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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200;Monthly

Volume 7 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 59); January 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0701

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Hepatosomatic index, intestinal length and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets.

 

Dominic Odedeyi, Esther Odo and Joshua Ajisafe

 

Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M.B. 001, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.

bodeyi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets on the liver size, intestine length and the robustness of Clarias gariepinus.This was done to fill the knowledge gap on the effect of this leaf on the liver, intestine and condition factor of C.oleifera.The information obtained will help to reduce cost of feeding in the culture of this fish. M. oleifera leaf meal substituted fish meal at 0% (control), 30% (raw) and 30% (steam heated) in the three different diets. A total of 180 C. gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight 9.60 + 0.06) were randomly distributed into Nine plastic aquaria tanks at 20 fish per tank in triplicate treatments and were fed twice daily at 9.00 hrs and 17.00 hrs for 12 weeks. The results showed that hepatosomatic indices were not significantly different (p > 0.05) while those fed with 30% steam heated M. oleifera had highest intestine length and was significant (p < 0.05). The condition factor was 1.00, 0.94 and 0.92 for 0% (control), 30% (steam heated) and 30% (raw) respectively. The study showed that M.oleifera leaf meal has good potential for use as fish meal substitute in C. gariepinus diet since it does not have significant negative effect on the liver, intestine and the condition of the fish. Also, it was shown that the processed M. oleifera leaf meal provided better condition than the raw M.oleifera leaf meal.

[Dominic Odedeyi, Esther Odo and Joshua Ajisafe. Hepatosomatic index, intestinal length and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.01

 

 

Key words: Hepatosomatic index; relative intestinal length; condition factor; Moringa oleifera; Clarias gariepinus

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The Originative Blackhole-Cosmology - From now on, the Black Hole Theory and Cosmogony may be better integrated Zhang Dongsheng

 

Zhang Dongsheng (张洞生 )

 

Graduated in 1957 from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.

zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com;

 

DescartesWe couldn’t rely on other’s authority to accept the truth, which should be sought by ourselves.

AbstractWhat is a brand-new blackhole-cosmology? In brief, it would be a new branch of blackhole-theory developed by author, which could better explain and demonstrate the laws from the birth to growthdecline and up to death of our Universe.There are two Chapters in this article.Chapter I: <The new concepts and new formulas of the black-hole (BH) theory>.Chapter II: < The New Concepts and New Researches to Cosmology with New BH-theory >.  According to the new concepts and formulas of BHs in Chapter I, they can be applied to better explain and solve many important problems about the origin and evolution of our Universe.

[Zhang D. The Originative Blackhole-Cosmology From now on, the Black Hole Theory and Cosmogony may be better integrated Zhang Dongsheng. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):5-24]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.02

 

Key wordsHawking theory of black holes (BH); Hawking quantum radiation mss; minimum BH-- Mbm; Planck particles mp; the origin and evolution of our Universe; cosmic-BH; Original Inflation of our Universe; information amount Im of any BH; entropy SB of any BH; minimum information unit—Io;

 

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Studies On The Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) In The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India

 

Manoj K. Arya and Prakash C. Joshi*

 

Department of Zoology, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, India

*Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-249408, India

Manoj Kumar Arya, E-mail: dr.manojkumar19@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Coleopterans insect communities were studied in three different ecological zones in the buffer zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India. The altitude of the study area ranged between 2100 m to 3500 m with temperate, sub-alpine and alpine types of vegetation. A significant difference was recorded in the species composition, abundance, population density and species diversity of Coleopterans insect of the three ecological zones, which demonstrate the effect of altitude and as well as other ecological and climatic parameters on insect populations. The site at lowest altitude supported the highest number of 17 species and 527 individuals, whereas the site at the highest altitude supported the lowest number of 9 species and 211 individuals. When all the sites considered, a total of 1093 individuals of Coleopteran insects belonging to 20 species and 4 families were recorded during the study period. The family Scarabaeidae was the most abundant both in terms of number of species (8) and individuals (858), followed by Chrysomelidae 6 species and 263 individuals, Coccinellidae 4 species and 136 individuals and Meloidae with 2 species and 109 individuals. The most abundant species were Anomala dimidiate Hope, Protaetia neglacta Hope, Altica himensis Shukla and Mylabris cichonni Linn. The site at the lowest altitude and the longest rainy season had the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity. Similarly, the maximum population density (29.33 insect ha-1) was recorded from the site at lowest elevation (2100 m).

