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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 49); March 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0603

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Titles / Authors

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An analysis of the factors relating to the knowledge sharing of the faculty members of engineering and humanities faculties of university of Tehran


Saadi M 1, Rostami S 2


 1. M.A in Educational Management, University of Tehran, Iran.

 2. M.A in Educational Management, University of Tehran, Iran.

m.saadi65@gmail.com, rostami.sasan@gmail.com


Abstract: The aim of the present study is to explore the factors relating to the knowledge sharing of faculty members of engineering and humanities faculties of university of Tehran. The research uses survey methods and is descriptive in nature. The faculty members of the engineering and humanities faculties constitute the population of the study whose count was determined for each of the faculties and in general 100 faculty members were chosen from the engineering faculty and 99 faculty members were chosen from the humanities faculty. To gather the data, the researcher identified some factors based on the theoretical background (literature) and devised a questionnaire with 31 questions on personal, organizational and technological factors relating to knowledge sharing in university teachers. To analyze the gathered data descriptive statistics values such as frequency, percentage and average, and inferential statistics measures such as T-test are utilized. The results reveal that trust factor (4.08) and interpersonal relationships factor (5.53) from the personal factors, as well as compensation factor (2.83) from the organizational factors of knowledge sharing among faculty members of engineering faculty are higher than those values in humanities faculty, and culture factor (-4.76) and leadership factor (-2/20) from the organizational factors of the faculty members of faculty of humanities were more than those of the faculty members of the faculty of engineering. This study also shows that there is no significant difference in the structure factor (-0.835) from the organizational factors and information technology factor (0.934) among the faculty members of the two faculties.

[Saadi M, Rostami S. An analysis of the factors relating to the knowledge sharing of the faculty members of engineering and humanities faculties of university of Tehran. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):1-8]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1



Keywords: knowledge sharing – organizational factors – personal factors – information technology factors – faculty of engineering and humanities of university of Tehran.

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Non-Pharmacological Methods and Night Leg Cramps among Patients Having Varicose Veins


Soad M. Hegazy 1, Howyda A. Mohamed1, Seham G. Ragheb2 and Sherief Essam3


1Medical - Surgical Nursing, 2Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, 3Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University



Abstract: Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of non-pharmacological methods on night leg cramps among patients having varicose veins. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used in the conduction of this study that was conducted in the Out-patients clinics at El-Demerdash Surgical Hospital, which is affiliated to Ain Shams University. Sample: A purposive sample included 80 adult and old age patients from both genders with varicose veins and have developed night leg cramps. Tools: 1) Patients, interviewing questionnaires to assess the knowledge about night leg cramps and non-pharmacological methods. 2) Calf - stretching exercises record. 3) Diet regimen record. 4) Patients, condition assessment sheet: A)Outcome measures to identify number, duration and severity of leg cramps and sleep disturbances and B) Symptoms development. Results: More than half of the studied patients had unsatisfactory knowledge in pre-test, added to poor levels of exercises and diet regimen. Moreover mixed group (calf - stretching exercises and diet regimen, added to traditional treatment) had the highest improvement in post-tests regarding cramps frequency and persisting symptoms, as well as outcome measures and symptoms development. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological methods (calf - stretching exercises and diet regimen) in combination with traditional treatment could be used to reduce night leg cramps among patients having varicose veins. Recommendation: Further studies are needed to elucidate the effect of other therapeutic measures on preventing night leg cramps.

[Soad M. Hegaz, Howyda A. Mohamed, Seham G. Ragheb and Sherief Essam. Non-Pharmacological Methods and Night Leg Cramps among Patients Having Varicose Veins. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):9-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2



Key words: Non-pharmacological methods (calf–stretching exercises and diet regimen)-night leg cramps with varicose veins.

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The role of woman in Individual and social adequacies in poem’s book of Parvin Etesami


Hadi Askari Fard


Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame Noor University, I.R.IRAN


Abstract: Woman have affected in family and society as another mid of civilization. This issue has been seen in poems of past and present poets in different forms. In traditional poem, woman has been seen more as a leman in sonnets. After poem revolution of conditional period, the view point of poets is changed. Parvin Etesami was one of these poets that her regard to woman is completely different with the past poets. She has mentioned to educative roles of woman along side of man and has had clear respond to woman existential philosophy. She called woman as a column of life and family that family won’t been made without woman. Besides, she has attention to social order of woman and wants that society attends to different educative, cultural and scientific roles of woman.

