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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 50); April 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0604

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

How to Derive The Fine-structure Constant--1/α = Fn/Fe = hC/(2πe2) From Author’s New Black-hole Theory and Formulas?

 

Zhang Dongsheng

zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com

 

Abstract】。What is the fine-structure constant--1/α = hC/(2πe2) = 137.036 ? It has been an important problem not recognized and unsolved by scientists for more 50 years. A Chinese old famous saying: The stones of other hills may be good for making jades.Applying the hydrogen atom as a model and contrast, a proper ratio Fe/Fg between the electrical force Fe and the gravitational force Fg could be really established as a famous Dirac large number Ln = Fe/Fg ≈ 1039, because in a hydrogen atom, either the electron or the proton can be acted by the electrical force Fe and the gravitational force Fg togetherin addition, Fn and Fe have the same acting distance R. Right now, physicists have not found the correct formula or numerical value of nuclear strong force—Fn. Drawing the same mathematical and physical analogy from Ln = Fe/Fg, a special mini black hole of Mbo = 0.711014g can be a better choice as a model, in which each one of all quarks decomposed from protons must be acted by the electrical force Fe and the nuclear strong force Fn together. Thus, the proper ratio Fn/Fe between Fn and Fe can be correctly established and proved that, Fn/Fe should just be the fine-structure constant, and Fn/Fe = 1/α = hC/(2πe2) = 137.036.Richard Feynman once said some words about the fine-structure constant: [It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it... It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of God" wrote that number, and “we don't know how He pushed his pencil.”]

[Zhang Dongsheng. How to Derive The Fine-structure Constant--1/α = Fn/Fe = hC/(2πe2) From Author’s New Black-hole Theory and Formulas? N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.01

 

Key Wordsfine-structure constant Fn/Fe = 1/α = hC/(2πe2) = 137.036the physical meanings of fine-structure constant--1/αDirac large number Fe/Fg = Ln =1039the special mini black hole of Mbo = 0.711014g.

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Outcomes of Hysteroscopic Myomectomy in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital – a retrospective analysis

 

Shalakani A., Hanafi S., Ali M. Sayed *, Abdelhafeez M. A.

 

 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, mohamed_ali906@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the current work is to study the outcomes of hysteroscopic myomectomy at Early Cancer Detection Unit at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital over a 12-year period between 1996 and 2007. Patients and Methods: The current study is a retrospective analysis of outcomes of hysteroscopic myomectomy procedures performed at Early Cancer Detection Unit at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital over a 12-year period between 1996 and 2007. Data were retrieved from patients’ case records available at the Early Cancer Detection Unit. Operative procedure details and notes were obtained from patients’ case records. Patients were contacted directly, through mail and/or phone calls to complete follow-up data, procedure outcomes as well as missing data. Results: A total of 78 women, who underwent hysteroscopic myomectomy during the period between 1996 and 2007, were included in the study. Of the included 78 women, 34 (43.59%) had menorrhagia, 34 (43.59%) had primary infertility, 8 (10.26%) had secondary infertility, 1 (1.28%) had recurrent miscarriage and 1 (1.28%) had amenorrhea. Uterine perforation occurred in 2 (2.57%) cases; both were managed conservatively, with no need for exploration. Cervical lacerations occurred in 2 (2.57%) cases. Excessive bleeding (> 500 ml estimated blood loss) occurred in 1 (1.28%) case. Of the included 78 women, only 25 (32.05%) were accessible for follow-up. Of the accessible 25 women, 10 (40%) had hysteroscopic myomectomy performed for menorrhagia. Of the 10 women who had menorrhagia, 9 (90%) had it resolved. Of the accessible 25 women, 15 (60%) had hysteroscopic myomectomy performed for infertility; of them 7 (46.67%) women got pregnant, while 8 (53.33%) remained infertile. Of the 7 women who got pregnant, 2 had term delivery, 2 had preterm delivery, while 3 had first trimester spontaneous abortion. Conclusion: In conclusion, hysteroscopic myomectomy for either abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility seems to have promising success rates with much low complications rates, and should be offered to all women who have the diagnosis of symptomatic submucous myoma and choose to preserve their fertility as the first line of surgical treatment.

[Shalakani A., Hanafi S., Ali M. Sayed, Abdelhafeez M. A. Outcomes of Hysteroscopic Myomectomy in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital – a retrospective analysis. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):5-9 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.02

 

Keywords: Operative hysteroscopy – hysteroscopic myomectomy – submucous myoma.

