entry in every sphere of human life are now causing serious environmental problems due to their non- biodegradability. This study, therefore, examined the production of biodegradable s polyhydroxybutyrate by Bacillus species isolated from environmental samples; the isolates were screened for the presence of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) inclusions using Sudan Black B stain. The PHB produced were extracted with chloroform and analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS). The bacterial isolates identified as B. mycoies had 6 different compounds with 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester as the major compound and B. subtilis recorded 4 compounds with 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester as the major compound. The GCMS analysis confirmed the presence of biodegradable polymers making them interesting candidate in biodegradable polymer production for application in environmental areas.

[Okwuobi Patricia Ngozi, Ogunjobi Adeniyi. Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Produced by Bacillus species Isolated from Garden Soil. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):159-163]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 26

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.26

 

Keywords: Polyhydroxybtyrate, gas chromatogphy-mass spectroscopy, compounds, biodegradable

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Using new variation Crossover operator of Genetic Algorithm for Solving the Traveling Salesmen Problem in e-Governance

 

 Namit Gupta and Rajeev Kumar

 

Assistant Professor, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad (U.P.) India

Email ID: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com, namit.k.gupta.coe@tmu.ac.in

 

ABSTRACT Genetic algorithm (GAs) has been used as a search technique of many NP problems in e-Governance. Genetic algorithms have been successfully applied to many different types of problems, though several factors limit the success of a GA on a specific function. Problem required are good, but optimal solutions are not ideal for GAs. It is depended on the selection operator, crossover and mutation rates. In this paper Roulette Wheel Selection (RWS) operator with different crossover and mutation probabilities, is used to solve well known optimization problem Traveling Salesmen Problem (TSP). We have proposed a new crossover operator which is variation of Order Crossover (OX) and found results are better than existing crossover operator.

[Namit Gupta and Rajeev Kumar. Using new variation Crossover operator of Genetic Algorithm for Solving the Traveling Salesmen Problem in e-Governance. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):164-166]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 27

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.27

 

KEY WORDS: TSP, GAs, SUS, e-Governance RWS.

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Comparative Intestine And Weight Morphometry Of The Farmed African Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus B.): An Age Related Study.

 

* Ekele Ikpegbu1, 2Daniel Ezeasor,1Nlebedum Uchenna., and 1Nnadozie Okechukwu.

 

1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State Nigeria 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Nigeria ,Nsukka.

fikpegbu@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The morphometric measurements of the farmed African catfish were investigated. This was done to fill the knowledge gap on the basic morphometeric features of this species in restricted concrete ponds. The information obtained will help in management of feeding of these species to changing diets, environment and habits. Seventy five apparently healthy fish comprising 25 fingerlings, 25 juveniles and 25 adults were used for the study. The body lengths, weight and intestinal lengths were measured, after immobilization of the animals by chloroform euthanasia. The data obtained was subjected to statistics using one way analysis of variance and p<0.5 was taken to be significant. The result was significant in body length, weight and relative intestinal length. This suggests an age variation or an adaptation to changing feed especially in the juveniles that were fed increased dietary fibre. Positive body weight and length allometry suggest better feed conversion as the animal grows directly proportionately in age and length.The farmed African catfish is adapting to new environment by adjusting the intestinal length to maximize food digestion and absorption. Also the low relative intestinal length may be compensated for by increased mucosal fold complexity in the intestines.

[Ekele Ikpegbu, Daniel Ezeasor, Nlebedum Uchenna, and Nnadozie Okechukwu. Comparative Intestine And Weight Morphometry Of The Farmed African Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus B.): An Age Related Study.

N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):167-169]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 28

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.28

 

Key words: Morphometry, Relative intestinal length, adaptation, African catfish

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Synthesis of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2 (composite as white coating material and printing ink

 

Abd El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud1, Emad El-Deen Allam2 and Raafat Hassan Morsy Azzam2

 

1Consultant of Textile Printing & Finishing, CEO of SPI Company

, 2Textile Printing, Dyeing and Finishing Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University

ceo@spi-eg.com

 

Abstract: Nano-form titanium dioxide has a specified effect either as whitening agent or UV-stabilizer of PVC/DEHP composite, it is easily dissolved into the prepared composite lead to achieve white composite with maximum whiteness value, in addition of titanium dioxide with low ratio the composite opacity was increased while in addition with high concentration 25-30% showing a highly opaque white printing inks with low degradation value of PVC.