[Manoj K. Arya and Prakash C. Joshi. Studies On The Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) In The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):25-32]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.03

 

Key words: Coloepterans, Beetles, Species, Biosphere Reserve, Himalayas.

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Age effect of male on male mating ability and progeny production in D. melanogaster

 

Abolhasan Rezaei, M. S. Krishna

 

Drosophila stock center, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore - 560 006. Karnataka, India

drosokrish@gmail.com, rezaei54@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Age effect of male on male mating ability and progeny number has been studied in D. melanogaster. It was noticed that male at young age had inseminated more females and had produced greater number of progeny than middle aged and old males. Thus these studies suggest that in D. melanogaster remating of male increases male fitness. Further male at young age has greater fitness than middle and old aged males.

[Abolhasan Rezaei, M. S. Krishna. Age effect of male on male mating ability and progeny production in D. melanogaster. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):33-38]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.04

 

Keywords: male mating ability, D. melanogaster, male age, progeny number.

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Evaluation of plant extracts for controlling insect pests of pepper (caspicum spp.) in Nigeria humid rainforest

 

1Benson, G. A. S., 2Obadofin, A. A. and 3*Adesina, J. M.

 

1Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria. 2Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

* mobolade72@gmail.com Tel: +2348050204488

 

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, School of Agriculture, Lagos State Polytechnic, to evaluate the efficacy of plant extracts: Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum basilum and Senna hirsuta in controlling insect pest of pepper (Caspicum spp.) in Ikorodu area of Lagos state. The experiment was laid out in 4 3 factorial in a Complete Randomised Block Design (CRBD) replicated three times. Extract made from the plants at 1 kg leaf/4 litres of water were used as botanical insecticides. These were compared along with synthetic insecticides (Lambda-cyhalothrin). The effect of the plant extract and synthetic insecticide were not significant different (P < 0.05) on the number of days to 50% flowering, number of fruit drops and number of holes on three upper leaves.  A. conyzoides extract plants was found to produced least number of holes (1.56) followed by Lambda-cyhalothrin. In term of yield, highest yield was observed from pepper treated with A. conyzoides extract (169.34) followed by control (133.45). In view of lack of significant difference among the treatments, the result revealed that A. conyzoides, Ocimum basilum and Senna hirsuta extracts can be used as alternative to synthetic insecticides in controlling insect pests of pepper.

[ Benson, G. A. S.,  Obadofin, A. A. and  Adesina, J. M. Evaluation of plant extracts for controlling insect pests of pepper (caspicum spp.) in Nigeria humid rainforest. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):39-43]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.05

 

Keywords: Ageratum conyzoides, alternative, Ocimum basilum, plant extract, Senna hirsuta, synthetic insecticide.

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Conflicting verdicts and their solution in Iran’s Legal system, by look on France’s law

 

Amin Pahkideh (M. A) 1, Alireza Shakarbigi (M. A) 2, Farajollah Valipur Dehno (M. A) 3, Amir Ahmadi 4

 

1Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Pahkideha1364@yahoo. com

2Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Ali. shakarbaigi@gmail. com

3Legal disputes MA, Bandar Imam Khomeini (RTA) Petrochemical Special Economic regional organization.

4Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Amir. ahmadiy91@gmail. com

 

Abstract: Passing the law equally for all, merely for attaining legislator`s desirable justice and equality isn`t enough, but it is attainable when it is issued about all equally: legislator doesn`t ignore this important issue and some departments like super me high court are established to supervise and monitor these rules: despite of these all strict rules one case with the same subject are investigated by two judges and they have different verdicts. now it is turn to see what solutions did. the legislators prepared for this conflict. When a case is going to be investigated in a legal cycle, at first legislator necessitates the two sides of claim and their agent to in from the judge if there is this case in another courts if so, court refuses to investigate any more and issues the related verdict. but if no one in furs court from another similar case in court, and court issues a verdict, legislator has predicted and convicted one can have an appeal in the legal time of the appealing in this case the second court will breach the second verdict. but if in legal period of appealing no one claims, we will have two conflicting verdicts that both of them can be applied. In this case the legislator has appointed two solutions: one of them is the appealing request (article 376) and retrial (article 439). [Amin Pahkideh, Alireza Shakarbigi, Farajollah Valipur Dehno., Amir Ahmadi. Conflicting verdicts and their solution in Iran’sLegal system, by look on France’s law.

[Amin Pahkideh, Alireza Shakarbigi, Farajollah Valipur Dehno, Amir Ahmadi. Conflicting verdicts and their solution in Iran’s Legal system, by look on France’s law. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):44-51]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www. sciencepub. net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.06

 

Keywords: Conflicting verdicts, Iran’s, Legal system, France’s law.

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Sutras codified about full dress in Islamic jurisprudence

 

Somayeh Abedini(M.A)1, Mahdi Khodaei ( PhD)2

 

1Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Email: Somayeh.abedini@yahoo.com

2Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

 

Abstract: Sutras codified about full dress which has been recommended by the Omnipotent as a blessing, bestowed upon the incumbency of full dress in mort and masculine with regulations and disciplines to the society. The star-turn of full dress is considered the most overriding exclusives of humans which have been regarded as a requisite and sine qua non of life respectively. The full dress is considered an indigenous and piece de resistance which has been entitled “the resolver of his/her requirements to full dress”. According to the aforesaid need, humans enjoy a propensity to avoid bundling up even in solitude as well. If he/she deviates, it would cause bezel in society and individual.

[Somayeh Abedini, Mahdi Khodaei. Sutras codified about full dress in Islamic jurisprudence. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):52-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.07

 

Keywords: sutras, veil, dress, quintuplet of religion.

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The Differential Effect of Form-Focused, Meaning-Focused and Combination of Form and Meaning-Focused Instructions on Developing Speaking Skills of English Learners

 

Behnam Mirzaee1, Iraj Khoshnevis 2(Corresponding author), Mehran Davaribina3

 

1. Department of English, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

2. Department of English, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

3. Department of English, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

 

iraj.khoshnevis@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of three kinds of teaching instruction. To this end, 48 Iranian male adult students learning English at different institutes in Parsabad were chosen. Michigan English Test was used to ensure the homogeneity of the groups at the beginning of treatment, and a test of speaking ability according to TOEIC was adopted and used. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the scores at the end of the teaching course in each class at the probability level of 0.01. The comparison of mean scores of the three classes showed that maximum difference was between the scores of Combination Method as 78.5, and for Form-Focused and Meaning-Focused methods, as 59.81 and 35.87 respectively. Combination method represented an increase of 44 percent in the mean scores which indicv cates the efficiency of this method compared to the two other methods.

[Behnam Mirzaee, Iraj Khoshnevis. The Differential Effect of Form-Focused, Meaning-Focused and Combination of Form and Meaning-Focused Instructions on Developing Speaking Skills of English Learners. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):60-65]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.08

 

Keywords: Form-Focused, Meaning-Focused, Speaking Skills, English Learners

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The principles of ecotourism management in protected region of Karkheh

 

Seyedeh Masoumeh Mousavi1 (Corresponding author), Dr. Behzad Saeidpour2

 

1. Environment and Criminal law, Expert Environment University

2. Prof, Environment University

Mosavi_fm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: With the increase of population and pressures of machine life, the people attempt that by finding a good opportunity goes to the nature and makes them comfortable that is suffering from urban life. Tourism can be the source of social and economical graces for the countries. If these graces are not consistent with sustainable environment principles, it can change into a big challenge. The protected area of Karkheh is one of the examples with various talents to attract tourism. This region is located in Khuzestan beside Karkheh River with a pretty view. As any development in the land should be consistent with the environment, planning process is necessary for ecotourism by ecological evaluation for the sustainability of environment. In this paper, it is Karkheh protected region is investigated with potential talents of tourism for environment sustainability. GIS was used in this paper to evaluate ecological power and based on the effective efficiency, in analysis and data management and by FAO model by emphasis on ecotourism, the priority of the region was achieved to predict the required development and a model for correct planning and management in Karkheh protected area.

