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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 7 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 61); March 25, 2014, ISSN 1554-0200; Monthly

Cover page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0703


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Fecundity, hatchability and survival of Indoplanorbis exustus fed to bait containing attractant and molluscicides

Pradeep Kumar1, Kumari Sunita2, V.K. Singh2, D. K. Singh2


1Department of Zoology, S.G.N Govt. P.G. College Muhammadabad Gohana Mau, U.P
2Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology,

DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, 273009, U.P. India

E-mail: dksingh_gpu@yahoo.co.in; pkumar_gpu@yahoo.co.in


Abstract: The effect of sublethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50) feeding of active molluscicide ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in bait containing attractant amino acids (tyrosine, lysine) on the, fecundity, hatchability and survival of snail Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Bait containing attractant amino acid and molluscicides significantly reduced the reproductive capacity of the snail Indoplanorbis exustus. Maximum reduction in fecundity (55.41 % of control) was observed in snail fed to tyrosine + eugenol. In withdrawal group significant recovery was noted in all bait fed snails (90.48 % of control). The hatching period of egg laid by treated group was prolonged from 11 to 18 days with respect to 10 to 12 days in control snails.

[Pradeep Kumar, Kumari Sunita, V.K. Singh, D. K. Singh. Fecundity, hatchability and survival of Indoplanorbis exustus fed to bait containing attractant and molluscicides. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):1-5]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.01


Keywords: Tyrosine; Lysine; Molluscicides; Bait formulation; Reproduction; Indoplanorbis exustus.

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Prediction of postpartum depression: Rumination, attachment style and forgiveness


Farangis Abbasi1, Zahra Yosefi2, Mohsen Maroufi3


1. MSc of Psychology, Islamic Azad University Isfahan science and Research

2. Assistant Professor of Psychology, Islamic Azad University Isfahan science and Research

3. Associate Professor of Psychology, Islamic Azad University Isfahan science and Research



Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the multiple relationships between rumination, attachment style and forgiveness with the appearance and severity of postpartum depression in Isfahan in 2012-13. Method: It was a descriptive research with multiple correlation method. The statistical population of the study was 225 8-9 month pregnant women referring to women & Birth offices in Isfahan who were selected according to random sampling method. In order to gather the data the questionnaires of rumination attachments style, forgiveness and depression were applied. The research data were analyzed through Pearson Correlation Coefficient and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The results indicated that all predictive varieties significantly related to criterion variables and among predictive variables it was just the variable of rumination which can predict the expression and severity of depression signs. Conclusion: According to the research results it can be concluded that although each of the variables of rumination attachment style and forgiveness relates to the appearance and severity of depression symptoms of recently delivered women, with the presence of rumination besides other variables, just the rumination is able to predict the depression in recently delivered women and the treatment of rumination can be on of the best method to cure depression.

 [Farangis Abbasi, Zahra Yosefi, Mohsen Maroufi. Prediction of postpartum depression: Rumination, attachment style and forgiveness. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):6-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.02


Keywords: Postpartum depression, Rumination, Attachment styles, Forgiveness.

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Review the advantages and disadvantages of the death penalty law in the Islamic Republic of Iran


Ahmad Reza Rafiei (Ph.D.)*2 Amir Ahmadi 1


1. Department of Law, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch

E mail:  a.rafie@khuisf.ac.ir

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com, Tel: +989372980096


Abstract: The death penalty is regarded as the heaviest punishment in the field of penology, which has for some years been criticized by some quarters and consequently scientists in some countries, have different approaches to it, some have attempted to remove the absolute or relative to Some opponents of the House shall retain the death penalty, but it is effective and fruitful onesThis is the most important thing that caused the death, including murder; to investigate the advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of Islamic law has supporters and opponents of the death penalty.

[Ahmad Reza Rafiei, Amir Ahmadi. Review the advantages and disadvantages of the death penalty law in the Islamic Republic of Iran. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):14-19]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.03


Keywords: murder, death in Islamic law, death penalty supporters and opponents of view.