[Hadi Askari Fard. The role of woman in Individual and social adequacies in poem’s book of Parvin Etesami. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):17-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3



Key words: Woman, Man, Educate, Providence and fore sight, Science education.

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Nuclear Reactors Event Reporting: The Egyptian Approach, and Challenges


Badawy M. El-sheikh


Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Every engineering activity carries some potential of deviation from normal operation, resulting in events, which could be unexpected and may result in undesirable risk or consequences. To avoid such risks, study and evaluation of abnormal events is considered essential and the depth of evaluation depends on the severity of consequences attached to the activity. Among the various efforts to improve operational safety of nuclear installations, systematic collection, evaluation and feedback of operational experience are considered valuable and effective. Such a system enables all safety related events to be analyzed for determination of the root causes and necessary corrective and preventive action to be taken to avoid their recurrence and to enhance operational safety at Nuclear Power Plants. programs to collect and analyse operating experience are established, results obtained and conclusions drawn are acted upon and that existing mechanisms are used to share important experience with international bodies and with other operating organizations and regulatory bodies. This paper provides a general overview and analysis of events reported by Egyptian research reactors and the Licensee approach for future nuclear program with its challenges.

 [Badawy M. El-sheikh. Nuclear Reactors Event Reporting: The Egyptian Approach, and Challenges. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):21-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4



Key words: operational experience feedback, accident precursor analysis, licensee report.

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Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) (a model of metals) by Candida albicans and its antifungal activity on Some fungal pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans).


Atef, A. Hassanab ; Mogda, K. Mansourb and H.H. Mahmoudc

aAnimal Health Research Institute, Doki, Giza, Egypt b Dep. of Mycology and Mycotoxins & Biochemistry

cCentral Laboratory of Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt



Abstract: The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (as a model for other metals) is of utmost significance in various applied medical sciences. The chemical synthesis of Nano particles of metals particularly Ag-NPs is reported to be harmful when used in medical preparations. So, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using fungi as Candida albicanse, after treating silver nitrate with fungus mycelia. The biosynthesis of AgNPs were identified though the culture mycelia and further confirmed with UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The prepared Ag-NPs were evaluated for the antifungal effects on Candida albicans and T. mentagrophytes. This effect was observed by measuring Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using well diffusion technique in comparison with some drugs including Grisofulvin and Itraconazole have been obtained on the fungi and the changes on membrane reactions of treated fungi have been detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The obtained results revealed the MIC50 of Grisofulvin and Itraconazole and Ag-NPs on Candida albicans and T. mentagrophytes which were 40.25 ug/ml, 80.18 ug/ml and 20.10 ug/ml respectively, on Candida albicans. Whereas, the results of the same effects on T. mentagrophytes were 50.35 ug/ml, 121.5 ug/ml and 20.13 ug/ ml, respectively. However, the MIC100 of the tested antifungal Grisofulvin and Itraconazole and Ag-NPs were relatively required higher concentrations, 71.2 ug/ml, 133.0 ug/ml and 42.0 ug/ml for antifungal effect against C.albicans, respectively. Whereas, the concentrations of 81.5 mg/ml, 172.5 ug/ml and 51.0 ug/ml were required for MIC100 for inhibition the growth of T. mentagrophytes. In case of Candida albicans as model for other fungi, when we used (MIC50) concentration of Ag-NPs we observed membrane damage and some pits that have been caused inter cellular components leakage and finally cell death. Whereas, the using of (MIC100) concentration of Ag-NPs, we observed destruction of fungal cell with pore in their cell membrane. Therefore, Silver nanoparticles as a model for other metals could be used in the field of human and veterinary medicine as successful treatment of microbial diseases of human and animal particularly fungal diseases. Also, the fungi also could be used for the production of these nanoparticles which is highly biocompatible, cheap and environmental friendly.

[Atef, A. Hassan; Mogda, K. Mansour and H.H. Mahmoud. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) (a model of metals) by Candida albicans and its antifungal activity on Some fungal pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans). N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):27-34]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5



Keywords: Silvernanoparticles (Ag-Nps), Candida albicans, T. mentagrophytes, Antifungal activity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC).