[Abd El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud, Emad El-Deen Allam and Raafat Hassan Morsy Azzam. Synthesis of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2 (composite as white coating material and printing ink. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):170-178]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 29

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.29

 

Keywords: DEHP (diethyl hexyl phthalate), PNC (polymer nano composite)

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Physico-chemical characteristics of Untreated and Treated Effluent of Shivam Automobile limited At Haridwar: A comparative study

 

Sushil Bhadula, Rohit Choudhry and B. D. Joshi

 

Department of Zoology & Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar- 249404, Uttarakhand (India). sushil86.ntl@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: The present study is carried out the physico-chemical parameters of Shivam automobile in Haridwar city. The selected physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand analyzed during the study period. The relative difference, temperature was 41.12% higher, pH was14.44% higher, total solids was 66.77% higher, total dissolved solids were 50.70% higher total suspended solids were 374.43% higher, biochemical oxygen demand was 1125.80% higher and chemical oxygen demand was 451.83 % higher in the untreated effluent in comparison to treated effluent. BOD showed maximum (1125.80%) relative difference and the pH (14.44%) showed minimum relative difference among all parameters.

[Sushil Bhadula, Rohit Choudhry and B. D. Joshi. Physico-chemical characteristics of Untreated and Treated Effluent of Shivam Automobile limited At Haridwar: A comparative study. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):179-182]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 30

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.30

 

Key words: Automobile Effluent, treated, untreated.

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The Correlation between Metabolic Syndrome and Coronary Artery Disease in Egyptian Patients

 

Mansour M. Mostafa, Abdelaziz R. Hassan, Mohammed Abdel Hady, Yasser E. Mohammed and Hesham M. El Zomor.

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

 

Abstract: The most common cause of death due to cardiovascular disease is coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a progressive inflammatory disease with underlying atherosclerosis in its aetiology. Obesity is a growing health proplem in most developed and some developing countries. It is a very important risk factor for cardiovascular disease as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, fatty liver, infertility and other problems collectively named metabolic syndrome.The angiographic severity of CAD influences the prognosis. Gensini score is one of the methods that determine the angiographic severity and the extent of CAD. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is an increasing trend in developing countries because of the westernization of diet and lifestyle. To our knowledge, there are no enough literature data on the correlation between metabolic syndrome and coronary disease among egyptian population. The objective of this work was to study the correlation between metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in Egyptian patients undergoing coronary angiography for known or suspected coronary artery disease. We studied 100 patients,50 subjects with metabolic syndrome and 50 other without metabolic syndrom, with suspected or known CAD. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant difference between 2 groups as regard body mass index ( BMI), waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, hypertension, HDL, serum TG, Modified Gensini score (MGS). The results also showed that there were significant direct correlation between MGS and BMI, waist circumference,FBS, hypertension, TG, and negative correlation with HDL. The conclusion from our results suggested that total prevalence of MS was found to be 50 % in egyptian patients undergoing coronary angiography and MS is a risk factor for significant coronary stenosism, so the detection, prevention and treatment of the underlying risk factors of metabolic syndrome should become an important approach for reduction of the cardiovasular disease burden in Egyptian population.

[Mansour M. Mostafa, Abdelaziz R. Hassan, Mohammed Abdel Hady, Yasser E. Mohammed and Hesham M. El Zomor. The Correlation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Coronary Artery Disease in Egyptian Patients. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):183-189]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 31

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.31

 

Keywords: Correlation; Metabolic Syndrome; Coronary Artery; Disease; Patient

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Controlling Lassa Fever Transmission In Northern Part Of Edo State, Nigeria Using Sir Model

 

Ogabi1, C.O., Olusa T.V., and Madufor M.A.

 

1Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Ojo, PMB 1087, Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria

1E-mail address: kunleogabi@yahoo.com or cornelius.ogabi@lasu.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: Some Virologists in the past had analysed and discussed the impact of Lassa fever in some endemic areas including the northern part of Edo State with high rate of infection on contact persons [4, 5]. This work shows how the activity of the disease in the northern part of Edo State can be controlled. This is achieved by reducing the transmission rate of the disease and see how the basic reproductive number can be reduced as will be illustrated by the solution of SIR model. The cumulative result of this control is to eventually eradicate the disease. In this paper, numerical solution of system of differential equations of SIR model will be used to analyse the control of transmission of the disease. SIR is an acronym which stands for Susceptible, Infectious, and Recovered groups in a given population. The relationship among the susceptible group, the infectious and the recovered groups will be analysed with the three health policies which consists of the choice of three sets of the parameters; QUOTE representing (the birth rate B, the natural death rate D, the transmission rate λ, and the recovering rate g). The disease control as used here is based on the basic reproductive number, one of the variables that kick-starts the solution of the system of differential equations of our SIR model which, when it is less than one, means the disease is eradicated. In the endemic areas like the northern part of the Edo State, adequate health education should be put in place for the people to have a sound knowledge about the disease. The federal and the Edo State government need to embark on a low cost housing scheme project, to reduce the number of people in a room, this will enhance the reduction in its transmission rate.