[Seyedeh Masoumeh Mousavi, Behzad Saeidpour. The principles of ecotourism management in protected region of Karkheh. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):66-73]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.09

 

Keywords: Informal employment, minimum wages, partial least squares approach, MIMIC models.

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Influence of Farm Management Factors Using Saline Water on Crop and Soil Productivity.

 

A. A. Meselhy1, A. K.Mahmoud2 and M. M. Wassif1

 

1Department of Soil Conservation, 2Department of Physical and Soil Chemistry, Desert Research Center, Egypt.

amr_73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Water resources availability and soil salinity are the main limiting factors to crop production. Thus, farm factors have to be managing to achieve the best model which accomplished the main goals. So, the aims of the study was influencing between three factors, tillage systems "TS" [three treatments, (no-tillage "NT"- strip tillage "ST") the both of them called conservation tillage "CT" - conventional tillage "CV"]Leaching requirements "LR" [three treatments, 0% - 10% - 20%]and crop residue cover "CR" [three treatments, 0% - 50% - 100%] on some soil properties, crop productivity, farm water managements and tractor efficiency factors. Obviously, that conservation tillage "CT" and the combination of conservation tillage with 100% "CR" and 20% "LR" were most use efficiency with lowest cost under saline water at Ras-suder area.

[A. A. Meselhy, A. K.Mahmoud and M. M. Wassif. Influence of Farm Management Factors Using Saline Water on Crop and Soil Productivity. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):74-83]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.10

 

Keywords: Conservation tillage, leaching requirements, crop residue cover, saline water, salt affected soil, calcareous soil.

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Silver- Polymer Blend Nanocomposite

 

Z. I. Ali, M. H. Helal, H. H. Saleh, A. F. Zikry, Y. A. Darwish2

 

Radiation Chemistry Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo, Egypt

2 Chemistry Dept., Helwan University, Faculty of Science, Cairo, Egypt.

Ymn_darwish@live.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, silver polymer nanocomposites were synthesized using gamma irradiation and at the same time overcoming some of the disadvantages previously reported by other methods such as impurities, solvent toxicity, size and distribution control and difficulty in their preparation that limits their commercialization potential. Nanocomposite films have been reported from an aqueous solution of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)/ poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and silver nitrate (AgNO3). The silver nanoparticles have been generated in the PVA/PVP matrix by γ-irradiation method. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite films have been studied as a function of either silver nitrate precursor concentration or irradiation dose. Ag nanoparticles were successfully prepared in one-step by γ-irradiation technique at room temperature and under ambient pressure. The as prepared films were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of the as-prepared nano particles ranged from 7.9 to around 59.4-nm depending on the irradiation dose value, AgNO3concentration and PVP percentage change. The presence of PVP polymer was considered as an important reason that influenced the shape and distribution. On the other hand the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the resultant particles were monodispersed and uniform particle size distribution.

[Z. I. Ali, M. H. Helal, H. H. Saleh, A. F. Zikry, Y. A. Darwish. Silver- Polymer Blend Nanocomposite. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):84-94]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.11

 

Keywords: Ag/polymer nanocomposite, γ-rays irradiation, Poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), UV/VIS, TEM characterization.