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Theory of the quantized attraction


Badr Amr Yahia


Veterinary Physician, Bachelor Of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. amor_vet33@yahoo.com


Abstract: In the superconductors, super cooling of atoms not only absorbs all of the energy of the valence particles converting them into necrotons, but also allows auto attraction and pairing of them, just after conduction to a current source, to face the threatening danger of the high energy shocking of electricity, so they are enforced to unify in order to sustain. Furthermore, the current electrons are kept neither disrupted nor interfered, so that they can solidify to form a coherent union that is auto attracted and they get their best situation. The latter union acts as a beam that looks like the laser beam which keeps its energy without any loss, but it requires a wide diameter to exist through it, so superconductors are not be achieved in (thin) wires. It also requires wide diameter of the attached conductor to be transferred into it, so it cannot travel away from the superconductor and the current persists forever. It also should be made of paramagnetic materials in order not to repel with the magnetic electrons of the current. This paper describes the theory of the quantized attraction.

[Badr Amr Yahia. Theory of the quantized attraction. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):35-43]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6.



Keywords: superconductor; cooling; atom magnetic electrons; current.

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Information seeking behavior of faculty of Soura Medical Institute (SKIMS) Kashmir


Ishfaq Ahmad Bhat


Allma Iqbal Library, University of Kashmir

Malikjavaid321@gmail.com, Ishfaqmajeed786@yahoo.com


Abstract: the main purpose of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of doctors of medical institute of Soura. The sample for this study was 100 doctors of medical institute Soura. The self-constructed questionnaire was employed for data collection. It was found that All the users are using library for one or the other reason. However their approach towards the library varies as different users seek information through different sources of information. All the users are consulting both documentary and non-documentary sources of information for seeking information. Non documentary sources of information Like audio visuals are not so much popular among the users, while as they show response towards the microfiche as their library lacks this facility. Majority of the users are more inclined towards internet as the internet has affected the seeking behavior of users because it retrieves current and up to date information. Indexing and abstracting services, catalogues are not being used frequently by the users in the library as the study reveals that the users are not fully aware about the importance of these tools and no response was shown towards OPAC.

[Ishfaq Ahmad Bhat. Information seeking behavior of faculty of Soura Medical Institute (SKIMS) Kashmir. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):44-47]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7



Keyword: Information; behavior; faculty.

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Effect of Phototherapy on Behavior of Jaundiced Neonates


Ebtisam Mohamed El Sayed, Thanaa AliEl Awanyand NohaElsayed Shams Eldeen


Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University



Abstract: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems of the neonatal period. Phototherapy is effective and widely used for treating this problem. It is a noninvasive and safe therapy, however it has short term side effects especially on the behavior of the newborn. Aim: This studyaimed todetermine the effect of phototherapy on the behavior of jaundiced neonates. Materials and Method: The study was conducted on sixty neonates, who were admitted to High risk neonatal unites atTanta University Hospital, El-Mebara and El-Minshawi Hospitals with jaundice. Their gestational age between 37 - 40 weeks. Total serum bilirubin level ranged from 12 - 18 mg/dl, birth weight 2.5-3.5 kg and treated with phototherapy. Data were collected by using socio demographic and clinical datastructured sheet that included; biosocial data of jaundiced neonates and their mothers, bilirubin level and duration of phototherapy and Neonatal behavioral assessment scale ; it developed by Brazelton and Nugent 1995 and modified to assess the neonates' behavior responses before and after phototherapy related to their orientation, social interaction, ranging of state motor system, regulation of state, and reflexes. Results: The main results revealed that nearly one third of studied neonates had low behavioral responses after they received phototherapy and significant correlation between the behavior of jaundiced neonates and their age, birth weight, gender, type of feeding, serum bilirubin level, and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion and recommendation: There were behavioral changed of studied neonates after phototherapy related to their orientation, social interaction, motor response, self quieting, alertness, sleeping and crying.So establishment of health educational program to all nurses in the high risk neonatal unites are strongly recommended to reduce the effects of phototherapy on the behavior of jaundiced neonates.

[Ebtisam Mohamed El Sayed, Thanaa Ali El Awanyand Noha Elsayed Shams Eldeen. Effect of Phototherapy on Behavior of Jaundiced Neonates. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):48-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8



Keyword: phototherapy-jaundice-neonates.