[Ogabi, C.O., Olusa T.V., and Madufor M.A. Controlling Lassa Fever Transmission In Northern Part Of Edo State, Nigeria Using Sir Model. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):190-197]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 32

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.32

 

Keywords: SIR Model, Lassa fever, Basic reproductive number, northern part of Edo State, Parameters, Control, Health polic

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Antibiotic resistant-bacteria associated with the cockroach, Periplaneta americana collected from different habitat in Egypt

 

Kotb M. Hammad 1* and Hesham M. Mahdy 2

 

1. Zoology and Entomology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Biology Dept., Faculty of Science & Arts, Al-Baha University, Saudi Arabia

*aa_hammad2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An investigation concerning external and midgut bacteria associated with cockroaches isolated from household and sewage was carried out. Blood agar medium was the most suitable medium for isolation of bacteria from household species. On the other hand, several types of media such as blood agar, Littman oxgall agar, brain heart infusion in addition to nutrient agar were good media for isolation of bacteria from swage species. Bacillus and Streptococcus species recorded the highest percentage ratio between isolated bacterial from whole body and midgut of household cockroach; 38 and 36.92%, respectively. Alcaligenes faecalis, Serratia liquefaciens, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus durans and Listeria seeligeri were ecological type isolated from sewage only.

[Kotb M. Hammad and Hesham M. Mahdy. Antibiotic resistant-bacteria associated with the cockroach, Periplaneta americana collected from different habitat in Egypt. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):198-206]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 33

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.33

 

Keywords: Cockroaches; Bacteria; Antibiotic resistant-bacteria; Egypt

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Morphometrics of Macrotermes bellicosus (African mound termite) (Blattodea:Termitidae) and the Impact of its Saliva Amylase on the Strength of Termitarium Soil

 

Popoola K.O.K and Opayele A.V

 

Entomology unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State. taiwo_kok@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of Macrotermes bellicosus present on some parts of the University of Ibadan and to determine the effect of the saliva of termites on the strength of termitarium. Termites were collected from 8 termitarium on Parry Road, University of Ibadan and characteristics morphometrics were measured using stage graticules (10mm) on Microscope. Amylase analysis was conducted to determine the activity of the saliva content in the termitarium soil using Phadebas« α-amylase test method. Bricks were molded from the ant hills soil while pressure gauge was used to measure the strength via cracking of molded brick from the soil. The studies revealed that the length of head capsule for workers ranged from 0.16mm to 0.24mm, while those of soldiers ranged from 0.42mm to 0.68mm. The body length of workers ranges from 0.5mm to 0.7mm and that of soldiers ranged from 1.1mm to 1.4mm which confirmed that the soldiers were bigger. The amylase analysis showed that termitarium soil contained α-amylase while it was undetected in the control soil. The α-amylase activities for the termitarium soil was 41 unit per liter, 47 unit per liter and 56 unit per liter at dilutions 10-1M, 10-2M and 10-3M respectively. The bricks molded from the termitarium soil and the control soil all cracked at a pressure less than 1MPa; however bricks molded from clayey and mature termitarium showed higher strength of materials. It may be concluded that the modification of the termitarium soil’s physical properties and the selection of clay particles during construction activities by termites had more contribution to strength than the presence of α-amylase in the termitarium soil.

[Popoola K.O.K and Opayele A.V. Morphometrics of Macrotermes bellicosus (African mound termite) (Blattodea: Termitidae) and the Impact of its Saliva Amylase on the Strength of Termitarium Soil. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):207-216]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 34

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.34

 

Keywords: Macrotermes bellicosus, University of Ibadan, morphometrics, amylase, termitarium.

