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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 57); November 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0611

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Shirin and Artemis: A Comparative Study based on Nezami’s Khosrow and Shirin

 

Farzane Yoosef Ghanbari, Mohammad ali Tahan Hosein

 

Department of Persian literature, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran

E-mail: ghanbari1977@yahoo.com

Department of Persian literature, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran

 

Abstract: Finding a connection between Nezami, Shirin and Jung may seem impossible; however, assessing Khosrow and Shirin, especially Shirin’s character, from an Analytic Psychology perspective can yield supportive evidence that, according to Shinoda Bolen, one of Jung’s students, the character of Shirin is considerably similar to Artemis’, the Hellenic goddess of the moon and hunt. As part of her character, she has the ability to express herself willingly, decrying the inferiority assigned to women in a male-dominant society. Lonely and unsupported, she follows her goals as determined and loyal as she is. Therefore, there are various common grounds between Shirin and Artemis, as Shirin’s character completely overlaps that of Artemis’.

[Farzane Yoosef Ghanbari, Mohammad ali Tahan Hosein. Shirin and Artemis: A Comparative Study based on Nezami’s Khosrow and Shirin. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.01

 

Keywords: Nezami; Shirin; Jung; Artemis; Shinoda Bolen

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2

Impact of Some Environmental Condition on Water Quality and Some Heavy metals in Water From Bardawil Lake

 

Rabie S. F. El-Halag1; Ibrahim M. Shaker2; Sahar F. Mehanna3; Mohammed F. Othman4 and Alam El-Deen Farouk2

 

1Faculty of Science, Al Azahr University, Egypt. 2Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abbassa – Sharkia, Egypt. 3National Institute of Oceanography and fisheries, Egypt. 4Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt. dr_ibrahim_sh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bardawil Lake has a great economic and global reputation because of its production from high-quality fish which is exported to Europe. So it is important to follow-up water and soil properties and quality of the fish, so as not to suffer this lake like the rest of other Egyptian lakes from the deterioration of water quality and fish product quality. The lake has been divided into 12 terminal sites for periodic sampling (monthly) of water. Field analyses was done during the samples collection and then transported to the laboratory in plastic containers inside Ice Box for analyses. The most important results obtained are as follows: Differences in temperature between the studied sites were changed due to the time of sampling, only the differences between months were statistically significant. The differences among the sites in the pH values of the sampled water at the same month low either among months were significantly different. There are no significant differences (P>0.05) among seasons in the same locations. The obtained results showed an oncrease in dissolved oxygen due to the water exchange between the Mediterranean Sea and the lake which increase the oxygen concentration. Tulul (site 6) showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in oxygen concentration due to the absence of water exchange between the site and the sea as well as the decomposition of organic compounds that consume oxygen. The highest values of dissolved oxygen concentration was recorded in winter season at all studied sites. The movement of water exchange between the Mediterranean Sea and the lake has an important role in improving the water quality in the lake water, especially pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, the content of nutrients and chlorophyll ″a″. As for heavy elements in the water are regarded as Lake Bardawil best lakes in the world for free from contaminants in general, and especially of heavy elements. It was observed that the iron is the more focused elements, followed by zinc, manganese and copper, but it was less than lead and cadmium concentration. Concentrations of all the studied heavy elements were generally much less than the allowable limits globally. The most important problem facing the lake now is the need to create sufficient radial channels to connect the Mediterranean Sea to the last point in the lake and the need for follow-up clearing operations Boughaz of continuous sedimentation. The study showed that the waters of Bardawil Lake is poor nutritionally, but water is clean and free of contaminants, so we suggest the need to work on the development of natural food out and add safe fertilizer food to improve water quality and increase fish production and crustaceans and the organization of traffic exchanges waterway between the Mediterranean Sea and the lake to cover all bodies of water in the lake.

 [Rabie S. F. El-Halag; Ibrahim M. Shaker; Sahar F. Mehanna; Mohammed F. Othman and Alam El-Deen Farouk. Impacts of Some Environmental Condition on Water Quality and Some Heavy Metals in Water from Bardawil Lake. N Y Sci J 2013:6(11):5-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.02

 

Keywords: water quality, heavy metals, lake, environmental, Lake Bardawil, monthly, seasonaly

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3

A Socioeconomic Determination of the Impact of Volcanoes National Park on the Livelihoods of the Local Neighbouring Communities in Northern Rwanda.