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3

Concepts and the foundations تطبيقها of knowledge management and application requirements

 

د/ محمدنور الطاهر أحمد عبد القادر Dr. Mohammednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir 1.

 

1 Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Sciences& Art in Taif University, Saudi Arabia & Department of Business Administration بقسم إدارة الأعمال بكلية العلوم الإدارية, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, –Sudan

mohnourtahir@yahoo.com; mohnourtahir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research aims to know the management of knowledge represents one of the concepts and developments in the field of administrative thought. Its role has become more crucial in the organizations to achieve competitive advantage. Its role has become more crucial in the organizations to achieve competitive advantage. This study is an attempts to cast a light on the main concepts and fundamentals of management of knowledge and its applications. This study is an attempts to cast a light on the main concepts and fundamentals of management of knowledge and its applications. The study showed that the knowledge is cumulative integrated series of requirements made during long periods of time used to tackle specific problems and conditions encountered the organizations while achieving their goals. The study showed that the knowledge is cumulative integrated series of requirements made during long periods of time used to tackle specific problems and conditions encountered the organizations while achieving their goals. It also seeks to obtain and use knowledge in order to attract the intellectual capital and to create effective regulatory environment in organizations. It also seeks to obtain and use knowledge in order to attract the intellectual capital and to create effective regulatory environment in organizations. The study also showed the types of knowledge, characteristics and elements required to be provided for its application and how the knowledge is managed through the identification of the benefits, and management of knowledge to achieve these benefits. The study also showed the types of knowledge, characteristics and elements required to be provided for its application and how the knowledge is managed through the identification of the benefits, and management of knowledge to achieve these benefits.

[Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir,. سياسات وأساليب التوزيع والتوزيع المادي Concepts and the foundations of knowledge management and application requirements. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):10-17]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.03

 

Keywords: knowledge management ; سياسات وأساليب التوزيع والتوزيع المادي Characteristics of knowledge; Concepts and the foundations; knowledge elements. cognitive knowledge.

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4

Impact of Direct Current High Voltage in Three-Level Converters for different areas: Case Study

 

Krati Verma

 

Lecturer, Electrical & Electronics Department, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad

 

Abstract: In this paper we have discussed about the working of three phase high voltage direct current in many fields. The derivation of High voltage TL converter is extended to all DC-to-DC converters, and families of TL converters are proposed in this paper. And High voltage Direct Current allows to power transmission between AC System by distribution systems, and it can increase system stability by preventing cascading failures due to phase instability from propagating from one part of a wider power transmission grid to another. And high-voltage direct current electric power transmission system used in direct current for the bulk transmission of power supply, and here we show the all areas where we used the power transmission of common alternating current systems. 

[Krati Verma. Impact of Direct Current High Voltage in Three-Level Converters for different areas: Case Study. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):18-19 ]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.04

 

Keywords: HVDC, Three Level Converters, Controlling systems, Targets.

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Relationship Between Intrinsic Factors And Aetiology Of Rot In Irish Potato (Solanum-Tuberosum L.) Purchased In Lagos, Nigeria.

 

Akinleye. O.M, Buhari. O.A, Adebisi R.T., Raheem A. R.R., Makanjuola S.O. And Oluwadun Afolabi

 

Department Of Medical Microbiology And Parasitology, Faculty Of Basic Medical Sciences, Olabibi Onabanjo University, P.M.B. 2002; Ago-Iwoye-Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT: Irish potato (I.P) (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber is a nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high fungal spoilage and wastage due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. Therefore, the present work was carried out to isolate and characterize fungal agents of spoilage of I.P and to determine the effectiveness of traditional methods of preserving the I.P. 460 I.Ps were randomly bought from 5 markets in Lagos and stored in 50, in each ampoule under 6 storage conditions using sliced onion, dry pepper, sunlight, room temperature, refrigerator and wood ash. Moisture and ash contents of the I.P were determined using methods recommended by the Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The pH of LP was determined using pH meter while titratable acidity was determined by titration method. The potato rots were cultured on potato dextrose agar and incubated at temperature between 26C to 28C. The fungi isolated were identified using standard cultural and microscopic methods. The total protein analysis of the I.P skin was carried out using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). Fusarium solani has the highest isolation rate 40%, followed by Fusarium oxysporum (26.7%), Aspergillus niger (23.3%) and Penicillium spp (10%). Sliced onion has the highest values of rot (52%) while wood ash has the lowest value of rot (10%). The results also showed that the mean pH value of rotten and un-rotten I.Ps were 5.28 and 6.58 respectively while the mean moisture values of rotten and un-rotten I.Ps were 77.54% and 72.07% respectively. The t-values of intrinsic factors of I.Ps, mean pH and moisture were 4.81 and 14.01% respectively. No significant difference was found between the mean value of pH and moisture contents of I.P (P>0.05). The proteomic analysis of the skin of rotten and un-rotten LPs showed that their relative mobilities were 0.558 and 0.465 respectively while their molecular weights were 38.5kg and 53.0kg respectively. The results of this study showed that the higher the moisture contents the lower the pH value of the I.Ps and also the more the fungal spoilage. Wood ash is recommended to be an appropriate storage technique for I.Ps.

