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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 54); August 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

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Titles / Authors

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Impact of Certain Novel Insecticides on Food Utilization Ingestion and Larval Growth of the Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)


Mahmoud H. Rashwan


Pesticides Dept., Faculty of Agric., Menuofia Univ., Egypt.



Abstract: In laboratory study the impact of five novel insecticides, emamectin benzoate, rynaxypyr, indoxacarb, spinetorm and spinosad was studied on antifeedant activity, the consumption and utilization of food by 4th instar larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, Larvae were fed for 24 hrs on castor bean leaves treated with sublethal concentrations (LC5 and LC1) of the tested insecticides, followed by feeding on untreated leaves for five days. The tested insecticides exhibited moderate antifeeding activity, relatively higher in rynaxypyr and indoxacarb at LC5 than other treatments. The consumption index (C.I.) was relatively reduced in rynaxypyr whereas sinetoram and spinosad recorded significant increase. Comparison based on overall mean during the whole experimental period indicated significant reduction in consumption index (C.I), growth rate (G.R) and approximate digestibility (A.D) in both of LC5 and LC1 treatments of rynaxypyr, emamectin benzoate and LC5 of indoxacarb. The approximate digestibility (A.D) as well as growth rate (G.R) was significantly decreased for larvae fed on leaves treated with LC5 of emamectin benzoate, rynaxypyr and indoxacarb, than other treatments, whereas A.D. was increased for larvae fed on LC1 of indoxacarb and spinetoram over all treatments including control. The higher concentration (LC5) of most tested insecticides resulted in significant decrease in efficiency of conversion of ingested (ECI) and digested (ECD) food compared with control.

[Mahmoud H. Rashwan. Impact of Certain Novel Insecticides on Food Utilization Ingestion and Larval Growth of the Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):1-7]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1



Key words: Spodoptera littoralis, Food utilization, Ingestion, Larval growth, Emamectin benzoate, Rynaxpyr, Indoxacarb, Spinetoram, Spinosad.

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Decreasing the Error of Sales Forecasting by Fitting the Data


Hassan Soltani


Department of Management, Neyriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyriz, Iran


Abstract: This research plan was done in the industrial production company named Beta. This company owns four branches; therefore, the population is Beta Company and its four branches and 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were selected as samples. The method was the analytical-descriptive; therefore, data analysis was done in several stages as follows;A: Sales forecasting for 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 with different methods including Naïve, simple moving average, weighted moving average and exponential smoothing methods. B: Error of sales forecasting of the above-mentioned methods are calculated and compared. C: Since the Company owns four branches, at this stage, the statistics of customers’ referring each branch per hour is regarded as the independent and the real sales amount per hour as the dependent variables. D: using the mathematical relations, we achieve an equation with which the company can forecast the sales rate and minimize the error of prediction, which is called as “fitting”. E: Finally, the results achieved from fitting are compared with the predictions to determine whether fitting data can affect the error of sales forecasting. The results show that fitting the sales data results in decreasing the error of sales forecasting by using the least square method.

[Hassan Soltani. Decreasing the Error of Sales Forecasting by Fitting the Data. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):8-10]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2



Keywords: Fitting data, Sales forecasting, Error of prediction.

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Estimate the Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Economic Welfare Index


Mirhosaine Mousavi 1, Raziyeh Amirtaimouri 2


1 Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economy, Alzahra University

 2 M.S of Economic Sciences, Faculty of Economy, Alzahra University

Email: ramirtaimori@yahoo.com


Abstract: The paper empirically investigates the relationship between macroeconomic variables and economic welfare index using OLS estimation to analyzing panel data from 12 countries for the period between 2006 and 2011 In United states. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of Information technology, inflation, Human Development Index, welfare, oil price. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions.

[Mirhosaine Mousavi, Raziyeh Amirtaimouri. Estimate the Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Economic Welfare Index. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):11-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3



Keywords: Information technology, inflation, Human Development Index, welfare, oil price, OLS estimation.

