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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 53); July 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0607

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Flux Enhancement by Shear Free Surfaces in a Turbulent Convection

 

Sachin Sirohi

 

 Sr. Lecturer Department of Mechanical

D.J. College of Engineering, Modinagar

 

Abstract: In experimental study of a new type of turbulent flow that is driven purely by buoyancy. The flow is due to an unstable density difference, created using brine and water, across the ends of a long (length/diameter=10) vertical pipe. The Rayleigh number (Ra) based on the density gradient and diameter is about 108. Under these conditions the convection is turbulent, and the time-averaged velocity at any point is 'zero'. The pipe is long enough for there to be an axially homogeneous region, with a linear density gradient, about 6-7 diameters long in the midlength of the pipe. In the absence of a mean flow and, therefore, mean shear, turbulence is sustained just by buoyancy. The flow can be thus considered to be an axially homogeneous turbulent natural convection driven by a constant (unstable) density gradient. We characterize the flow using flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Measurements show that the mean velocities and the Reynolds shear stresses are zero across the cross-section; the root mean squared (r.m.s.) of the vertical velocity is larger than those of the lateral velocities (by about one and half times at the pipe axis). The flow away from the wall, affected mainly by buoyancy, consists of vertically moving fluid masses continually colliding and interacting, while the flow near the wall appears similar to that in wall-bound shear-free turbulence. obtain the results when the shear free surfaces introduce in vertically concentric with the pipe.
[Sachin Sirohi. Flux Enhancement by Shear Free Surfaces in a Turbulent Convection.
N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.01

 

Key word: Fluid mechanics, turbulent flow, shear surfaces

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Biological Control of Some Species of Land Snails Infesting Citrus Trees

 

Sabha M. El-Sabbagh1, Adayel S. A.,2 Elmasry S. A.,3 and Alazazy H. M.3

 

1Faculty of Science, Menoufya University, 2Animal Health Research Institute, 3Plant Protection Research Institute, Zagazig, Egypt

 

Abstract: The microorganisms which present on shells, gastropods, and juveniles at Monacha cartusiana snails were studied. The result recorded that 7 genera of fungi (Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Blastomyces, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Candida) and 5 genera of bacteria (B. thuringiensis (Bt), E. coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsilla and Shigella) were isolated from the snails. Post-treatment in laboratory 3 x 105 spores/ml of Aspergillus flavus causing highest mortality 30% to M. cartusiana snails. B. thuringiensis causing 100% mortality to M. cartusiana in laboratory treatment. Using the morphological and biochemical tests B. thuringiensis was identified as B. thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki (ES+, Sa+, Le+, Su-) on whole isolate. The analysis of nucleotide sequence of 16s rDNA confirmed that the 8 tested local Bt isolates was belonged to B. thuringiensis. Parasporal bodies of B. thuringiensis isolate had biological activity when assayed against M. cartusiana snails. The protein composition of parasporal bodies 140 Kilo Dalton (KDa). Parasporal bodies caused mortality reached 100% to M. cartusiana snails by concentration 7.8 mg/ml. Field application of B. thuringiensis as toxic spray on citrus trees of infected parts with adults of M. cartusiana snails by using 2 x 103 cfu/ml showed that mortality reached 89% of snails within 21 day.

[Sabha M. El-Sabbagh, Adayel S. A., Elmasry S. A., and Alazazy H. M. Biological Control of Some Species of Land Snails Infesting Citrus Trees. New York Science Journal 2013;6(7):5-12]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.02

 

Keywords: land snails, B. thuringiensis, citrus tree, citrus fungus, citrus bacteria

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In-vitro combined treatments of cypermethrin and ultraviolet irradiation in rat lymphocytes culture

 

Mohamed A. Noaishi*

 
*Mammalian Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt.
noaishi@gmail.com