[Akinleye. O.M, Buhari. O.A, Adebisi R.T., Raheem A. R.R., Makanjuola S.O. And Oluwadun Afolabi. Relationship Between Intrinsic Factors And Aetiology Of Rot In Irish Potato (Solanum-Tuberosum L.) Purchased In Lagos, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):20-31]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.05

 

Key word: Irish Potatoes, Fungi, Proteomic Analysis, pH and Moisture contents.

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Combined and Individual action of bioagents and fungicides on seed yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill)

 

Venkatesh M. Kanti*, Neeru Bala, Prashant Kumar Rai**, G.R. Lavanya*, Suresh Babu*

 

*Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture,

Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, (U.P.), India. prashant.rai81@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011, at Field Experimentation Centre, Department Genetics and Plant breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHIATS), Allahabad (U.P). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design along with ten treatments, which were replicated thrice. The treatments included individual and combined treatment of bioagents (Rhizobium, Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis, VAM) and fungicides (Thiram and Carbendazim). This study showed that the seeds treated with combinations of bioagents (Rhizobium @ 30 g/kg seed+Bacillus subtilis @ 30 g/kg seed+VAM @ 15 kg/ha+Trichoderma viride @10 g/kg) recorded significantly higher field emergence (88.33%), days to 50% flowering (34.33 days), plant height at harvest (48.57 cm), number of pods (61.70 at harvest), seed index (9.27 g), seed yield (11.46 g plant-1 and 25.47 q ha-1) and benefit: cost ratio (2.70).

[Venkatesh M. Kanti, Neeru Bala, Prashant Kumar Rai, G.R. Lavanya, Suresh Babu. Combined and Individual action of bioagents and fungicides on seed yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):32-35]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.06

 

Keywords: Soybean, bioagents fungicides and seed yield.

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Molecular characterization of salt tolerant rhizobiaL strains induced by gamma rays using RAPD markers

 

Mohamed M. Hassan1,2 and Ragaa A. Eissa2

 

1Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Research Center, Scientific Research Deanship, Taif University, KSA.

2 Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya University, Egypt.

khyate_99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rhizobia are soil-borne bacteria that form nodules with legume roots and convert nitrogen into ammonia. Legume plants are often a major part of native or agricultural ecosystems, which increas nitrogen in low fertility soils, e.g. saline soils. The major target of this study was to characterize salt-tolerant rhizobial strains with high symbiotic efficiency. We choose ten strains of rhizobia that were previously mutagenized. Obtained results showed that 40 krad was the highest dose of gamma rays supported by tested strains. The irradiated clones at 50 krad were more tolerant to salt stress compared to control strains, which proved that gamma irradiation was effective in changing physiological and phenotypic characteristics via random mutations. The rhizobial strains treated with gamma rays were investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles to differentiate the DNA patterns among gamma treated rhizobia and parental strains. The RAPD profiles showed different, similar or even the same RAPD patterns for both types of rhizobial strains. The increase of N2 fixation parameters with some mutants was related to tolerance acquisition that protects effective symbiosis against damage induced by abiotic stresses. Inoculation with mutant isolates resulted in higher total nitrogen content than parental strains. According to the results of this study it can be recommended that inoculation of Vicia faba with effective Rhizobium strains can result in significant increase in yield due to higher nitrogen fixation ability.

 [Mohamed M. Hassan and Ragaa A. Eissa. Molecular characterization of salt tolerant rhizobiaL strains induced by gamma rays using RAPD markers. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):36-41]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.07

 

Keywords: Rhizobium leguminosarium, gamma rays, Salinity, RAPD.