 

Isaac Emukule Ekise 1, Alphonse Nahayo1 and Jean Berchimas Habumugisha 2 and Peter Mbabazi 2

 

1 Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 210, Musanze, Rwanda.

2 Department of Agribusiness and Rural Development, University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 210, Musanze, Rwanda.

iekise@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Literature on human-wildlife nexus illustrates that human-wildlife conflict is a growing global problem, which is not restricted to particular geographical regions or climatic conditions, but is common to all areas where wildlife and human population coexist and share limited resources. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of Volcanoes National Park on local communities’ livelihoods. The household data was obtained by interviewing 100 heads of households selected by employing stratified random sampling method from four adjacent cells of Nyonirima, Nyabigoma, Kaguhu and Bisoke located around VNP in Kinigi Sector, Musanze District, and Northern Rwanda. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze data to generate both descriptive and inferential statistics especially by using the Friedman Test. This study reveals that local communities proximal to VNP were constrained by poor roads infrastructure, long travel distances to basic social services such as nursery, primary, secondary schools and health centers, lack of clean water and wildlife damage from the wild animals straying out the park. Over the years VNP has put in place more adequate conflict mitigation measures to minimize crop raiding incidents, elaborating a new policy related to the compensation of losses, and linking community benefits to conservation processes. Also there exists strong collaboration between park managers and local communities arising from a growing understanding that park biological resources would not be sustainably conserved without the full participation of the local communities in the management of VNP and in the sharing of tourism revenue. The results of this study show that dependence on park income had a positive income distribution effect among households. There is also satisfaction among local communities since socioeconomic problems cited here have been alleviated to a large extent through revenue sharing. However, local people expressed concern over damage of crops done by park animals and inability of park management to either curb the problem or offer compensation for the damages. This study concludes that VNP has enormous potential to benefit more local people by fully implementing a participatory management approach in the conservation of this valuable natural resource.

[Ekise I.E, Nahayo A, Habumugisha J.B and Mbabazi P. A Socioeconomic Determination of the Impacts of Volcanoes National Park on the Livelihoods of the Local Neighbouring Communities in Northern Rwanda.  N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):14-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.03

 

Keywords: Human-wildlife nexus, impacts of Volcanoes National Park, local communities, livelihoods, income distribution effect, and revenue sharing.

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4

Investigation of the antioxidant activity of some marine bacteria associated with some seaweeds from the Red Sea

 

N. Abdel-Wahab1, Eman F. Ahmed2, Hanan A.A. Taie3, Hossam M. Hassan4, M. S. Abdel Hameed1, O. Hammouda1*

 

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suief University Egypt.

2Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Centre, Cairo,

3Department of Plant Biochemistry-National Research Centre, 12311 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.,

4Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Beni-Suief University Egypt.

olahammouda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation is the isolation of endosymbiotic bacteria from the collected seaweeds from the Red Sea, identification them by 16s rDNA and evaluation the antioxidant activity of their extracellular metabolites by using DPPH assay. Two bacterial strains identified as Bacterium SRCnm & Bacillus sp. JS were isolated from Acanthophora dendroides & Sargassum sabrebandum respectively. The crude extract of the extracellular metabolites of two bacterial strains exhibited an interesting effect on scavenging DPPH free radical. The crude extract of Bacterium SRCnm exhibited a higher scavenging effect on DPPH radical (88.61%) than that by Bacillus sp. JS extract which exhibited (86.51%) at the same concentration 2 mg/ml, Ic50 for the two bacterial extract was calculated as (1.129 & 1.360 mg/ml), respectively.

[N. Abdel-Wahab, Eman F. Ahmed, Hanan A.A. Taie, Hossam M. Hassan, M. S. Abdel Hameed, O. Hammouda. Investigation of the antioxidant activity of some marine bacteria associated with some seaweeds from the Red Sea. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):27-32]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.04

 

Key wards: Antioxidant activity, marine bacteria, seaweeds, Red Sea

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5

13X-APG granular zeolite in a fixed bed adsorber of CO2 adsorption characteristics

 

Xiaojie Wu 1, Jingwei Xu 2, Jianling Tao 2

 

1. Department of Air Force Service College, Xu Zhou 221000, China

2. Anqing Institute of Architectural Engineering, Anqing, Anhui, 24600, China

jillwu2009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: 13X-APG granular zeolite as adsorbent, by measuring its fixed bed adsorber in the adsorption breakthrough curve, the adsorbent studied the dynamics of CO2 adsorption characteristics were investigated gas temperature, gas flow rate, adsorbent particles the size of the adsorbent properties of CO2 obtained adsorbent bed adsorption process temperature changes. The results show that with the increase of gas temperature and increase of the adsorbent particle size, adsorbent adsorption of CO2 decreases; adsorption with little change in flow rate of gas; in the adsorption process, the adsorption of small diameter agent bed temperature changes significantly.