Abstract:
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of UV-irradiation to increase the mutagenic effect of synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin. The study was performed in rat lymphocyte cultures to investigate the mutagenic effect of this irradiation. The chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay has been used to evaluate the genotoxicity of these treatments. Artificial UV irradiation at 254nm was used. The exposure periods were 60 and 120 min as short and long exposure times. Two concentrations level of commercial cypermethrin (cyperko 20% EC) were used. The treatments were performed as individual of cypermethrin or UV-irradiation exposure and in combination between them. Results of our study revealed that the individual treatment of cypermethrin showed slight significant increase (p <0.05) at low concentration dose 10g/ml and highly significant (p <0.001) at high concentration dose 20g/ml. The individual exposure to UV-irradiation showed significant increase (p <0.05) only at long exposure time. Furthermore the results of combined exposure between cypermethrin UV-irradiation made synergistic action effect that obvious at low dose 10g/ml of cypermethrin with UV-irradiation (60 min) induced significant increase (p <0.01) than their effects of each alone. More addition the combination at high dose 20g/ml and long exposure time (120 min) induced highly significant increase (p <0.001). It could be concluded that the confirmation of well known effects of UV-radiation in DNA damage and the concentration of cypermethrin that are low genotoxic in individual treatment can cause harmful mutagenic effect when combined with exposure to UV-radiation. So, the workers or farmers, working all time in the open field and subjected to sun light and exposed to the pesticides contamination may be at high risk if they are not protected by safety measures when exposure to these combined mutagens.

[Mohamed A. Noaishi. In-vitro combined treatments of cypermethrin and ultraviolet irradiation in rat lymphocytes culture. New York Science Journal 2013;6(7):13-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.03

 

Keyword: Ultraviolet, irradiation, cypermethrin, lymphocytes, rat, chromosomal aberrations.

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Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) seropositivity in a cohort of people living with HIV and AIDS in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria

 

1Ojo DA, 1&2Akingbade OA, 3Okerentugba PO, and 3Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: daojo3@yahoo.com; Tel: +234803 392 8703

2Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

3Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: Viral hepatitis is also a major public health concern as hepatitis B virus (HBV) afflicts an estimated 350 million people, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects 150 million people worldwide. Therefore, this study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of HCV seropositivity in a cohort of people living with HIV and AIDS in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. In this cohort study, we collected blood samples from 183 HIV-positive patients between January 2012 and January 2013. Standard enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the serological prevalence of hepatitis C virus among HIV-positive individuals. Among the HIV positive individuals, we found that 43 patients were infected with hepatitis C virus. The overall HCV-HIV prevalence is 23.5%. The result showed a significance difference (P<0.05) between HIV-infected subjects and subjects positive to HCV. A higher percentage of males (28.9%) were infected with HCV than females (19.0%). The highest HIV prevalence (53.3%) was observed in age groups 55 years and above. The findings of this present study have demonstrated that co-infection of HIV and HCV is on the increase in Nigeria. Thus, the phenomenon of HIV and HCV co-infection is a cause for concern.

[Ojo DA, Akingbade OA, Okerentugba PO, and Okonko IO. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) seropositivity in a cohort of people living with HIV and AIDS in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):19-23]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.04

 

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, HCV, Cohort study, Prevalence, Nigeria.

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Purification and Characterization of Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Somatic Antigens Collected from Naturally Infected Local Fish Schizothorax.

 

Sumayya Nazir1, Md. Niamat Ali 1*, M. Z. Chishti2

 

1P. G. Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar- 190006, India

2Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar- 190006, India

 *Corresponding author: Md. Niamat Ali; Tel: +91 9796754654; E-mail: mdniamat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation deals with the fish intestinal parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis isolated from local fish species Schizothorax. The host fish were collected from two study sites viz the Dal Lake and the River Jhelum, Srinagar, India. The Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis were subjected to immunological studies, especially to reveal the nature of their somatic antigens. The nature of somatic antigens was studied by affinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE and their antigenic properties were also confirmed by Ouchterlony double diffusion test (ODD). A total of 363 fish specimens were collected and out of which 94 specimens were found to harbor the Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis constituting an overall prevalence of 25.89%. SDS-PAGE of partially purified somatic antigens of Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis through affinity chromatography resolved into five prominent polypeptides of molecular weight ranging from 29-66 kDa by using the known molecular weight marker. Furthermore, the antigenicity of the purified antigens was confirmed in ODD against hyper immune sera raised in rabbit and with homogenous immune sera of naturally infected fish. Only one precipitation arch was formed against hyper immune sera and many precipitation arches were formed against homogenous immune sera.

[Sumayya Nazir, Md. Niamat Ali, M. Z. Chishti. Purification and Characterization of Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Somatic Antigens Collected from Naturally Infected Local Fish Schizothorax. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):24-28]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.05

 

Keywords: Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis, affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE, Ouchterlony double diffusion test (ODD).