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8

Fish seed production and hatchery management: A Review

 

Anil Bisht, Shalini Anand, Sushil Bhadula and Deepak Kumar Pal

 

Department of Zoology, Uttaranchal College of Science and Technology,

Dehradun. sushil86.ntl@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fish is the most important source of animal protein food for the human population and the potential of fish culture production from ponds, floating cages and various other small water bodies in India is great. The supply of quality fish seed is a key factor to the expansion of fish farming. Fish seed demand at present is strong, unsatisfied and expected to expand and fish seed business in India is profitable. This review, based on existing literature and field survey, provides clear understanding of the current status of freshwater fish seed resources for aquaculture development in Uttarakhand. The review includes information relating to: (i) fish seed resources and supply, (ii) fish seed production facilities and seed technology, (iii) fish seed management and seed quality, (iv) Induced breeding. Based on the above information, the emerging challenges in Uttarakhand freshwater fish seed sector are identified as: (1) broodstock management and species identification, (2) human capacity and training needs, (3) monitoring and evaluation, and indicators.

[Anil Bisht, Shalini Anand, Sushil Bhadula and Deepak Kumar Pal. Fish seed production and hatchery management: A Review. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):42-48]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.08

 

Keywords: Fish; seed; production; hatchery; management.

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Microbiological assessment of three types of fresh fish (Tilapia niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Hydrocynus spp.) sold in Ed Dueim, Sudan.

 

Arafat Mohammed Goja

 

Department of Food Science & Technology

Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Bakht Alruda, Ed Dueim, Sudan.

E-mail: arafatmohammed9@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of fish and hygienic status of fisher market in Ed Dueim city, White Nile state, Sudan. Three fishes were selected, commonly named Polti (Tilapia niloticus), Debs (Labeo niloticus) and Kass (Hydrocynus spp.). Viable bacterial count was determined by Pour plate method, while coliform and fecal coliform were determined according to the Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques. Total Viable counts of bacteria and Staphylococci in fishes Skin were ranged from 2.8 x 103 to 9.8 x 104cfu/g and 0.0 to 7.2 x 102 cfu/g, respectively. The total count of Yeast and Moulds ranged from 0.0 to 5.3 x 102cfu/g while coliform and fecal coliforms were ranged from 15 to 120MPN/100g and 3 to 95MPN/100g, respectively. However, in fish’s intestine the viable bacteria, Staphylococci and (Yeats & Moulds) counts were ranged from 1.5 x 103 to 8.4 x 104cfu/g, 0.0 to 8.0 x 102cfu/g and 0.0cfu/g to 3.7 x 103cfu/g, respectively. Total coliform and fecal coliform were ranged from 20 to 150MPN/100g and 0.0 to 75MPN/100g, respectively. The results revealed 8 genera of bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter and Moraxella in Skin's samples. The same genera were obtained from intestine samples. Among these isolates, Enterobacteriaceae [13(22.0%), 13(21.0%)] was the most prevalence isolated from skin and intestine, respectively. However, the least dominant isolate was Acinetobacter 2(3.4%) in skin and Moraxella 4(6.4%) in the intestine. The results also showed the detection of Samlonella and Shigella indifferent rate in some fish samples (skin and intestine). According to the finding from this study, the fishes examined were potentially contaminated with the pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, fishes should be appropriate handling, cleaned, washed and cooked before consumption.

[Arafat Mohammed Goja. Microbiological assessment of three types of fresh fish (Tilapia niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Hydrocynus spp.) sold in Ed Dueim, Sudan. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):49-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.09

 

Keywords: Fish, Kass, Enterobacteriaceae, Ed Dueim.

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10

Investigating the Development Challenges to Siwa Oasis, Northwestern Desert, Egypt

 

Mohamed Fahmy M. El Hossary

 

RIGW, NWRC. melhossary62@ymail.com

 

Abstract: This research was initiated with the objective of developing water management strategies to Siwa Oasis to ensure its sustainable development. This is carried out by proposing and testing chain water management scenarios that makes use of suitable water (multiple reuses) before it reaches the last disposal point. The results indicated that this specific type of water management can add about 9,000 feddans to the presently cultivated area in Siwa Oasis as a result of water saving without any additional groundwater. Accordingly, the productivity of each unit of groundwater will be achieved along with reducing the non-productive area which is presently occupied by the salt lakes.

[Mohamed Fahmy M. El Hossary. Investigating the Development Challenges to Siwa Oasis, Northwestern Desert, Egypt. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):55-61]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.10

 

Keywords: Development; Challenges; Siwa Oasis, Desert; Egypt

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The Relationship between Balanced Scorecard Characteristics and Innovation: Evidence from Egypt

 

Fahim Abo-Alazm Mohamed

 

Department of Accounting, Suez Institute for Management Information Systems in Egypt. Fahim_721@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the relationship between characteristics of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and innovation. To this end, BSC literature is reviewed and then three basic characteristics are extracted: diversity of performance measures, balanced use of performance measures, and strategic linkage of performance measures. Based on the premises of the relationships between each characteristic of BSC and innovation, three hypotheses are formulated. The hypotheses are empirically investigated by data collected from most active one hundred companies listed in Egyptian Stock Exchange. Findings indicate that diversity of performance measures is not sufficient in itself to stimulate innovation, unless both financial and nonfinancial measures are used in a balanced manner, and causally linked to the firm’s strategy. This is consistent with BSC philosophy. The results also indicate that Egyptian companies still give priority to financial metrics over nonfinancial metrics. This weakens the ability of these companies to innovate. The study also reveals that financial metrics are not associated with innovation unlike nonfinancial metrics.