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People’s Biodiversity Register, a record of village’s wealth: A case study of Koti village District Chamba (H.P)


Pawan K. ATTRI


Institute of Integrated Himalayan Studies, (UGC-Centre of Excellence)

Himachal Pradesh University, Summerhill, Shimla-5 (H.P.) India



Abstract: People's Biodiversity Register is expected to serve as a tool to establish claims of individuals and local communities over knowledge of uses of biodiversity resources and to bring to them an equitable share of benefits flowing from the use of such knowledge and such resources. The present study was conducted in Koti village of Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh. On the basis of the survey carried out in the village, different plant species and various uses of plants species were studied. A large number of cereals, pseudocereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, spices, condiments and horticultural crops are grown in the hills. In addition to commonly used vegetables across northern India, there are other lesser known wild plants which are used as vegetables. A total of 12 vegetables including leafy vegetables were documented in the village. Beside this a total of 15 types of Ethnic food and 41 species belonging to 29 families of ethnobotanical important plant species for health care among the people of the area were also documented. Therefore, our continuing work on documentation of plant biodiversity and their multifarious uses will not only provide recognition to this knowledge but will also help in its conservation for the betterment of human society and to the coming generation.

[Pawan K. Attri. People’s Biodiversity Register, a record of village’s wealth: A case study of Koti village District Chamba (H.P). N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):14-25]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4



Keywords: People's Biodiversity Register, Koti, Chamba, Himachal

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Understanding the Neural Network Technique for Classification of Remote Sensing Data Sets


1Christopher Ndehedehe, 2Akwaowo Ekpa, 3Ogunlade Simeon & 4Otobong Nse


1&2 Department of Geoinformatics & Surveying, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

3 Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

4 Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria



 Abstract: Automated land cover/land use change detection from multi-temporal satellite data is one of the most important challenges facing the remote sensing community. Satellite image classification to produce land use or land cover maps has shifted from finding the right data to finding a method able to cope with the plethora of available data. This work examines the efficiency of neural network technique for classifying Landsat 7 imagery into five different land use/ land cover classes identified in Uyo metropolis. It describes an example of the use of artificial neural networks to classify remotely sensed data. Pixels extracted from specified regions of interest were used to classify each pixel of the satellite image as belonging to one of those five classes. The Neural Network implementation was software-based and the results were validated using existing Orthophoto of the area and the computation of kappa estimates and overall accuracy. The output was good except for two Land Use Classification categories whose overall accuracy and kappa estimates were less than 70 and 0.6 respectively. Generally, in implementing Neural Network for image classification of remote sensing data using the proposed software package, the Number of Hidden Layers should be restricted to 1 (one) if a very good output must be obtained. The use of neural networks in remotely sensed image classification is promising as it offers at least comparable accuracy with respect to conventional methods and the ability to handle large amounts of noisy data from dynamic and nonlinear systems.

[Christopher Ndehedehe, Akwaowo Ekpa, Ogunlade Simeon & Otobong Nse. Understanding the Neural Network Technique for Classification of Remote Sensing Data Sets. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):26-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5.



Key words: Artificial Neural Networks, Land Use Classification, ENVI, FCC, Remote Sensing, Hidden layer

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Assessment of Impact of Effluent Discharge on the Quality of Emene River, Enugu, Nigeria


Onuigbo, A.C. 1* and Madu, I.A. 2


1National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja, 00176-0000, Nigeria

Email: afamonuigbo@yahoo.com; mobile: +2348060306812, +2347053939255

2Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Email: Ignatiusmadu@yahoo.com; mobile: +2348037321468


Abstract: This study assessed the impacts of industrial effluent discharge on the quality of Emene River. Samples were collected from river at three sample points in order to evaluate the spatial concentration of industrial effluent in Emene River. Samples were analyzed following the procedure described by America Public Health Association (APHA). Statistical analysis shows that significant variation (p<0.05) was observed in the sample points. The results showed that TDS, TSS, ion, calcium, nitrate, chloride, magnesium, electrical conductivity, BOD, turbidity, color, temperature, zinc, odour and total hardness are significantly difference (p<0.05) at point source when compared with values obtained at upstream. TCG and E.coli are the only variables that recorded higher values at upstream and downstream of Emene River. This shows that non point sources are contributory to microbial pollution of Emene River. Nine variables exceeded maximum permissible limit (MPL) in all the sample points, while seven variables exceeded MPL at control point of Emene River. All the variables except chloride exceeded MPL of industrial effluent discharge as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS). Three factors identified by PCA that influence the pattern of surface water quality are chemical (39.73%), physical (32.47%) and microbial (25.31%) characteristics of Emene River, and they altogether explained about 97% of the total variance.