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Pregnant Women Concept Regarding Electromagnetic Effect of Home Devices

 

Nadia M. Fahmy, Sahar M. Soliman, Ghada H. Hamed

 

Maternity and Neonatal Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

saharmossasoliman@yahoo.com; ghadahemdan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Descriptive study to study pregnant women concept regarding electromagnetic effect of home devices, was conducted at outpatient clinics of Ain Shams University Maternity hospital, through using Simple random sample technique through registered follow up book of antenatal care. A total of 210 pregnant women were subjected to the following criteria: Had at least two categories electromagnetic devices, Can read & write, Different age group and socio-economic levels, Free from any problems or medical complications. data were collected through two tools, Arabic Questionnaire Sheet, and Three Levels Likert attitude scale . Result of study illustrated that majority of women had incomplete concept about electromagnetic effect of home devices. the study concluded that, There are incomplete knowledge and negative attitude toward electromagnetic effect of home devices. recommendation Include the electromagnetic effect in curriculum of nursing maternity, Designing a training program for outpatient nurses about electromagnetic effect to improve pregnant women knowledge and attitudes and further researches are still needed to educate women safety measures for using electromagnetic home devices.

[Nadia M, Fahmy, Sahar M, Soliman, Ghada H, Hamed.. Pregnant Women concept regarding electromagnetic effect of home device. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):29-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork.. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.06

 

Key words: Pregnancy, electromagnetic effect.

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 Synthesis and characterization of smart acrylamide nanocomposite hydrogel

 

Fateme Akbari Razin, Ahamd Amirshaghaghi

 

Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahar Branch-Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

Fa_Akbari2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid ) [Poly(AAm-co-AAc)] hydrogel was prepared by copolymerising acrylamide (90-100 mol) with acrylic acid ( 0-10 mol). In this work monomers acrylamide, acrylic acid, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (cross linker), persulphates (initiator) and N,N,N',N'-tetra methyl ethyl diamine (accelerator) are used to obtain gel at room temperature. Highly stable and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles have been obtained with hydrogel networks as nanoreactors via in situ reduction of silver nitrate (Ag/Tio2). The pH value of each solution was obtained by adding either hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. The hydrogels were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

[Akbari Razin F, Amirshaghaghi A. Synthesis and characterization of smart acrylamide nanocomposite hydrogel. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):34-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. .7

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.07

 

Keywords: Hydrogel; Swelling behavior; pH sensitive hydrogel; Silver nanoparticles.

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8

Microbiological Analysis Of Kilishi Sold In Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Okonko IO1, Odu NN1 and IGBOH IE1

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891

 

Abstract: The microbial quality of kilishi obtained from two different producers (Local and Princess Rose Logg Company) in Port Harcourt City metropolis, Nigeria was determined to ascertain its safety for consumption. The total bacteria count was determined for both samples. The sample from the Local producer had the higher bacteria count of 4.32x103 cfu/g, while the sample from the company had a lower bacteria count of 2.1x102 cfu/g. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus species and the fungi isolated were Botryodiplodia theobromae. No Vibrio species, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was isolated from the Kilishi used in this study. The presence of Bacillus species is used as an index of bacteriological quality. The diversity of isolates from the samples tested is an indication of its low microbiological quality and poor hygienic practices. Microbiological analyses are therefore recommended for both pre-and post-production stages. [Okonko IO, Odu NN and IGBOH IE. Microbiological Analysis of Kilishi Sold In Port Harcourt, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):37-43]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.08

 

Keywords: Bacillus species, Botryodiplodia theobromae, kilishi, total viable count, Nigeria.

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Body Conformation, Testicular and Semen Characteristics as Influenced by Age, Hair Type and Body Condition of Red Sokoto Goat

 

Akpa, G. N., Ambali, A. L.* and Suleiman, I. O.