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Investigating the effects of post –modernism on punishment in the shadow of phases (fuzzy) logic writers: mo jab mousavi –amiri shirzad –sharifi abdolhamid

 

Shirzad Amiri (M.A) 1*, Sayed Dorid Mousavi Mojab (Ph.D) 2 Abdol Al-Hamid Sharifi3

 

1Department of law IslamAbad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, IslamAbad Gharb, Iran

2Department of Law and Political Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran

3Department of law Qom branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran

 

Abstract: post modernism as a big and tremendous thinking movement has affected the majority of sciences including law and specially punishment law and criminology.this paper, by the aid of descriptive research method by the Longitudinal method, while trying to investigate in pathology) mental (symbolic punishment actions) poisoning (while looking at overusing in using Islamic punishment law to prevent committing crime with respect to statistics of 1358-B80 presented by Iran’s prison department, by using phases logic, tries to investigate different effects of this thinking on the psychology as an inter major science in relation to being effective of symbolic punishment actions looks at presence of various reasons in the process of crime committing.

[Shirzad Amiri, Sayed Dorid Mousavi Mojab, Abdol Al-Hamid Sharifi. Investigating the effects of post –modernism on punishment in the shadow of phases (fuzzy) logic writers: mo jab mousavi –amiri shirzad –sharifi abdolhamid. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1) :95-102]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.12

 

Keywords: phase’s logic, presentment, post modernism.

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Reducing Waiting Time in Patients Undergone Spinal Surgeries at Operation’s room of Shohada-ye-Tajrish Hospital

using Six Sigma Model

 

Mohammad Reza Maleki 1, Liela Riahi 2, Terifeh Dashti3

 

1Invited  Professor, Department of Health Services Management, School of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Health Services Management, School of Management and Economic, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.

3M.A Student of Health Services Management, School of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.

t_dashti2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Aim: Since reducing the waiting time is one of the effective factors in patient’s satisfaction on quality of services, eliminating of additional process could contribute more to increase utilization of operating room and satisfaction of patients. This research was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of Six Sigma on decreasing of waiting time for starting operation surgery for patient of spine surgery in operating room of Shohada-ye- Tajrish Hospital in Tehran. Material and Methods: This study was conducted with the benefit of Six Sigma model in four stages, with qualitative and quantitative methods. The study sample comprised all patients who have spine surgery in Shohadaye Tajrish hospital in three kind of operation: Lumbar fusion, Lumbar laminectomy, Cage implant, in six month duration before and after implementation of six sigma. The sample size was 198 persons. Data collection tools were: Chronometer clock, time measurement forms, and surgery operation registration notebooks. After entering raw data into the software (Minitab) has been calculated by descriptive statistics and central measures, scissoring (average, standard deviation). Results: Average waiting time for surgery reduction for patient with lumber laminectomy 51.4 minutes with standard deviation of 21.2, in Cage implant 62.6 with standard deviation of 18.3, and in Lumbar fusion surgery 51.6 with standard deviation of 20.7 has been reached after implementation of Six-Sigma. Conclusions: postponement of personnel attendance in recovery room in order to transfer the patient to operating room, transferring the patient to the operating room until changing the nursing shift, nursing resource shortage, prematurely attendance of second and third patient at recovery and lack of physical space of recovery were main factors of increasing patient waiting time. Improvement were taken in order to reduce the average of waiting time for start of the operation surgery by cooperating the attendance of patient after changing the nursing shift, estimating the completion time of the first operation and calling the next patient to the operating room then, and preparing sufficient manpower and enlarging recovery physical space.

[Mohammad Reza Maleki, Liela Riahi, Terifeh Dashti. Reducing Waiting Time in Patients Undergone Spinal Surgeries at Operation’s room of Shohada-ye-Tajrish Hospital using Six Sigma Model. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):103-108]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.13

 

Keywords: Waiting time, Six Sigma, DMAIC cycle, Operating Room, Surgery.