[Xiaojie Wu, Jingwei Xu, Jianling Tao. 13X-APG granular zeolite in a fixed bed adsorber of CO2 adsorption characteristics. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):33-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.05

 

Keywords: Zeolite 13X-APG; fixed bed; adsorption; breakthrough curves

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6

Temporal and Spatial Change Detection of Variations in the Groundwater Composition by Multivariate Statistical Techniques

 

 Nahed El Arabi 1, Yehia Idris 2, Akram Fekry 3

 

1 Director of the Research Institute for Groundwater (RIGW), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt

2 RIGW, NWRC, Egypt

3 Head of Nile Basin Research Department, RIGW, NWRC, Egypt.

Email: Yehia_Idris@Yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: A set of quantitative analytical data from the Nile Delta aquifer, lies between longitudes 30 00’ 07” to 32 02’ 47” East and latitudes 30 08’42” to 31 30’ 08” North in the Nile Delta region north Egypt, has been processed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to investigate the factor controlling the groundwater composition within a period of four years (2007-2010). The original matrix consisted of 13 hydro-chemical parameters, determined in 61 groundwater sampling sites of the aquifer. The data of each round was analyzed separately. The exploration of the correlation matrices allowed uncovering perfect and strong associations between some variables as well as moderate and a lack of association between the others. Factor analysis showed the existence of up to five significant factors which account for 80-91 % of the total variance of hydrochemistry data. The first two can be initially assigned to natural mineralization and saline man made salinity whereas the others are built from variables indicative of pollution as a result of agriculture and industrial activities. The results showed that the first factor component explained that salinity increased naturally and an accumulation of human activities by the end of the survey period. Loading factor of some trace elements was also increasing from the first round to the last one as a result of industrial activities as accounted by the results of other four factors. Factor analysis represented that lithology, and landuse played a significant role on groundwater quality in the study area. The ARCGIS was utilized to detect the spatial variations. This work will provide policy makers and land managers with knowledge of the precise groundwater quality problems affecting the aquifer and can also serve as a guide for assessment of the hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater in the study area. The study recommended the environmental treatment for the industrial wastes as well as regularly environmental check for the industrial activities.

[Nahed El Arabi, Yehia Idris and Akram Fekry. Temporal and Spatial Change Detection of Variations in the Groundwater Composition by Multivariate Statistical Techniques. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):38-48]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.06

 

Keywords: Groundwater; Multivariate Analysis; Factor Analysis; Hydrochemistry; Change Detection; GIS

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7

A Botanical Enigma on India’s Hottest Chillis ‘Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum Chinense Jacq)

 

Praveen Kumar Verma1*, Krishna Kumar Rawat2, Niren Das3 and Bijoy Pradhan4

 

1,3,4Rain Forest Research Institute, Deovan, Sotai Ali, Post Box # 136, Jorhat – 785 001(Assam), India.

2CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

E-mail for Correspondence: pkverma_bryo@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The paper is deals with recent botanical enigma on India’s hottest chilli ‘Bhoot Jolokia’, or ‘Bih Jolokia’ earlier identified as Capsicum chinense, now identified as Capsicum assamicum Purakyasth et al., as new species from Assam, India. But after the detail investigation as well as literature survey it has been found the new species has no novel characters other than Capsicum chinense Jacq. Hence the establishment of the species is in question.

[Verma, P. K; Rawat, K.K; Das, N. & Pradhan, B. A Botanical Enigma on India’s Hottest Chilli ‘Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum Chinense Jacq). N Y Sci J 2013;6 (11):49-51]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.07

 

Keywords: Capsicum chinense; C. assamicum; Bhoot Jolokia; Assam; India

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8

Investigation the relation between Costs and Revenues in Iranian Firms

 

Masoumeh Nematollahi

Department of Accounting, Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, Iran

masoumeh.nematollahi @ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Conventional cost accounting assumes that the relation between cost and volume is symmetric. Model has been tested where costs increase more when activity rises than they decrease when Activity falls by an equivalent amount. We find, for a sample of Iranian firms that costs increase 0.88 percent, per 1 percent increase in sales but decrease only 0.71 percent, per 1 percent decrease in sales, financial costs increase, on average, by around -0.1 percent per 1percent increase in revenue;  means that financial costs in Iranian firms decreases when revenue increases.  When revenue decreases by 1 percent, total financial costs decrease by around 1.22 percent. Confirms that changes in total financial costs are neither proportional nor symmetrical to changes in revenue, but it’s not stickiness. We confirm cost stickiness for Iranian firms’ costs.