[Onuigbo, A.C. and Madu, I.A. Assessment of Impact of Effluent Discharge on the Quality of Emene River, Enugu, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):34-42]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6



Keyword: River, Effluent, Pollution, Water quality, Permissible limit

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Altitude wise variation in soil carbon stock in Western Himalaya


Param Prakash Singh* and Y.S. Rawat


Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, 263002, Uttarakhand, India

Email: paramprakash.singh09@gmail.com


Abstract: Soil plays a major role in regulating the world’s carbon budget. Even small changes in the magnitude of soil respiration could have a major effect on the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The present paper deals with the changes in soil carbon status across an altitudinal gradient in Western Himalaya. The study sites were located in outer Himalaya between 29o 25’ N to 29o 24’ N; 79o 25’ E to 79o 20’ E in Nainital district, in the Kumaun division of Uttarakhand state in India. The sites were categorized viz. High altitude site (1800-2100m elevation) in Quercus leucotrichophora forest, mid altitude site (1000-1400m elevation) in Pinus roxburghii mixed broad leaf forest and Low altitude site (350-500m elevation) in Shorea robusta forest. Significant variation across different sites and depths were observed (significance at 0.1% level of probability). The results of the present study are similar to the values reported for different central Himalayan forests.

[Param Prakash Singh and Y.S. Rawat. Altitude wise variation in soil carbon stock in Western Himalaya. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):43-48]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7



Key words: Soils; carbon; altitudinal; Uttarakhand; significant; Himalayan

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Examining Different Criteria of Globalization from the Perspective of Global System and Postmodern Approaches


Zahra Ghasemi1, Dr Mohammadkazem Kavehpishghadam (Assistant Professor) 2


1Islamic Azad University, Shiraz branch, Department of Political Science, Shiraz, Iran, Student of Master

2Islamic Azad University, Shiraz branch, Department of Political Science, Shiraz, Iran


Abstract: There are different approaches among scientists about the exact definition of globalization or its effect on our behavior and life. Some believe that globalization is a man-made phenomenon and it is not a new phenomenon at all, which is regarded as the last stage in developing the international capitalism (global system). On the contrary, some other believe that the global culture is resulted from studies and researches about the globalization of the culture; they do not doubt the existence of a global culture as a reality, a place or an imagination and they believe that the global culture has always been regarded as a postmodern culture that is changing, separating and combining rapidly (postmodern approach of global culture). Furthermore, it should be noted that none of these approaches provides appropriate responses to all the questions asked in examining the globalization phenomena, instead each one looks at the issue from a specific perspective. This article tries to examine the viewpoint of the global system and postmodern approaches toward the globalization and show the differences between these two approaches toward the globalization phenomenon.

[Zahra Ghasemi, Dr Mohammadkazem Kavehpishghadam. Examining Different Criteria of Globalization from the Perspective of Global System and Postmodern Approaches. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):49-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8



Keywords: globalization, global system, postmodernism, development, capitalism, global culture

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Laboratory Breeding of Lymnaea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Intermediate Host of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1856)


1Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, 1Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka,


1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

oa.adedokun@mail.ui.edu.ng, oyeadedokun95@yahoo.com.


Abstract: Lymnaea natalensis the intermediate host of the Fasciola gigantica (the causative agent of liver fluke disease) was collected from the zoological and botanical gardens, University of Ibadan, Nigeria and reared in our laboratory. The aim was to improve and standardize a rearing and maintenance technique for this snail. Two kinds of diets were compared: Blanched, Dried lettuce (A) and blanched, dried lettuce + 10% Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (B). The age at oviposition, growth rate using shell size as indices and the durations of incubation and hatching were determined. Age at beginning of ovipostion ranged from 39 to 60 days. The snails fed with CaCO3 enhanced diet presented an increased growth rate, however, the difference was not significantly different (p>0.05). The maximum size attained by snails fed with diet A was 18mm length and 8mm height and 23mm length and 14mm height for diet B. The maximum duration of incubation of the eggs for the diets are 12 days (B) and 11 days (A) while the duration of hatching for diet B and A are minimum of 2 days and 6 days respectively. The method of mass breeding and maintenance of Lymnaea natalensis using CaCO3 as supplement to blanched dried lettuce was found to be suitable in our laboratory.

[Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka. Laboratory Breeding of Lymnaea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Intermediate Host of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1856).  N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):55-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9



Keywords: Lymnaea natalensis, Laboratory rearing, Nutrition, intermediate host, Fasciola gigantica.

Running title: Rearing of Lymnaea natalensis.

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The role colonialism in Iran backwardness


Seyed AbbasAli Razavi Piranshahi




Abstract: The industrial revolution of Europe as a social phenomenon has been followed by various numerous consequences for Europe and world. It created major changes in industry, agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, animal husbandry, urbanization, automation and increasing industrial production as well as ended the feudal relations and caused bourgeois economy, it also eventually led to a new form of colonialism, colonialism means as development and flourishing and imperialism claim that “they brought about development and prosperity for backward countries and welfare to the people of these countries!” Although this claim can be correct to some extent, they have not actually intended to construct the colonies explaining that the production in Europe can increase unprecedentedly after automation of production tools and the industrial revolution, so 1 - They need to have market for their products 2 - European resource and mines are not enough to meet industrial plants needs. Accordingly the owners may focus on the East, but it was not simple to achieve the goal. The East must be prevented firstly from producing goods then prepare the way for selling their own products in these countries (India and Iran, etc), to achieve the goal everything is permitted. Incompetent, imprudence, pleasure seeking and uneducated courtiers and rulers of the have signed the most infamous contracts with Europeans countries for his personal benefit. To execute the contracts, Europeans more needed to convert these non- consumerism communities to consumerism ones. Therefore, the influence of European powers in Iran - India or East countries was one of the main consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Iran! But how did this happen? What were its consequences? Why someone says the colonial era is over? What factors other than colonization has been effective on East backwardness? And what will be the fate of the Third World? It is attempted to answer these questions.

[Seyed AbbasAli Razavi Piranshahi. The role colonialism in Iran backwardness. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):58-66]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10



Keywords: Industrial Revolution, Europe, East, colonialism, factors of backwardness

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Dielectric Properties of Pb(Mn0.5W PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 20.5)O3 Ceramics with Guard Ring Electrode


1Thaung Thandar Soe, 2Than Than Win, 3Yin Maung Maung, 4Ko Ko Kyaw Soe


1Department of Physics, Dagon University, Myanmar, 2Department of Physics, University of Yangon, Myanmar,

3Department of Physics, Kyaingtong University, Myanmar, 4Pro-Rector, Yangon Institute of Education, Myanmar

1thaungthandarsoe@gmail.com, 2thannthannwinn@gmail.com, 3dryinmgmg@gmail.com, 4dr.kokokyawsoe@gmail.com


Abstract: Polycrystalline lead-manganese tungstate ceramics with the formula Pb(Mn0.5 W0.5)O3, (PMW), a ferroelectric oxide was prepared by high temperature solid state reaction method. Crystal structure and microstructure of the compound were studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to reduce the measurement error caused by edge capacitance, laboratory-made three-terminal guard ring electrode (including a guard terminal) was constructed. Guard ring electrode was generally applied to electrode system of the material for the measurements of insulation resistance and dielectric constant. The capacitance (C), dielectric constant (εr) and loss tangent (tan δ) of PMW ceramics were scanned with respect to frequency in the rang of 1 kHz – 100 kHz by using guard-ring electrode. The PMW ceramics (300 °C) exhibited the smallest value of capacitance gap (the smallest error = 3.26 %) at 1 kHz while the maximum degree of capacitance gap was caused at PMW ceramics at 400 °C at 50 kHz.

[Soe T T, Win T T, Maung Y M, Soe K K K. Dielectric Properties of Pb(Mn0.5W0.5)O3 Ceramics with Guard Ring Electrode. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):67-70]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11



Keywords: Guard ring electrode; SEM; XRD; dielectric constant; loss tangent

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Determinants of Labour Use for Selected Tree Crops in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria


 Adejare Grace Taiwo 1, Arimi Kayode 2


1. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo States, Nigeria.

2. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo States, Nigeria

arimi2009@yahoo.com or taiwograceu@yahoo.com


Abstract: In spite of technological assimilation, manual labour remains central input in agricultural production in developing nations, and very few studies have been conducted to empirically substantiate this claim. Likewise, the determinants of labour use among tree crops farmers in Nigeria have not been validated. Hence, this study identifies determinants of labour use by tree crop farmers in Oyo and Ondo states Nigeria. Mean age of farmers was 51.2 years and 92.1% of them were married. Also, 57.0% had farm size above 5ha. Sources of labour used by TCF were: self 16.8%, family 12.6%, hired 66.8% and informal/exchange 3.7%. Average annual labour used by tree crop farmers was 62.7±21.6 man-days and significant difference (t=3.93) existed in labour use among farmers in the two states. Labour used by farmers in Oyo state was significantly influenced by contact with extension agents (β=3.20) and use of labour saving device (β=-1.95). On the other hand, seven variables were significant predictors of labour used for tree crop production by farmers in Ondo state. These include family size (b=1.96), farm location (b=2.89) and contact with extension agents (b=2.29), number of dependants (b=-2.85), years of experience (b=-0.273), membership of farmers association (b=-2.05) and use of labour saving devices (b=-2.12). Use of labour saving devices influenced labour use among tree crop farmers in the two states. Hence, development policy should focus on technology that saves labour and well suited for small scale farming for sustainable tree crop production.

[Adejare G, Taiwo, Arimi K. Determinants of Labour Use for Selected Tree Crops in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):71-77]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12



Keywords: Determinants; labour-use; tree-crops; oyo and ondo; states; nigeria

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Investigation into Viability of Briquettes from different Agricultural Residues as Alternatives to Wood and Kerosene Fuels


Oladeji, J.T.


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria researh222a@gmail.com


Abstract: The use of wood is increasing on daily basis especially in the less technologically developed countries of the world. Heavy reliance on wood for domestic cooking would lead to deforestation or desertification. The present work identified biomass briquettes as viable alternatives or supplements to wood and petroleum based fuels for domestic and industrial cottage applications in Nigeria. Two sets of briquettes (one from cassava starch and the second from glue) were produced from each of the four selected residues. Briquettes from each set from the four residues were used to boil a measured quantity of water and temperatures were taken at various time intervals with the aid of mercury-in-glass-thermometer, which was inserted through a hole drilled on the cover of the pot. A stop clock was used to time the boiling process and readings were taken every two minutes interval until the water boils. Results of briquettes produced with glue as binding agent were compared with those mixed with starch. Firewood and kerosene were also used to boil the same quantity of water. Results of boiling test showed that it took 28 minutes for rice husk binded with starch and glue to boil the water, while the sawdust briquettes binded with glue and starch raised the temperature of water to boiling point in 26 and 28 mins respectively. It took melon shell briquettes binded with glue and starch 22 and 24 mins respectively to boil the water, while the time used by cassava peel briquettes binded with glue and starch to boil the same quantity of water were 20 and 22 mins respectively. Using firewood, the water boiled in 18 mins, while kerosene boiled the same quantity of water in 14 mins. The results had shown that biomass briquettes are good substitutes for firewood and kerosene. Of all the four biomass briquettes examined, briquettes from cassava peel and melon shells appear more efficient.

[Oladeji, J.T. Investigation into Viability of Briquettes from different Agricultural Residues as Alternatives to Wood and Kerosene Fuels. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):78-83]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13



Keywords: Agricultural residues, briquette, melon shell, rice husk, saw dust, wood, yam peel

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Removal of aflatoxin B1 from experimentally contaminated whole milk using a pool of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria and baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae


Amnah A.H. Rayes


Faculty of Applied Sciences. Umm Al- Qura University Makkah Saudi Arabia


Abstract: The contamination of food and animal feed with AFB1 is a worldwide problem. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most toxic AF the aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of both commercial product Ecolife aqua® (a pool of commercially available LAB strains, with actinomycete and some enzymes) and Baker’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone or in combination to remove AFB1 from whole milk, as experimental media.sevral parameters were tested for removal of AFB1 from whole milk, (time: 0, 12, 24, 36 and 72 hr – temperature: 5oC, 37oC, 50oC, 60oC and 100 oC. pH: 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 - concentrations: Ecolife 0.5, 3.0, 5.0 ml/L and S. cervicea 1x109 cells/ml, 5x 109 cells/ ml and 7x 109 cells/ ml-1 and combination of S. cervicea 5x 109cells/ ml & Ecolife 3.0 ml/L and AFB1. Quanfication of AFB1in milk was performed using HPLC. Present results showed that both commercial products can remove AFB1 from milk solution but combination between two products can remove efficiently AFB1, followed by baker’s yeast followed by Ecolife aqua® depending on time, temperature, pH and concentrations of used products.