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Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change through Forestry Activities: An overview


Nasir Rashid Wani


Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar (J & K) India .nasirwani2012@gmail.com


Abstract: This article explores the potential of forestry practices to mitigate climate change. Emission of greenhouse gases has become a matter of great concern because of the future projection of the global warming and related effects on biological life. Forests not only sustain its own carbon but also have the potential to absorb carbon from the atmosphere. Forest covers more than 4 billion hectares of the earth’s land surface area and contains huge reservoirs of carbon in their biomass and soils. Understanding the role of forests in carbon cycles and predicting whether they will be carbon sinks or sources in the future are important in the ongoing international dialogue on climate change. Long term storage of carbon on land provides a solution by which humans can modify the dynamics of the carbon cycle. Methods include reducing land disturbance, reforestation, afforestation, altered forest management practices, altered land use patterns and consumption and fossil fuel substitution. Mitigation options by the forestry sector include extending carbon retention in harvested wood products, product substitution and producing biomass for bioenergy. Aggressive adoption of these forest management options are necessary to prevent forests from becoming a significant net source of CO2 to the atmosphere in the future and contributing to climate change. There is a need to improve forest management and its economic implications with respect to improving carbon sequestration.

[Nasir Rashid Wani. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change through Forestry Activities: An overview. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):20-24]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.04


Keywords: Carbon Sequestration; Climate Change Mitigation; Forests

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Outcomes of Educational Guidelines on Awareness and Self – Efficacy among Patients with Permanent Colostomy


1Soad M. Hegazy, 2Zeinab H. Ali, 3Amal S. Mahmoud and 4Ahmed A. Abou-Zeid


1,2Medical – Surgical, 3 Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, 4General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 1,4Ain Shams, 2Helwan, 3Port Said Universities, Soadmahmoud433@yahoo.com


Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of educational guidelines on awareness and self - efficacy among patients with permanent colostomy. Subjects and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study, that was conducted in the Outpatients Clinics at El- Demerdash Surgical Hospital and Ain Shams Specialized Hospital which is affiliated to Ain Shams University. A purposive sample of (90) adult patients from both genders with permanent colostomy were taken from the above mentioned settings. The study tools were: 1) Patients, interviewing questionnaire (pre / post guidelines) to assess the knowledge about colostomy care.2). An observation checklist (pre / post guidelines) to evaluate studied patients' practices regarding colostomy care. 3) Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (pre / post guidelines) to assess anxiety level. 4) Ostomy Skin Tool assessment (pre/ post guidelines) to detect the extent and severity of peristomal skin complications and 5) Stoma Self- Efficacy Scale (pre / post guidelines) to predict coping with difficulties of the disease. Results: More than half of the studied patients had unsatisfactory level of knowledge and practices pre- guidelines, added to poor levels of anxiety and self - efficacy. Moreover, ostomy skin complications had more significant improvement post guidelines. Conclusion: On the light of the current study results, it can be concluded that, educational guidelines had a positive effect on improving awareness (knowledge and practices) and self - efficacy among patients with permanent colostomy. Recommendations: Further studies should be carried out on a large number of patients with colostomy for evidence of the results and generalization.

[Soad M. Hegazy, Zeinab H. Ali, Amal S. Mahmoud, Ahmed A. Abou-Zeid. Outcomes of Educational Guidelines on Awareness and Self – Efficacy among Patients with Permanent Colostomy. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):25-32]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.05


Key wards: Permanent colostomy, patients` awareness, self – efficacy, educational guidelines.

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Young people to use IT technology transfer under the guidance of the Islamic Educational


Talal Ben Ali Muthana Ahmad


Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Education and Comparative, College Education, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Ksa. Taahmad@uqu.edu.sa


Abstract: Most rapid development in the technology of information and communication paradigm shift in communities at the level of the individual and the community level, there is a clear impact on the users of technical personnel, whether positive or negative, as the era of easy information and social cultural friction between communities significantly and rapidly, leading to the entry of cultural variables on societies, and that have a significant role in social change in communities. It is therefore advisable to clarify the positive and negative aspects of using digital technology and means of communication and information transfer, with a raised to deal with this age class or what we could call the age of Informatics.