[Masoumeh Nematollahi. Investigation the relation between Costs and Revenues in Iranian Firms. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):52-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.08

 

Keywords: costs, financial costs, sales, cost stickiness, regression

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9

Investigation the effect of pre-Junior education on family, education progress and social growth in junior student of Kerman province

 

Eshrat Karimi Afshar1, Dr.Saeideh khojasteh2

 

1. PhD student of psychology and Lecturer of Jahad-Daneshghahi University, Kerman, Iran

2. PhD of Educational Sciences, Assistant Professor of Payam Noor University, Kerman, Iran

 

Abstract: Pre-junior school centers have been designed in order to provide social and recognition richness during the period of childhood growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-junior period on educational progress and social growth of junior students. The main question of research, according to this, is that whether the pre-junior period has significant effect on educational success and becoming republic of children? And whether there is any difference between boy and girl students and also between students who are restrained and who are not? The research method was comparative and by reasoning. Statistical community consisted total junior student of Kerman province (N=46074) who first began education at first grade in 2006. Volume sample was 360 individuals and was chosen by multistage bunch sampling method. Vain laud social growth scale was used to assemble needed data about social growth and educational report card was used in order to know educational progress the data were analyzed by using T test and Anova. The results showed that educational progress is significantly higher in students who spend pre-junior period than who are don't; educational progress and social growth didn't show significant difference between boy and girl students; but educational progress and social growth was significantly different between students who spend pre-junior period in different regions and different welfare.

[Eshrat Karimi Afshar, Saeideh khojasteh. Investigation the effect of pre-Junior education on family, education progress and social growth in junior student of Kerman province. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):58-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.09

 

Keywords: pre-junior education, educational progress, social growth

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10

Study of short term relation between volatility in crude oil spot and future markets

 

Ensieh Shojaeddini1, Shahram Golestani2

 

1. Faculty of Economic, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran,

2. Faculty of Management and Economic, University of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman, Iran

shojaeddini@alumni.ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Volatility is one of the main characteristics of oil markets and since the fluctuations of oil prices have an undeniable effect on the countries economy, modeling and forecasting the volatility of these markets have been focus of economic researchers. In this study, in addition to modeling the volatility of oil future and spot prices in two markets of West Texas Intermediate and the north sea Brent, the relation between the volatility of these markets is investigated. ARIMA- GARCH and LS models are employed for estimation. Based on the obtained results, by changing the volatility in each of oil spot and future markets, the volatility in other markets will change by a ratio more than one. Based on Engel-Granger causality test, the causality between variables volatility is bidirectional and generally indicates that presence of volatility in each of crude oil markets in short term results in more volatilities in other crude oil markets.

[Ensieh Shojaeddini, Shahram Golestani. Study of short term relation between volatility in crude oil spot and future markets. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):64-69]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.10

 

Keywords: volatility, spot prices, future prices

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11

Political Culture of Congestion after the Islamic Revolution of Iran

 

Ali asghar amini dehaghi

 

Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting,Vali asr street, Tehran, Iran

Amini779@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Political culture of Iranian society has overshadowed active in various aspects of public policy arena due to disagreeable that are incurred in the history of track. Consequently Iranian society has been affected to some political – social and religious attributes, Such as Fatalism, Retrospective, religious, Dichotomy in the communication process, the authoritarian mindset, Conspiracism, Royal's father, soteriology, preferring the "bad" to "worse", xenophobia and other items that do not expect in this article; However, Such characteristics have led to the innate concept of insecurity in the political culture and as critical affect the actions and reactions of all political and non-political of Iranian society during and after the Revolution. After 35 years most of the new generation by the religious intellectual theoretical Influenced by the information flow, especially new media has been resisted against some political - religious cultural influences, until will be done at the surgery and an adjustment in the political culture by religious intellectual.