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The studying of children trial in Iran rights

 

Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A)1, Alireza Shakarbigi (M.A) 2, Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 3, Piman Nmamian4

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: mahshidmahtabi@yahoo.com

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Ali.shakarbaigi@gmail.com

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

4. Department of law, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Penal trial of children and teenagers which is processing from the beginning of its contact with judicial members for doing against the law of retribution to the end of its surveying is important because of educational and humane goal. For the necessity of this topic, this article does the correspondent study of penal responsibility age, the necessary and special situation in particular children and teenagers trial, the way of decision and sentence in the law of investigation about Afghanistan’s children violations and Iranian children and teenager’s investigation essay, children’s rights convention and pecan regulations.

[Mahshid Mahtabi, Alireza Shakarbigi, Ghobad Naderi. The studying of children trial in Iran rights. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):109-115]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). Http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.14

 

Keywords: Discerning child, specialize to childs, pursuance elementary in investigation.

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Prospects and Developments of Arab World by Regarding to Security Policy of International Law of Middle East and Neighbors of South-West Asia

 

Ghobad Naderi(M.A) 1, Mahshid Mahtabi(M.A) 2, Alireza Shakarbigi (M.A) 3 Heshmatollah  Falahat Pisheh(PhD) 4

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Ali.shakarbaigi@gmail.com

4. Department of Political Science, University professor, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Iran

Head of Sub-Committee of Foreign Relations at Iranian Parliament (7th & 8th terms of Legislature).

Email: drfalahatpisheh@yahoo.com, Tel:+989121473148

 

Abstract: Developments in the Arab world are under changing the political and security conditions and arrangements in the Middle East in 1390. These changes will affect the profits and the security of regional actors even the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. These developments consist of different countries such as Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen and Syria and have their own specific characteristics despite some common and similar features. Due to recent developments in the Arab world and its consequences for national security and the influence of regional and trans-regional rival actors of Iran on developments, this article seeks to study the opportunities and arrangements of developments in the Arab world to Iran's national security. In this regard, it is believed that developments in the Arab world have important opportunities for Iran's national security despite some short-term security challenges in transient period by designing the new legitimation schemas and organizing more independent political system and also restructuring the regional power.

[Ghobad Naderi, Mahshid Mahtabi, Alireza Shakarbigi , Piman Nmamian. Prospects and Developments of Arab World by Regarding to Security Policy of International Law of Middle East and Neighbors of South-West Asia. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):116-119]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.15

 

Keywords: Arab world, popular uprisings, Iran's national security.

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Estimation of Risk of Needle Stick Injury and the Level of Awareness of Prophylaxis among the students, House Officers and Supporting Staff of Dentistry.

 

Mirza Arsalan Baig 1 Saira Baloch2 and Mohammad Muslim3

 

1*Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2Medical Research Centre, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

3Department of Science of Dental Materials, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

arsalanmirza@outlook.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To estimate the risk of needle stick injury their frequency, nature and level of awareness of prophylaxis among the students, house officers and supporting staff of dentistry. Methods: A descriptive type of cross sectional study survey was conducted at Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro from April 2012 to April 2013. Sample size comprising of Six hundred thirteen individuals including maxillofacial surgeons, general dentists, house officers and undergraduate students working at Liaquat University hospital. A specifically designed questionnaire was administered to each individual focusing on number, nature, and predisposing factors for Needle stick injury. Collected data was analysed by using SPSS17. Results: Response rate was 99.02 % (n=607). Females were 52.38% (n=318). Since entering their clinical year, 59.80% (363/ 607) experienced a total of 776 Needle stick injuries. Most frequently involved instrument was local anesthetic dental syringe needle (62.24%; n=483) while extracting tooth, aspiration syringe needle (26.41%; n=205), suturing needles (9.14%; n=71), and surgical blades (2.19%; n=17). Most of needle stick injuries took place while recapping needles (33%; n=87), surgical procedures (27.7%; n=73), and drawing blood samples (26.2%; n=69). Majority (41.23%) of the injured individual were beginners (3rd year BDS Students). 42.5% (n=112) attributed NSI to stress, 37.6% (n=99) to over work, and 19.7% (n=52) to carelessness. Conclusion: Needle stick injuries are very common in dental practitioners especially in beginners. Most of these are sustained while recapping needle and working at surgical procedures in stressful and overworked circumstances. Needle stick injuries can be prevented through the adoption of safety measures, their risk can be avoided giving awareness regarding safer practices in the work environment or by using needle-free devices/ engineered needles.