[Talal Ben Ali Muthana Ahmad. Young people to use IT technology transfer under the guidance of the Islamic Educational. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):33-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.06


Keywords: information technology, communications, the negative effects, youth

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Improved Hierarchical Sparse Method with application to Offline handwritten Arabic character recognition


Ramadhan Abdo Musleh Alsaidi 1, Hong Li 1, YantaoWei 2, Rokan Khaji1


1. School of Mathematics and Statistics Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Address Wuhan, 430074, China

2. Department of Information Technology Central China Normal University Wuhan, 430079, China



Abstract: Taxonomic Offline handwritten Arabic character recognition has remarkably received a great attention by the software practitioners and programmers because of the increasing needs of Arabic document digitization. Nevertheless, there is still the need to recognize its style in order to minimize the problems of the design of handwriting language itself. Additionally, users are still waiting for accurate optical character recognition solutions for Arabic handwritten scripts. The present paper introduces a novel technique to increase recognition rate of offline handwritten Arabic character within speedy and correct computation time based on developed Hierarchical Sparse Coding Method. The developed principles of this algorithm can be specified as scaling and k-mean techniques. For scaling level, the main advantage is to withdraw attributes in higher numeric ranges dominating those in smaller numeric scales. At the same time, k-mean is used to obtain an efficient template selection method included in the derived kernel for developing the object recognition performance. The results of experiments include comparing the developed algorithm with other existing techniques discussed in this paper.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):38-45]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.07


Keywords: Offline handwriting Arabic character; scaling; k-mean; Hierarchical Sparse Method; IFN/ENIT database.

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Customary law (common usage) by the jurisprudential view of Imam Khomeini (God rest his soul)


Manizheh Rajabi (M.A)* 1, Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi (Ph.D) 2 Jamal Rezaie HoseinAbadi (ph.D) 3


1.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. E-mail: mosaddegh_sedghi@yahoo.com , Tel: +989123965831

3.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

E-mail: Jamal-rezaei@yahoo.com


Abstract: Customary law is considered as a referral amongst the quadruple sources of jurisprudential deductions therein. The customary law howbeit is not considered an independent source but it biases many religious edicts and authoritative decree of Islamic law e.g. rules of vending and options, matrimony and the deduction of issues related to accessions respectively. The religious jurisprudent grubs the unprecedented issues from the quadruple common usage, titles and the reasons for award, so various newly-created issues shift to religious matters considered in Shiite jurisprudence henceforth. Imam Khomeini adapts the deduction of judgments juristic by the common usage, considering it in the deduction of unprecedented edicts as a reliable body thereinafter. The paramount jurist has deducted the following edicts by the common usage and the views of wise men: Vending, options e.g. exhibitory defect short change option, seeing of falcate with modern accouterments, banking operations, drawing lots, lotteries, rules of banker's draft, note of hand and drafts. He believes that the Shiite jurist would be dwindled from dynamism, suffering from sharp downturn if the common usage plays a part in paving the ways of religious edicts thereafter. He affirms that we cannot uphold any common usage by the standpoint of the divine law and mere common usages which have been rooted in the conducts of wise men with no contradiction to the letter of the bible and the deeds and words of Holy Prophet are regarded the referrals of the religious jurisprudent respectively. In the following thesis we define and scrutinize the proper lexical meanings of the word “Custom” and its relation with the quadruple sources besides Imam Khomeini's indults and jurisprudential doctrines about the common usage and its limitation of participation regarded in religious edicts.

[Manizheh Rajabi, Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi. Jamal Rezaie HoseinAbadi. Customary law (common usage) by the jurisprudential view of Imam Khomeini (God rest his soul). N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):46-49]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.08


Keywords: common usage (customary law), conduct, deductions of wise men, inference of edicts, Imam Khomeini (God rest his soul).

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Investigating the nature of commercial property and business, craft and trade right in the law of landlord and tenant of 1998 in Islamic jurisprudence


Homayoon Nazari (M.A) 1, Ghobad Naderi (M.A) 3 Reza Borji (M.A) 3


1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

3. Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Ilam science Research Branch


Abstract: From the past time, according to the prevailing custom of tenant relationships, business places have had different superior rights and privileges than residential places. Considering the historical background, the common custom and habit between businessmen and commercial are seen to have a major role insets blushing commercial property and business, craft and trade right. Commercial property refers to the payment given to the landlord by a tenant based on the location and condition of a commercial place through the voluntary agreement of the contract parties so that the landlord loses his right. Business, craft and trade right refers to the right that is considered for the tenant due to working in a commercial place based on the job status and the location of the rented place. Despite the clear distinction between commercial property and business, craft and trade right in theory, these two rights are seen as one in practice among traders, merchants, lawyers and are used interchangeably. The nature of commercial property is financial, immaterial and movable, but the nature of business, craft and trade right is financial, spiritual, and immovable. The above right is suspended and is not independently transacted. The majority of jurists view only commercial property as legitimized between the two categories of commercial property and business, craft and trade right. If the business, craft and trade right means a right established due to the tenant’s working on his job and does not mean commercial property, then it is not legitimized based on the law on the relations between landlord and tenant, passed in 1977.