[Mohamed FA. The Relationship between Balanced Scorecard Characteristics and Innovation: Evidence from Egypt. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):62-73]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.11

 

Keywords: Balanced scorecard; innovation; performance measures.

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Examination of the Lifespan of Unknown Complicated Systems

 

Hossein Safari 1, Tahereh Keshavarzi 2, Abdol Hossein Jafarzadeh 3, Mehdi Ajalli Gheshlajoughi 4

 

1 Associated Professor, Faculty of management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Email: hsafari@ut.ac.ir

2 M.S. Candidate of business Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 M.S. Candidate of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Member of Department of Industrial Management, University of Abdolrahman SufiRazi

 

Abstract: Human beings are living in an epoch which has intrinsic complexities. Complexity is a crucial factor both in natural phenomenon and the manmade ones. We ought to be acquainted with complicated matters to encounter the extant world and to know ways of dealing with it. Once there was an epoch in which Kepler, Galileo and Newton’s discoveries definite scientific features ruled the world of science. Some hypothecations denoted that physical apparatuses are pinpoint able. Therefore it is feasible to foresee their future based upon their past conditions. Such hypotheses opened novel vents in the ruling paradigms of that epoch. They congregated plenty of followers around themselves. Such conclusive views were attractive and thrilling not only for pundits but also for the canaille. They heralded a reliable predictable future. These attitudes evinced that there was no unreliability and everything abided by the cause-and-effect pattern. Einstein’s relativity hypothesis which was actually a generalized version of Newtonian mechanics furthered the prognosticated features of phenomena. The predicament named “undeterminedness” was propounded in the quantum physics. We happen upon some phenomena in quantum physics whose future situation portending is difficult even if a precise quantification contraption is utilized. These are the circumstances in which we ought to resort to statistics and probabilities. Once Heisenberg promulgated that human beings will never be capable of overcoming the undeterminedness tenet as long as quantum mechanics is valid. Some endeavors are made in this article to define three concepts named “chaos”, “complexity” and “catastrophe” in the nundination settings to counteract such conditions. Organizational sensibleness in a complicated setting is collated with Adizes organizational maturity level.

[Hossein Safari, Tahereh Keshavarzi, Abdol Hossein Jafarzadeh, Mehdi Ajalli Gheshlajoughi. Examination of the Lifespan of Unknown Complicated Systems. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):74-84]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.12

 

Key Words: Turbulence, Complexity, Catastrophe, Organizational Maturity, Artificial Neural Agile System.

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Effect of industrial waste discharges including heavy metals in Burullus lake on some physiological and antioxidants in Tillapia niloticus and Siluriformes fish

 

Diaa Farrag Ibrahim Ahmed

 

Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

elharamain3@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Most heavy metals have toxic effects and impair function of many animal organs when accumulates inside. In case of fish which consider source of protein to human, heavy metals which accumulates inside its organs transported to human and accumulates inside his organs resulting in organ injury threaten his live. Because burullus lake is polluted with industrial waste products and because fish present in this polluted water and can’t escape so, the aim is to assess effect of this pollution on fish organs and assessment of heavy metals impairments. Materials and Methods: two fish species from two different water Burullus lake and Bahr Tira canal as control used to assess kidney and liver function and antioxidants in muscles and gills also heavy metals were assessed in water of two different regions and both muscles and gills. Results: show increase of liver and kidney function tests level and decrease in catalase and glutathione reduced activity in both gills and muscles in addition to elevation of heavy metals levels in burullus lake specimens than Bahr Tira canal specimens. Also some heavy metals show elevation in gills and muscles of fish taken from Burullus lake as general.

[Ahmed D.F.I. Effect of industrial waste discharges including heavy metals in Burullus lake on some physiological and antioxidants in Tillapia niloticus and Siluriformes fish. N Y Sci J 2013;6(4):85-92]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys060413.13

 

Keywords: Industrial waste; Heavy metals; Burullus lake; Antioxidants; Kidney; Liver; Fish

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 2, 2013. 
 
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