[Ali asghar amini dehaghi. Political Culture of Congestion after the Islamic Revolution of Iran. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):70-76]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.11

 

Keywords: Mass Society, Insecurity, Crisis of Despotism, Islamic Revolution, Political Culture of society

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Application of DEMATEL Method for Evaluation of the Effective Barriers in GSCM implementation

 

Sajjad Jalalifar1, Kiamars Fathi Hafshejani2

 

1Department of Industrial Management, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Qazvin, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Management, South Tehran Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The present research analyzes the barriers for the implementation of GSCM. The results show Organization Management has great impact on success of GSCM implementation among main aspects. Among criteria of Organization Management ‚ Lack of top management support has Great Influence on other criteria. Also‚ among criteria of Organizational Culture ‚ the lack of incentive legislation for the Green Supply Chain has Great Influence on other criteria. Also‚ among criteria of Organizational Structure‚ Lack of information and data required has Great Influence on other criteria. Also‚ among criteria of Rules and guidelines ‚ Lack of supply chain integration has Great Influence on other criteria.

[Jalalifar S, Fathi Hafshejani K. Application of DEMATEL Method for Evaluation of the Effective Barriers in GSCM implementation. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):77-83]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.12

 

Keywords: Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain Management, Multi-criteria decision making, DEMATEL

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13

Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC– ESI –MS Analysis of Alkaloids in Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. grown in Egypt

 

Zeinab T. Abd El Shakour

 

Laboratory of phytochemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Cairo- Egypt.

e-mail: zizishakour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There is only one Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. tree grown in Egypt. It is an Asian medicinal plant well known for producing potent antileukemic alkaloid, so the present study was aimed at identifying these alkaloids and to investigate its cytotoxic activity. Five known alkaloids (cephalotaxine, harringtonine, homoharringtonine, isoharringtonine and deoxyharringtonine) were identified by HPLC–ESI–MS technique according to its spectral data and comparison with the literature, the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. was in vitro investigated for its cytotoxicity against HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines for first time, and resulted with IC50 = 4.77, 12.9 and 17.5 μg/ml, respectively.

[Zeinab T. Abd El Shakour. Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC– ESI –MS Analysis of Alkaloids in Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. grown in Egypt. N Y Sci J 2013;6(11):84-89]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.13

 

Keywords: Cephalotaxus harringtonia L., the aerial parts, alkaloid, cytotoxicity

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The impact comparison of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on the level of milk nitric oxide, immunoglobulin A and complement 3 between cows and buffaloes

 

Helmy A. Torky1 and Saad E.A. Kotb2

 

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandaria University, Egypt

2 Department of Microbiology (Bacteriology), Animal Health Research Institute, Damanhour Branch, Egypt saad.kotb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mammary gland secretions derived from secretory cows and buffaloes infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was examined for the nitric oxide (NO), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and complement 3 (C3). The examined cows reflected 25 cases of subclinical mastitis, 20 cases of clinically mastitis animals and 10 cases of recurrent (chronic) mastitis and the same number from buffaloes. The level of NO in the normal cows was found to be 9.54 M/ml to increase to 18.10 M/ml in the subclinical mastitis animals and to significantly increase further to 23.23 M/ml in the clinically affected cases and 25.01 M/ml in recurrent (chronic) mastitis cows, while the level of NO in buffaloes were 6.31, 8.30, 13.12 and17.55 M/ml for normal, subclinical, clinical and recurrent (chronic) cases, respectively. The level of IgA in cows were 125, 530, 619 and 804 mg/dL for normal, subclinical, clinical and recurrent (chronic) cases, respectively, while the level of IgA in buffaloes were 232, 620, 719 and 934 mg/dL for normal, subclinical, clinical and recurrent (chronic) cases, respectively. The level of C3 in cows were 19, 57, 60 and 92 mg/dL for normal, subclinical, clinical and recurrent (chronic) cases, respectively, while the level of C3 in buffaloes were 20, 58, 62 and 91 mg/dL for normal, subclinical, clinical and recurrent (chronic) cases, respectively. These results suggest the promising use of milk whey NO, IgA and C3 concentration variabilities as prognostic parameters on the degree of the commencement of mastitis differences between cows and buffaloes.

 [Helmy A. Torky and Saad E.A. Kotb.. Effect The impact comparison of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on the level of milk nitric oxide, immunoglobulin A and complement 3 between cows and buffaloes. N Y Sci J 2013:6(11):90-95]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys061113.14

 

Key Words: Staphylococcus aureus, nitric oxide, immunoglobulin A, complement 3.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 1, 2013.
 
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