[Homayoon Nazari, Ghobad Naderi, Reza Borji. Investigating the nature of commercial property and business, craft and trade right in the law of landlord and tenant of 1998 in Islamic jurisprudence. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):50-55]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.09


Keywords: Commercial property, business and career, rented place.

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Sequential Simulation of Integrated Hydropower Releases: Case Study Of Ero-Omola Falls, Kwara State, Nigeria.


B.F. Sule1,   A.O. Ogunlela2 and K. M. Lawal3


1Director, National Centre for Hydropower Research and Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

2Agricultural and BioSystems Engineering Department, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

3Catchment Director, Nigeria Integrated Water Resources Management Commission, Abuja, Nigeria.



Abstract: The sequent peak algorithm and sequential streamflow routing technique were used to simulate integrated development of Ero-Omola Falls, for hydropower, water supply, irrigation and flood control. The analysis indicated hydropower releases of 21m3/s, municipal water supply of 0.538m3/s, irrigation water supply of 0.24m3/s and ecological water releases of 1.6 x 10-3m3/s. The result shows that the entire reservoir was drafted effectively for hydropower generation with minimal hydraulic losses of about 1.83m3/s. The simulation result indicated about 20.6% more potential hydropower, while additional 23.4% annual energy could be generated. The computed net head routed through the usable discharge falls within the minimum range of head and discharge respectively for a cross-flow turbine recommended for the scheme. The results established that conjunctive use of hydropower releases is an effective mitigation measures against seasonal flooding downstream of power plant in addition to allowing for withdrawal for other uses such as water supply and irrigation.

[B.F. Sule,   A.O. Ogunlela  and K. M. Lawal. Sequential Simulation of Integrated Hydropower Releases: Case Study Of Ero-Omola Falls, Kwara State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):56-68]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.10


Keywords: Integrated Hydropower Development, Sequential Routing, Simulation.

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Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in combating mild and moderate malnutrition in pediatric age group


Salwa M. Saleh; M.D** and Hoda A.Abdel Salam, PhD


Lecturer of Pediatrics **Lecturer of Nutrition and Food science, National Nutrition Institute, Cario, Egypt

drsalwamahmoud@yahoo.com; drHoda-Zaid@yahoo.com


Abstract: Malnutrition is brought on by a multitude of causes, Food insecurity, lack of education, poverty, parasitic infestation and impure drinking water these are some of them. Considerable investments have been made by governments and aid agencies in programs designed to prevent malnutrition. Two sets of requirements are suggested for malnutrition management. First are the requirements for rehabilitation with the use of a variety of appropriately processed locally available food or rehabilitation foods are being formulated to treat moderately malnourished children. Moringa oleifera have demonstrated a multitude of attributes. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value, successful treatment of malnourished children with Moringa has been well-documented in Moringa project in south-western Senegal. There is no rigorous clinical trial has tested its efficacy for treating malnutrition. Objective of the study is to investigate the effect of Moringa olifera powder for treating mild and moderate malnutrition among sample of children in pediatric age group. Subjects: This an experimental clinical trial carried out on 6o child in nutritional center as an out patients. Inclusion criteria include pediatric age group(4-12) both sexes are involved patients was malnourished based on diagnostic criteria( WHO Z score).Children were categorized according to height Z score to normal (+2 to -2 SD), and stunted (< -2SD) moderate(< -2SD- > 3SD) severe (< -3SD ) and according to weight Z score to normal (+2 to -2 SD, wasted (< -2SD) moderate(< -2SD- > 3SD) severe (< -3SD). Exclusion criteria include children with severe malnutrition, patients suffering any serious hepatic, renal or cardiac disease and not having diabetes mellitus or serious infections or short stature due to endocrine or other chronic systemic disease or hereditary bone dysplasia. Methods: Ready prepared Moringa olifera powder was used as directed by pharmaceutical company instruction 10mg added to 1cup of fruit juice taken twice daily between meals was prescribed to our patients for 40d. Growth was monitored and recorded before and after intake of Moringa olifera powder. Results: After intervention, cases gained more weight than controls yet, it was not statistically significant (P 0.07). Also, there was no statistical difference between cases and controls regarding weight after intervention and BMI after intervention (P 0.89 and 0.93) respectively. There was dietary inadequacy regarding total caloric intake with high intake of protein, COH and adequate intake of fat. Regarding micro nutrients there was inadequate intake of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin C, calcium and zinc with adequate intake of Iron. Conclusion: Usage Moringa olifera powder adding no significant clinical advantage over the traditional ways of management moderate malnutrition in limited clinical trail among a sample of children.