 

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author, email: ambali.lekan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the influence of age, hair type and body condition score on body and testicular measurements, and semen characteristics using 31 Red Sokoto bucks. The ages of the bucks were categorized into four; 9-12, 13-16, 17-20 and 21-24 months. The hair types which were determined through touching and feeling were categorized according to the length and texture of the hairs as thus; short-smooth (SS) and long-curly (LC). The body condition was scored on a scale of 1 to 5 and then used to categorize the bucks into score 3 and 4. The linear body measurements {heart girth (HG), stature (ST), chest width (CW), withers height (WH), body depth (BD), body length (BL) and rump width (RW)} were measured in centimeters (cm) using flexible tape. The testicular measurements {testicular length (TL), testicular circumference (TC), were measured using flexible tape while testicular width (TW) and testicular weight (TWT) were estimated using the appropriate formulae}. The semen characteristics {semen volume, sperm motility, semen pH, sperm concentration and live and dead ratio were all determined accordingly). The study lasted for one year (July, 2011 – June, 2012). The results showed that the mean BW, HG, ST, CW, WH, BD, BL and RW were 15.02Kg, 59.9cm, 54.95cm, 8.37cm, 53.41cm, 32.86cm, 57.35cm and 17.03cm, respectively. Age and BCS significantly (P<0.01) influenced body weight, body conformation and testicular traits, but had a variable influence on semen characteristics. The BW, body conformation and testicular traits increased with increase in age of the bucks. Hair type had no influence on body weight, body conformation traits and semen characteristics but had influence (P<0.01) on some testicular traits. Bucks with BCS (4) were bigger in size (HG, ST, WH, BL,RW) and weighed more (BW) and had scrotum that are longer (TL), broader (TC), wider (TW) and heavier (TWT); hence producing more semen (SV) than those with BCS (3). The short-smooth haired bucks gave a better testicular dimension than the long-curly haired bucks. The results therefore, suggest that increase in age and body condition score may result into an increase in body and testicular size while hair type could be used as a predictor of testicular dimensions in Red Sokoto goat.

[Akpa G.N, Ambali A.L, Suleiman I.O. Body Conformation, Testicular and Semen Characteristics as Influenced by Age, Hair Type and Body Condition of Red Sokoto Goat. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):44-58]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.09

 

Keywords: Red Sokoto Goat; Semen; Age; Body conformation; Hair type; Body condition score

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Case reports In abdominal pain

 

Abdullah Elttayef Jasim.

 

Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Ibn Sina College of Medicine, Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq

drabdul1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Abdominal epilepsy is an uncommon syndrome in which gastrointestinal complaint result from seizure activity (1). It is well documented among children but is recognized only infrequently in adult (2). Abdominal symptoms are one of the most common initial symptoms of complex partial seizures. The cortical representation of autonomic innervation is usually localized in the insula. Epileptic focus in this locality can very rarely cause epileptic seizures with abdominal symptoms without any other features typical of epilepsy (3). Three cases of abdominal epilepsy in adult were reported in my private clinic depending on proper history taken, clinical examination and exclusion of any underline organic cause by several investigation including EEG test. All these cases respond to anticonvulsant therapy without any recurrent of symptoms for several month which support the diagnosis.

[Abdullah Elttayef Jasim. Case reports In abdominal pain. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):59-60]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.10

 

Keyword; Abdominal epilepsy

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Evidence of Some Tectonic Events in Koton Karifi, North-Central Nigeria, from Aeromagnetic Data.

 

Abdulsalam N.N. 1, Mallam A. 2, Ologe O. 3

 

1, 2 Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3 Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria

nassnaeem@gmail.com, toyin.ologe@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Total field aeromagnetic anomaly data obtained for the Koton-Karifi area, Nigeria were used for the present study. The original data were part of the aeromagnetic map of the total magnetic field intensity in half-degree sheet acquired from the Nigerian Geological survey Agency (NGSA). The superimposed ground – levelled aeromagnetic anomaly map on the geology of the area suggests a NE-SW fault line, marking a boundary between the migmatites and granitoids. It is therefore suggested that the metamorphic phase change at this boundary was a major tectonic event in the area.

[Abdulsalam N.N., Mallam A., Ologe O. Evidence of Some Tectonic Events in Koton Karifi, North-Central Nigeria, from Aeromagnetic Data. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):61-70]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.11

 

Keywords: Horizontal ground level; geology; fault; fracture; super impose.