[Amnah A.H. Rayes. Removal of aflatoxin B1 from experimentally contaminated whole milk using a pool of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria and baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):84-90]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14



Key words: AFB1; HPLC; Ecolife aqua®; Baker’ yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whole milk.

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Evaluation of anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of Fomes fomentarius


Shazia Ahad1*, Syed Tanveer1, Tauseef Ahmad Malik2, Mohammad Zahoor Chishti2


1 Department of Zoology University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, Jammu & Kashmir, India

2Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, Jammu & Kashmir, India

*E-mail: shaziaahad19@gmail.com


Abstract: The aims and objectives of the present study were to evaluate the in vivo anticoccidial effects of aqueous extract of wild mushroom Fomes fomentarius in comparison to the reference drug amprolium against coccidiosis in broilers on the basis of oocysts per gram of faeces, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. This study showed that treatment with F. fomentarius resulted in a marked reduction in the number of coccidian oocysts shed in the faeces, leading to improved weight gain and better feed conversion ratio. The results confirmed the virulence of coccidian oocysts and the effectiveness of both amprolium and F. fomentarius extract against coccidian oocysts.

[Ahad S, Tanveer S, Malik TA, Chishti MZ. Evaluation of anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of Fomes fomentarius. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):91-97]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15



Key Words: Coccidiosis; Poultry; Fomes fomentarius

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Short-term toxicological evaluation of Cucumeropsis mannii seed oil in albino rat


Ibironke A. Ajayi1, Rufus O. Adeboye1, Olugbenga O. Alaka2


1. Industrial Chemistry unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2. Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: Seed oil of Cucumeropsis mannii was extracted and characterized. Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value and refractive index had the average values of 1.45 ± 0.07mgKOH/100g, 2.80 ± 0.00Meq/kg, 143.2 ± 0.21mgKOH/100g, 73.6.5 ± 0.21mgI2/100g and 1.4132 ± 0.00 respectively. 5% of C. mannii seed oil was incorporated into the ingredient for compounding a balanced rat feed and served as the experimental feed while 5% of groundnut oil replaced 5% of C. mannii oil in the control feed. These feeds were analysed for chemical composition and some mineral content. The moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash content and carbohydrate obtained for the experimental diet were 12.96 ± 0.09%, 25.17 ± 0.22%, 6.51 ± 0.03%, 4.37 ± 0.06%, 10.72 ± 0.09% and 44.63 ± 0.25% respectively while those for the control group include 13.08 ± 0.09%, 25.25 ± 0.25%, 7.22 ± 0.09%, 4.68 ± 0.04%, 40.31 ± 0.02% and 44.14 ± 0.29% respectively. The experimental feed had higher concentration of calcium, (8.190%), magnesium (0.388%) and iron (0.104%) than that of control which is 2.040% Ca, 0.300% Mg and 0.075% Fe. Haematological and biochemical examination of rat blood was also carried out to observe the effect of C. mannii and groundnut oils on them. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups for all the blood indices. There were no pathological changes in all the organs of the rats from both groups at histology level. C. mannii oil appeared not to have adverse effect on the rats; it actually supported their gradual growth.

[Ibironke A. Ajayi, Rufus O. Adeboye, Olugbenga O. Alaka. Short-term toxicological evaluation of Cucumeropsis mannii seed oil in albino rat. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):98-103]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16



Key words: albino rats, C. mannii, chemical composition, physicochemical analysis, toxicology

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Literacy And Women Empowerment For Sustainable Development In Nigeria


Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah and Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji


Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my (Corresponding Author)



Abstract: This paper examines the role of literacy education as a catalyst for women empowerment in Nigeria for sustainable development. Available records showed that women constituted more than fifty percent of Nigerian population and for any sustainable development in Nigeria to be achieved this greater percentage of the population need literacy and education for income generation skills and vocational training. The general aim of the paper is to describe how literacy education can play a vital role in women’s empowerment, which will in turn lead to sustainable development.

[Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah and Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji. Literacy And Women Empowerment For Sustainable Development In Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(8):104-109]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17



Key Words: Women Empowerments, Literacy, Sustainable Development

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 10, 2013. 
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