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Integrated Geophysical Investigation to Identify Um-Bogma Formation in Wadi El-Dabbabat, Abu-Zeneima Area, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt

 

Mahmoud I. Mira, Ahmed A. Nigm and Mohamed A. S. Youssef

 

Nuclear Materials Authority, P. O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo, Egypt. Shokryam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Due to its economical importance as a source of manganese ores and the uraniferous zones in Abu-Zeneima area, Um-Bogma Formation comes in the fist as a valuable target for the workers in the field of nuclear raw materials. The geophysical field observations proved that Um-Bogma Formation is preserved in subsurface in Wadi El-Dabbabat area. The geoelectric, shallow seismic refraction and magnetic tools are used in the study area to detect, identify and delineate Um-Bogma Formation since it represents the main target of the study. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data were analyzed using two 1D software packages; Ato program (Zohdy and Bisdorf, 1989) and Resist program (Velpen, 1987). The shallow refraction seismic data were analyzed using the delay time method and the resulting depth velocity models were generated using the advanced finite difference (FD) technique. A geomagnetic model was established by the GM-Sys software package. The results obtained from the three methods are integrated in order to verify each other. The average depth to the basement rocks is calculated from the magnetic model as 220 m which is nearly comparable with that obtained from VES data as 202 m. The VES data revealed also that the lithology of the area is composed of four subsurface geoelectric layers overlying the basement and Um-Bogma formation appears at average depth of 31.6 m with average thickness reaches to 22.2 m and average resistivity value 145.5 Ohm.m. The shallow refraction seismic method could distinguish the lithologic units of upper sandstone series as well as Um-Bogma formation which appear at varying depth with an average value 36 m. while; its average thickness reaches to 20 m. The p-wave velocity characterizing Um-Bogma formation varies between 4600 – 5000 m/s.

[Mahmoud I. Mira, Ahmed A. Nigm and Mohamed A. S. Youssef. Integrated Geophysical Investigation to Identify Um-Bogma Formation in Wadi El-Dabbabat, Abu-Zeneima Area, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):217-226]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 35

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.35

 

Keywords: Ves, Seismic Refraction Survey and Um-Bogma Formation

 

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The Relationship Between Knowledgeof Watershed Management Operation And Level Of People Participation

 

Bahram Mohammadi Golrang 1, Lai,F.S 2, Mohammad Rostami 3, Mohad Noor Kamurudin 4, Abd Kudus Kamziah 5, Mojgan Mashayekhi 6

 

1. Department of Forestry Management (ph.D Candidate), Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

3. Department of Mathematical Research (ph.D Candidate), Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia

2,4,5. Department of Forestry Management (Assoc..Professor), Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

6. Department of English (ph.D Candidate), Faculty of Modern Language, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

b_golrang@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recent studies in many countries had revealed the impact of many factors including: Satisfaction, Knowledge, Demographic and Attitudinal variables in level of people participation. The main question here is, whether these factors would also be effective on people participation in Iran? The purpose of this research was to investigate communication factors influencing knowledge of farmers’ application of Watershed Management Operations (WMO) in the Kushk-Abad watershed in Khorassan Razavi Province of Iran (85km2). The main purpose of this study is to assess factors that influence people’s participation in Iran. The study consist of all farmers in watershed study (N = 1500), of which 200 is selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique (n = 200). The study was a descriptive-co relational, survey research. In fact, this research was designed to assess relationship between Knowledge of Watershed Management Operations (WMO) and the level of participation in WMO in Iran. In order to obtain this objective, a cross sectional survey was conducted. Data for this research collected through personal interviews from three villages in Kushk-Abad sub basin in Iran. The scale of Knowledge of WMO and Participation in WMO were in order 0.90 and 0.92. Findings in the study indicated that a majority of the farmers have Knowledge of WMO. The results showed that the level of the participation of WMO is moderate and there is a significant and positive correlation between farmers’ Knowledge of watershed management operations. However according to the findings, the levels of economical participation of people are the more than social and environmental participation. In addition, the results clarified that the level of the respondents’ Knowledge of WMO is low to moderate. This study also proved that participation in WMO is positively and significantly correlated with Knowledge of WMO (r = 0.611, p = 0.000).

[Mohammadi Golrang. B, Lai. F.S, Rostami, M, Kamurdin. M.N, Kamziah. A.K, Mashayekhi. M. The Relationship Between Knowledgeof Watershed Management Operation And Level Of People Participation. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):227-233]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 36

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.36

 

Keywords: Knowledge, People participation, Evaluation, Operation, Kushk-Abad, Iran, Watershed Management Operations (WMO), Economical participation

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In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities and Nutritional Assessment of Roots of Ten Nigerian Vegetables

 

Gbadamosi I. T. Alia A. E. and Okolosi O.