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Some Bacteriological and Biochemical Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Buffaloes

Aliaa A. E. Mohamed, Ahlam K.A Wahba, Ragaa A.S.R. Faisal2 and Yousreya H. M

Buffalo Diseases Research Department, 2Biochemistry Department and 3Mycoplasma Department, Animal Health Research Institute Dokki-Giza-Egypt. Aliaa.abdelrahman27@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of (180) positive california mastitis test (CMT) out of (240)buffalo milk samples collected from (60) cases of subclinically mastitic dairy Egyption buffaloes were examined bacteriologically for the detection of the causative microbial agent including Mycoplasma species.Comparison of different diagnostic procedures including culture techniques, CMT, polymerase chain reaction(PCR), evaluate the role of milk serum enzymes (Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Lactate Dehydroginase (LDH), Gamma Glutamyle Transferase (GGT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)) as well as electrophoretic pattern in whey milk were studed.The result of this study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria followed by Escherichia coli then Streptococcus agalactiae, while Mycoplasma bovis was the most detected mycoplasma species. All the isolates were sensitive to Streptomycin, Amikacin, Gentamycin and Ofloxacin. On the other hand, negative isolates were sensitive to Colistin and Ciprofloxacin. All isolates were resistant to Ampicillin and Tetracycline. Milk serum biochemical studies revealed that GGT, LDH and ALP activities were increased significantly in subclinically mastitic buffalo’s whey milk. However, the concentration of AST was insignificant compared to its concentration in healthy buffalo’s whey milk. The electrophoretic pattern of whey milk protein recorded five fractions. Mastitis caused a significant increase in non-casein protein concentration of whey milk. Also, the protein content of serum albumin and immunoglobulin in whey milk increased in mastitic buffaloes compared with healthy ones. Alternatively, the major whey proteins (beta-globulin and alpha globulin) were significantly decreased. Based on the current study, it could be concluded that despite of California mastitis test (CMT) is still the gold standard for SCM diagnosis, the changes in the whey milk enzymes’ activities that associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria and mycoplasma species in subclinically mastitic buffaloes are associated with SCM.Therefore, such milk enzymatic changes could be used as indicators for SCM (especially in early lactation and dry periods where CMT could not be detected it in such periods. [Aliaa A. E. Mohamed, Ahlam K.A Wahba, Ragaa A.S.R. faisal and Yousreya H.M. Some Bacteriological and Biochemical Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Buffaloes. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):71-79]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.12

 

Keywords: Buffalo, subclinical mastitis, PCR, whey milk, enzymes activity, bacterial causes, mycoplasmal causes, electrophoretic pattern.

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Bacterial Causes of Renal Affection Associated With Pathological Changes in Buffalo Calves with Special Reference to Streptococcus Faecalis

 

Sarfinaz S. Abd Elghany, Ahlam K. A. Wahba and Aliaa A. E. Mohamed

 

Buffalo diseases Research Department, Animal Health Research Institute Dokki- Giza-Egypt

ahlamwahba@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fifty urinary tract-infected cases were obtained from slaughtered buffalo calves aged 2-6 months at Cairo abattoirs during the period from May, 2012 to December, 2012. Specimens from the infected tissues (urinary bladders, ureters and kidneys) were subjected to bacteriological and pathological examinations. The bacteriological examination revealed that bacterial pathogens had been isolated including Staphylococcus aureus (22%), Enterococcus faecalis (10%), Escherichia coli (10%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2%) as single infection, while the mixed infections were (E. faecalis+Staph) (4%), (E. faecalis+Klebsiella spp.) (8%), (Staph.+E.coli) (6%), and (E.coli+Coryne) (2%) and the negative samples for bacteriological examinations were (36%). The virulence factors among the Enterococcus faecalis isolates were 37.5%, 50%, 12.5%, and 75.% for Haemolysin, Gelatinase, Aggregation factor and Biofilm formation, respectively. Antibiogram technique was applied for all isolates and it revealed that all the isolates were sensitive for Streptomycin, Amikacin, Gentamycin and Ofloxacin, while gram negative isolates were sensitive for Colistin and Ciprofloxacin, and all isolates were resist Ampicillin and Tetracycline. Meanwhile, the pathological findings could be classified the urinary affections into acute and chronic cystitis with focal ureteritis and nephrolithiasis. Acute cystitis was either hemorrhagic with intense aggregation of erythrocytes inside the lumen and lamina propria of urinary bladder, ulcerative and necrotic types. The chronic cystitis was follicular and suppurative types. The kidneys showed multiple stones with cystic dilation of the renal tubules and pyelonephritis.