[Salwa M. Saleh and Hoda A.Abdel Salam. Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in combating mild and moderate malnutrition in pediatric age group. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):69-79]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.11


Key Words: Moringa olifera-malnutriton- local food-moderate –children.

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A Study of Emotional Intelligence of Science, Social Science & Commerce Higher Secondary students in District Pulwama, J & K


Asia Maqbool 1, Hafiz Mudasir 2, Aliya Nabi 3


1. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Education, Kashmir University

2. Ph.D Research Scholar, Dept. of Education, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh

3. P.G Student, Indra Gandhi National Open University



Abstract: The present study was carried out to study the emotional intelligence of Science, Social science and Commerce higher secondary students. The sample for the study was 90 (30 science, 30 social science and 30 commerce) randomly selected from different higher secondary institutions of district Pulwama Kashmir. Anokhool Hyde et-al scale was employed for the data collection and t-test was employed for the analysis of data. The result of the study highlight – I) science and social science students do not differ significantly on various dimensions of Emotional intelligence. ii) Science and commerce students do not differ significantly on various dimensions of Emotional intelligence. iii) social science and commerce students differ significantly on various dimensions of Emotional intelligence.

[Asia Maqbool, Hafiz Mudasir, Aliya Nabi. A Study of Emotional Intelligence of Science, Social Science & Commerce Higher Secondary students in District Pulwama, J&K. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):80-83]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.12


Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Science, social science, commerce.

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A New Method to Calculate The Temperature of MBR Turm = 2.7k


Zhang Dongsheng


17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.

Emails: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com


Preface: Author demonstrated already that our Universe has been a real Schwarzschild black hole (BH) in Reference [1], and the expansive law of standard model of our universal “Big Bang” could much better be in accordance with the expansive law of our Universe as a Cosmo-BH. Then, we may apply the new formulas of BH- theory proposed by author and the standard model of our universal “Big Bang” to find out the temperature of MBR (Microwave background Radiations) Turm = 2.7k.

[Zhang Dongsheng. A New Method to Calculate The Temperature of MBR Turm = 2.7k. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):84-87]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.13


Key Words: temperature of MBR; the expansive law of our Universe; the evolution of standard model of our universal “Big Bang”;  the general laws of BHs;

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Optimization and Characterization of Tannin Acyle Hydrolase Produced by Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Using Solid State Fermentation Technique


Roushdy M.M. 1, Desouky S.E.1*, Esmael M.E.2, El-Louboudy S.S.1, 2, Elshikh H.H.1, 3


1. Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Fermentaion Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology (Ferm-BAM) Center, Cairo, Egypt

3. Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology (RCMB), Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Tannin acyl hydrolase (TAH), commonly referred as tannase (EC. is involved in tannins biodegradation, has important roles in various applications, particularly in food and pharmaceutical industries. Twenty six fungal isolates were screened for their tannase production. One isolate (TL1) produced 0.34 U/ml of tannase was found to be the most potent and subjected for further identification to be identified as Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris. A medium optimization was carried out for maximum tannase productivity, 5.18 U/ml, under solid state fermentation (SSF) i.e. substrate concentration of  0.3 g/ml of wheat bran (WB), pH 3.8 , incubation period 4 days at 30C. The best carbon & nitrogen sources were maltose and NH4Cl respectively. Different heavy spore suspension inocula were tested and 0.5 ml/10 ml was the best one that gave maximum tannase production with concentration of 3% of tannic acid. Different purification steps were carried out with purification folds of 5.8 times from the origin and 4.7 % of recovery yield. The purification steps were followed by Amino acid analysis of the purified tannase which indicated that, Phenyle alanin represented the highest one i.e. 947.6 μg/ml. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme revealed that the molecular weight of tannase was about 68 KDa. Optimization of the purified enzyme was achieved at enzyme thermostability 40C, pH stability 6 when incubated for 80 min with (1.84 mg/ml) of methyle gallate in the presence of 1 ml of tannase produced by Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris.