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Study the Effect of Lactobacillus on the Prevalence of Some Aerobic and Anaerobic Microorganisms in Dry Sausage


Amal A. Shehata, 1 Shireen M. Nosier,1 Kawther A. Ismail and Waffaa S. Mohamed2


1 Animal Health Research Institute, 2 National Center for Radiation Research and Technology


Abstract: Fermented foods attributed in improvement of nutritional value and safety against bacterial pathogens. Lactobacillus plantarum sp. (TN 635) was used in fermentation of meat sausage, using meat from the local market in Giza and sterilized by radiation at 10 kGy using the cobalt 60 Egypt Gamma-1 irradiator to obtain complete sterility avoiding any inferring factors during experiment. The prepared sausages were divided into two groups the first was inoculated with Staph. aureus, E.coli and Cl Perfringens and the second was inoculated with L. plantarum with the three pathogenic bacteria under investigation Staph aureus, E.coli, and Cl.perfringens. The assessment of the microbial growth indicated that the effect of L.plantarum decreased E.coli growth on the third day and decreased Staph.aureus on the third day while with Cl.perfringens the decrease was on day 10. The L.plantarum showed marked effect on the Staph.aureus and E.coli growth towards decreasing as it was increasing itself in count. It was observed that it's significant (p< 0.01) higher in count and significant (p>0.01) lower in pH, odor and flavor.

 [Amal A. Shehata, Shireen M. Nosier, Kawther A. Ismail and Waffaa S. Mohamed. Study the Effect of Lactobacillus on the Prevalence of Some Aerobic and Anaerobic Microorganisms in Dry Sausage. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):58-64]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9



Key wards: Dry sausage, L.plantarum, E.coli, Cl.perfringens and Staph.aureus.

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Policies and methods of distribution and physical distribution


د/ محمدنور الطاهر أحمد عبد القادر Dr Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir 1 Dr Mohamed Almoutaz Almojtaba Ibrahim 2.


1 Department of Marketing University, Taif - Saudi Arabia University, Omdurman Islamic –Sudan, 2Department of Accounting and Auditing University, Taif - Saudi Arabia University, Nileen –Sudan.

mohnourtahir@yahoo.com, mohnourtahir@yahoo.com


Abstract: This research aims to know the policies and methods of distribution and physical distribution, as an important element of the marketing mix. The research found that the distribution component of the marketing process is not complete without it and has two types of policies are the distribution of direct and indirect, and each one of their own methods that are used in the distribution of products. As the research that the process of distribution is through a set of channels that are between the producer and the consumer and varies along the channel number of intermediaries between them. As the research and also the distribution process does not take place without the transfer of products through various means of transport, a process of physical distribution of products.

[Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir, Mohamed Almoutaz Almojtaba Ibrahim. Policies and methods of distribution and physical distribution. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):65-76]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10



Keywords: Distribution ; سياسات وأساليب التوزيع والتوزيع الماديPolicies and methods; physical distribution.


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Production of Bioethanol from Palm Oil Mill Effluent using Starter Cultures


*Wakil, Sherifah Monilola; Adelabu, Adebola Blessing; Fasiku, Samuel Adedayo and Onilude, Anthony Abiodun


Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria



Abstract: Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) has great potential as a substrate for acetone, butanol and ethanol fermentation because it contains a mixture of carbohydrates including starch, hemicellulose, sucrose and other carbohydrates that can be utilized by microorganisms. Hence microorganisms were isolated from spontaneously fermenting POME, the predominant strains were selected as starters and the effect of starters singly and in combination for bioethanol production was evaluated/determined. POME was spontaneously fermented for 21 days from which samples were taken every 3 days for analyses of pH, microbial quality, ethanol content, free fatty acid and lipase activity. Microorganisms isolated were characterized and identified. Moulds isolated were strains of Aspergillus and Penicillum genera, yeast were Yarrowia lipolytica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida spp., while bacteria were strains of Bacillus spp. and Micrococus sp. Sterile palm oil mill effluent was fermented with the starter cultures for 12 days and analyzed every 3 days for bioethanol production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while used singly, produced the highest bioethanol (3.70%) concentration. Statistical analysis shows that bioethanol and percentage free fatty acid production by single and combined starter fermented POME is significantly different (P ≤0.05) while lipase production was not significantly different (P≥0.05). The study reveals that fermentation of POME for 12days at room temperature (30+20C) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae singly gives the highest bioethanol concentration. Therefore, the use of starter cultures for fermentation of POME for the production of bioethanol is a potential solution for the control of pollution generated from the annual disposal of POME.

[Wakil, Sherifah Monilola; Adelabu, Adebola Blessing; Fasiku, Samuel Adedayo and Onilude, Anthony Abiodun. Production of Bioethanol from Palm Oil Mill Effluent using Starter Cultures. N Y Sci J 2013;6(3):77-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11



Keywords: Palm-oil mill effluent (POME), fermentation, Bioethanol, Starter culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from 2/5/2013. 
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