[Sarfinaz S. Abd Elghany, Ahlam K. A. Wahba and Aliaa A. E. Mohamed. Bacterial Causes of Renal Affection Associated With Pathological Changes in Buffalo Calves with Special Reference to Streptococcus Faecalis. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):80-90]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.13

 

Keywords: bacteria causing urinary tract affection-pathology of the urinary tracts-E.faecalis

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Amino acid composition and short-term toxicological evaluation of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed cake in rat diet

 

Ibironke A. Ajayi*, Raji A. Adewale

 

Industrial Chemistry unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

frajayi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The amino acid composition and short-term toxicological evaluation of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed cake (AHSC) in rat diet was carried out in order to determine its suitability for animal feed/human consumption. The mean values obtained for the proximate composition of the seed cake were moisture: 12.34 0.78 %, ash: 3.79 0.34 %, crude protein: 15.10 0.79 %, crude fibre: 6.09 0.04 %, crude fat: 1.20 0.02 % and carbohydrate: 62.68 0. 25 % while compounded feed gave moisture: 9.26 0.57 %, ash: 9.73 0.01 %, crude protein: 22.11 0.31 %, crude fibre: 6.33 0.11 % and carbohydrates: 45.30 0.25 %. The amino acid content of the seed cake was as high as 74.526 g/100g for both essential and minor amino acids. The phytochemical screening of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed cake indicated the presence of some secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and carbohydrates. Albino rats were fed with feed that was compounded with 7.08 % of AHSC as total replacement for corn bran in the control group for six weeks. The rats were looking normal throughout the duration of the experiment and no mortality was recorded. There was no significant difference between the heamatological result of the test and control rats. Histopathological analysis revealed no lesion in the heart, liver and kidney of the experimental rats. Artocarpus heterophyllus seed cake seemed to be suitable for animal feed/human consumption.

[Ibironke A. Ajayi, Raji A. Adewale. Amino acid composition and short-term toxicological evaluation of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed cake in rat diet. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):91-98]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.14

 

Key words: Amino acid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, phytochemical, seed cake, toxicology

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A Theoretical Study on the Effect of Substituent on the Properties of Pyrrole and Thiophene

 

Isaiah, A. Adejoro and Collins, U. Ibeji*

 

Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

E-mail: ibejicollins@yahoo.com; Phone: +2348063653002

 

Abstract: In this study we have investigated a theoretical study on the structural, opto-electronic and conducting properties of two conjugated polymers. The purpose is to display the effect of replacing H atoms with -CN (cyano) and >C═O (carbonyl) groups on their properties. In order to propose a method to describe the electronic properties and molecular geometry of these polymers, we have used the following methods to estimate the band gaps: Semi-empirical AM1, ab-initio HF/6-31G and Density Functional Theory BLYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G*. The substitution of these groups destabilized the HOMO and LUMO levels, decreased the band gaps, and increased the conjugation length, which are essential features in the design of low band gap conducting polymers.

[Isaiah, A. Adejoro and Collins, U. Ibeji. A Theoretical Study on the Effect of Substituent on the Properties of Pyrrole and Thiophene. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):99-105]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.15

 

Keywords HOMO, LUMO, Band gap, Density Functional theory, Semi-empirical, Conducting polymers

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Bacterial flora of Cultured Catfish Fed with Poultry Hatchery Waste from selected Farms in Ibadan Southwestern Nigeria

 

Monday Onwenefah and Olufemi Bolarinwa Adedeji

 

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Oluadedeji2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hatchery waste comprises empty shells, infertile eggs, dead embryos, late hatchings, dead chickens, a viscows liquid from eggs and decaying tissue which is used as a cheap fish feed by some farmers. From these animal based feedstuffs, there is a possibility of hazard arising from the presence of viable and contaminating microorganisms. Microbial quality of poultry hatchery wastes from three selected commercial poultry hatchery units and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed hatchery waste obtained from five purposively selected aquaculture farms in three local government areas in Ibadan Southwest Nigeria were studied using standard microbiological methods. The result obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The total bacterial count obtained ranged from 1.2 x 105 to 4.6 x 106 cfu/g and 1.2 x 105 to 5.6 x 105 cfu/g for the hatchery waste and catfish respectively. The total enterobacterial count ranged from 6.0 x 1.4 to 3.0 x 105 cfu/g and 4.0 x 104 to 3.0 x 105 cfu/g for hatchery waste and catfish respectively. The Bacteria isolated from hatchery waste were Staplylococcus epidermidis, Esherichia coli, Bacillos spp, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while those isolated from catfish organs (skin, stomach and intestines) are salmonella sub sppl, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Bacillus spp, klebsiella pneumonia, Eschericia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella arizonal sub spp3A. The types of bacterial organisms that are associated with the hatchery waste and catfish fed hatchery waste found in this study call for concern.