[Roushdy MM, Desouky SE, Esmael ME, Elboudy SS, Elshikh HH. Optimization and Characterization of Tannin Acyle Hydrolase Produced by Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Using Solid State Fermentation Technique. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):88-98]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.14


Keywords: Tannin acyle hydrolase, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris, Solid state fermentation

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Study the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction


Arash Zia pour1, Parisa Mohmadi 1, Shahli Amirian1, Neda Kiani pour1,Ghobad Naderi2


1 Kermanshah University of medical sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

* Corresponding Author: arash.ziapour@kums.ac.ir / mohamadi_parisa63@yahoo.com

E-mail: Jamal-rezaei@yahoo.com


Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is investigating the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction among Natural Resources Organization employee of Kermanshah province in 2013. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive -analytic study. This study is including 332 patients’ ho were selected statically. Tools for data collection are including Valach descriptive Job questionnaire and organizational culture scale questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software, T-tests, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and stepwise regression analysis. Results: The findings show that the average corporate culture and job satisfaction are respectively (4/11) and (3/26) of 5.These numbers indicate that organizational culture and job satisfaction levels are relatively desirable in the study population. Also; there is a significant positive relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction. Stepwise regression results of organizational culture and job satisfaction variable indicates that, there are four variables of innovation culture, service history, support culture and marital status remained in the final model among the variables in the initial regression model. Comparing the standardized coefficients indicates that innovation culture and marital status variables, with respectively values of, 0/497 and 0/104, has the strongest and the weakest effect on the dependent variable of job satisfaction. In another hand, the variables of organizational culture (innovation culture and supportive culture), work experience and marital status have the 53/7% percent of the variability job satisfaction as independent variables. All components have the favorable position except the salary average. The payment methods have less employee satisfaction among the five variables of job satisfaction. Discussion: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between organizational culture subsets: innovation culture, bureaucratic culture, and supportive culture and job satisfaction factors. This shows that the organizational culture value will probably affect the job satisfaction, feels about the manager, staff, salaries and promotion.

[Arash Zia pour, Parisa Mohmadi, Shahli Amirian, Neda Kiani pour, Ghobad Naderi. Study the Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction). N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):99-108]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.15


Keywords: Organizational culture, Job satisfaction, Kermanshah

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Nesting Ecology and Breeding Success of Little Bittern in Wular Lake Kashmir, India.


Mustahson Farooq Fazili*


Wildlife Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar-190006, Kashmir.



Abstract: Some parameters of nesting ecology and breeding success of little bittern were studied for three successive years (2007-2009) in the lake Wular Kashmir, India. Breeding occurred from late April to August and was initiated by nest building. Nesting sites were chosen in bushy willows and dense growth of emergent reeds where average reed density was 52.2 4.2 per m2 and average reed height 1.40.26.The effect of initial water level on distribution of nests in different habitats is given. Maximum percentage of nests (65.56%) was in reeds and among reeds Saccharum spontaneum patches were mostly preferred for nesting (23.34% nests).Distance of the nests to open waters averaged 30.254.6m. Different types of nests were built in different habitats by both the sexes in 4-12 days and average water depth near nests was 1.67 0.34 m.The nests on willows differed significantly both in diameter and in depth from those in reeds(P<0.05). In 73% clutches the eggs were laid on alternate days between 6 hours and 13 hours and peak laying was in the month of June. Average clutch size was 5 and mean egg measurements were 34.5 .866 x 25.9 .668 mm. Breadth and volume of eggs differed significantly between early, intermediate and late clutches. Incubation was performed by both sexes and varied from 16-19 days. Over all egg survival during incubation was 0.61. Hatching period ranged from 1-2 days and precocial hatchlings weighed on an average 9.500 0.560g. The hatching and fledging success was 63.55% and 78.67% respectively. Fledging period varied from 20-25 days. Nestling survival during nestling period was 0.80 and breeding success calculated from exposure was 0.46. It was observed that predation was main cause of low breeding success. Recommendations for conservation of bitterns and designing of management plans are given.

[Mustahson Farooq Fazili. Nesting Ecology and Breeding Success of Little Bittern in Wular Lake Kashmir, India. N Y Sci J 2014;7(3):109-118]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys070314.16


Key words: Incubation, Clutch, Hatching, Fledging, Wular Lake

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from  February 25, 2014. 
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