[Mirza Arsalan Baig  Saira Baloch and Mohammad Muslim. Estimation of Risk of Needle Stick Injury and the Level of Awareness of Prophylaxis among the students, House Officers and Supporting Staff of Dentistry. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):120-123]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.16

 

Keywords: Needle sticks injury, risk, awareness, prophylaxis.

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Application and key technologies of cryogenic  insulation cylinders

 

Xiao-Jie Wu 1, Gui-Lin Cai 2, Wei Zhang2

 

1.Department of Air Force Service College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221000, China

2. University of Defence and Technology, Changsha, Human 410073, China

jillwu2009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper introduces the development and application of cryogenic insulation cylinders, and analyzes the current cryogenic insulation cylinder insulation, support, filling and lossless storage research status and development direction of key technologies, can provide reference for Chinese cryogenic insulation cylinder manufacturer.

[Xiao-Jie Wu, Gui-Lin Cai, Wei Zhang. Application and key technologies of cryogenic  insulation cylinders. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):124-128]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.17

 

Keywords: Cryogenic insulation cylinders; filling technology; thermal insulation performance; lossless storage

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Analysis of Pressure Vessel Hydrostatic Test

 

Xiao-Jie Wu1, Tang Tao 2, Gui-Lin Cai 2

 

1. Department of Air Force Service College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221000, China

2. University of Defence and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073, China

jillwu2009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the hydrostatic test is a comprehensive test of the strength of the pressure vessel pressure parts of the container selection, design calculations, structures and integrated manufacturing quality checks. Introduction The purpose, function and test pressure hydrostatic test requirements, describes the preparatory work before the hydrostatic test, safety measures and after work, analysis of control measures water pressure test, pressure test the eligibility criteria set forth and Precautions.

[Xiao-Jie W, Tang T, Gui-Lin C. Analysis of Pressure Vessel Hydrostatic Test. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):129-132]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.18

 

Keywords: pressure vessel; hydrostatic test; Control Measures

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Effect of Health Educational Program on Improving Knowledge and Practices of Caregivers of Children with Xeroderma Pigmentosum

 

Safy S. Al-Rafay1 and Sahar A. Shafik2

 

1PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

2PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Community Health Nursing, Helwan University

salrafay@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease characterized by hyperphotosensitivity. Aim. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a health educational program on improving knowledge and practices of caregivers of children with xeroderma pigmentosum. Subjects and Methods. A quasi-experimental design with pre/post intervention assessments is utilized in this study with a purposive sample of 50 caregivers from 21 families of 30 children with a diagnosis of XP from the Pediatric Dermatology and Oncology outpatient clinics in the Children’s Hospital, Ain Shams University in Cairo; the Dermatology outpatient clinic, Cairo University Hospital in Cairo; the Oncology Center, Mansoura University (OCMU) in Mansoura, and the Oncology Center, Tanta University in Tanta. Results. There were highly statistically significant differences between mean scores of pre/post test p <0.001 in total mean scores of knowledge about XP that 38.13% of caregivers had poor scores, which improved to 71.98% good scores after implementation the program. Regarding to practices, 42.45% of caregivers had poor practices, which improved to 76.78% that indicated improvement after providing of the educational program. Conclusions and Recommendations. The study demonstrated that implementation of an educational program had a significant positive impact on caregivers’ knowledge and practice. The developed educational program should be implemented on a wider scale of nursing care and for longer time to assess long-term impact in further studies.

Safy S. Al-Rafay and Sahar A. Shafik. Effect of Health Educational Program on Improving Knowledge and Practices of Caregivers of Children with Xeroderma Pigmentosum. N Y Sci J 2014;7(1):133-144]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnys070114.19

 

Keywords: Xeroderma pigmentosum, children, health education, caregivers

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 7, 2014. 
 
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