[Onwenefah M. and Adedeji O.B. Bacterial flora of Cultured Catfish Fed with Poultry Hatchery Waste from selected Farms in Ibadan Southwestern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):106-110]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.16

 

Key Words: Bacterial Floral, Hatchery waste, Cultured Catfish

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T. S. Eliot's Tragic Strategy in: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

 

Ahmad Satam Al-Jumaily

 

Department of English, College of Arts and Letters, Cihan University, Kurdistan Region - Iraq

tombraider.1988@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It is a truth universally acknowledged that T. S. Eliot was the major world poet of the 20th century. It is also well known that he was interested in drama and had attempted to revive the heritage of classical tragedy. His famous play Murder in the Cathedral (1936) was a good example on his attempts. Such facts prove that Eliot considered tragedy to be the most sophisticated literary type that can best represent the human nature, and reflect the artistic excellence of the artist. All his works have the seeds of tragedy inside them. They were pregnant with the classical grand spirit of thought, and looked at humanity with a tragic vision, similar to that of Plato, Aristotle, and Dante. Even his poems show such tragic attitude. They imitate the epics of the classical writers but with a modern air. Almost all critics agree that Eliot is classical in thought but modern in style. This study then takes as its point of departure the idea that the poem: "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" is a tragedy. By dealing with the poem(written in 1912) as a tragedy, the research tackles a topic which is not attempted by previous criticism. It shades light on the psychological nature of the poem which is still obscure and hidden for most readers. The research reconsiders the theme of the poem, the development of meaning within it, and the spirit of the poet which envelops it. Psychoanalysis will be the main approach for the critical method of this study. It is the best key which can give a better understanding of the text. The incidents presented in the text will be viewed as a sort of "objective correlative"1 for the tragedy of Prufrock.

 [Ahmad Satam Al-Jumaily. T. S. Eliot's Tragic Strategy in: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):111-116]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.17

 

Keywords: Eliot's Tragic Strategy; Love; Song; Alfred Prufroc

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Successful strategies for e-commerce and e-Business in Textile industry

 

Farzam Pourramezan Roudposht1 and Mohamadreza Abedimahzoun2

 

1Iran silkworm rearing corporation

2Faculty of Management and Accounting, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Qazvin, Iran

Contact email: davoodgharakhany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Internet technology is fast becoming a necessary component to building a competitive and successful business in today’s “connected” economy. Yet, successful e-business adoption requires carefully outlined strategies that address both the opportunities and challenges of the technologies being considered. An e-business plan is simply a plan that outlines how you will use Internet technology to build and grow your business. A well developed plan will enable you to identify how you will incorporate e-business, how much e-business adoption will cost you, and what results you should expect to generate. E–Commerce in recent times has exploded many folds due to the invention of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies and applications. Business models of today are highly depending upon internet based transaction and trading platforms, use of Web portals and mobile applications.

[Pourramezan F, Abedimahzoun M. Successful strategies for e-commerce and e-Business in Textile industry. N Y Sci J 2013;6(7):117-122]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.18

 

Keywords: e-commerce, e-Business, small and medium-sized enterprises, Successful strategie

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Management accounting and management information systems

 

Zinat mehrsa1, Ali Taheri2, Arshad Farahmandian3, Davood Gharakhani4*

 

1Department of Accounting, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2Department of business Management, Abhar branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran

3Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

4*Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

Davood Gharakhani (Corresponding author)

 

Abstract: Management Information Systems (MIS) is the key factor to facilitate and attain efficient decision making in an organization. Management accounting can be viewed as Management-oriented Accounting. The term management accounting is composed of 'management' and 'accounting'. The word 'management' here does not signify only the top management but the entire personnel charged with the authority and responsibility of operating an enterprise. Management accounting combines accounting, finance and management with the leading edge techniques needed to drive successful businesses. Information systems are more likely to impact management accounting as ERP systems are hard to change once they are configured. That information systems are able to deliver support for management accounting is not a new idea. It is argued, on the other hand, that the first use of information systems was in relation to accounting.

[Mehrsa Z, Taheri A, Farahmandian A, Gharakhani D. Management accounting and management information systems. N Y Sci J 2013; 6(7): 123-129]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnys060713.19

 

Keywords: Management accounting, management information systems, finance management 

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 1, 2013. 
 
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