 

Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. gita4me2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The leafy parts of the ten test vegetables are consumed for their nutritional values whereas their roots are discarded as waste. This study examined the roots of the vegetables for their therapeutic and nutritional potential with a view to providing information on their economic importance. The plant samples were identified in the University of Ibadan Herbarium (UIH). The test organisms were five clinical isolates. The ethanol (50 %) extracts of samples were used for testing antimicrobial activities using agar-well diffusion method. The powdered samples were analysed for their proximate, mineral, phytochemical components using standard methods. Antimicrobial screening indicated that Crassocephalum rubens showed the highest (16.50 mm) inhibition against Escherichia coli and Senecio biafrae had the least (12.0 mm) inhibition at 10-3 cfu/ml inoculum concentration. Only Vernonia amygdalina (18.00 mm) was active against Candida albicans. Crude protein was highest (13.52%) in Prinari excelsa. Crude fat was highest (5.11%) in Senecio biafrae and Prinari excelsa while Launaea taraxacifolia had the least (3.57%). Magnesium was highest in Hibiscus sabdariffa (990.50 mg/100 g) and Vernonia amygdalina had the least (92.00 mg/100 g). Iron was highest in Prinari excelsa (26.30 mg/100 g) and least in Corchorus olitorius (1.11 mg/100 g). Phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloid was highest in Telfairia occidentalis (1.38%) and Corchorus olitorius (0.26%) had the least. Saponin was highest in Telfairia occidentalis (0.09%) and least in Corchorus olitorius (0.03%). In addition to their nutritional and phytochemical components, the plants (80 %) showed significant inhibitory activity against E. coli and could be useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, cholera and others E. coli associated diseases. Also this study has shown that the powdered roots of V. amygdalina could be used orally for the treatment of candidiasis. The roots of the vegetables could be useful as cheap source of herbal drugs, food supplements and fodders for livestocks.

[Gbadamosi IT, Alia AE, Okolosi O. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities and Nutritional Assessment of Roots of Ten Nigerian Vegetables. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):234-240]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 37

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.37

 

Keywords: Vegetables; roots; pathogenic organisms; extracts; antimicrobial screening; chemical analysis

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Brief look at security problem in Islamic republic of Iran

 

Ali asghar amini dehaghi

 

Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Vali asr street, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Security is relative and mental concept that is discussed in cold war between two west and east block after Second World War. On the other hand, national security doesn’t recognize and don’t clarify, unless threats in internal and external dimensions are recognized. In addition, about national security subject, sensitive insecurity feeling problem is discussed that have more mental and software aspect. It means that there are some countries that have suitable security in witness’s viewpoint, so society people don’t feel security in mental, political and cultural aspect. In conclusion, we see that Islamic republic of Iran, have more security challenges after revolution that its main part has stem in political culture and speaking conflicts in security region, specially speaking conflicts between government and people cause insecurity feeling intensity in society. specially conflict between religious – revolution idealism with realism actionist create software and psychological ambiguities and problems such as identity crisis and legitimacy crisis are considered as main internal threats for national security that have more software aspect .

[Ali asghar amini dehaghi. Brief look at security problem in Islamic republic of Iran. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):241-246]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 38

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.38

 

Keywords: National security, threat, insecurity feeling, software security, hardware security, political culture

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Effect of Squeegee Hardness on Deposit Ink Layer, Glossy and Whiteness of Printed Film

 

Abeer Farouk Ibrahim and Maysa Mohamed Reda

 

Department of textile printing, Dyeing and Finishing. high institute of Applied Arts,new cairo academy, Cairo, Egypt. ceo@spi-eg.com

 

Abstract: Various factors affect the printing quality, squeegee one of the main factors that affect directly on printing film as the deposit layer can be controlled completely not only by choosing mesh count but also by choosing the squeegee shape and hardness, the deposit ink layer has a clear effect on the glossy and design of printed film, this study focused on the relation between squeegee hardness and deposit ink at certain mesh count.

 [Abeer Farouk Ibrahim and Maysa Mohamed Reda. Effect of Squeegee Hardness on Deposit Ink Layer, Glossy and Whiteness of Printed Film. N Y Sci J 2012;5(12):247-252]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 39

doi:10.7537/marsnys051212.39

 

Keywords: squeegee a poly urethane rubber.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 26, 2012. 
 
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