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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200; Monthly

Volume 7 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 62); April 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0704

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Relationship between organizational health and organizational citizenship behavior Among hospitals staff of Medical Sciences University in Kermanshah, 2013

 

Arash Zia pour1, Vahid Naraghi 1,2, Somayeh Haidari3, Neda Kianipour4

 

1,3,4Kermanshah University of medical sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2.Department of Management, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

arash.ziapour@kums.ac.ir, vahid_titan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The concept of organizational health is a unique concept that allows us to have the great picture of organization health. Staffs are dedicated, helpful and conscientious and have high performance and morale in healthy organizations. There is required to employees who have volunteer behavior for organization due to the hospitals changing conditions and need to their efficacy. So, the main purpose of this paper is study the relationship between organizational health and organizational citizenship behavior among hospitals staff of Medical Sciences University in Kermanshah. This is a descriptive – analytical study that was conducted sectional. The population is consisted of Kermanshah Medical Sciences University hospital staffs in 2013, samples are 280 N, who were selected using stratified sampling. Instruments for data collection were consisted of Organizational Health Questionnaire of Hoy and Feldman and organizational citizenship behavior Questionnaire. SPSS software was used to analysis the descriptive statistics (percentage, Out, the standard deviation and variance) and inferential statistics (Pierson correlation coefficient and regression). Results: there is a significant relationship between organizational health and the five dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (conscientiousness, Respect, Altruism, Sportsmanship and civic virtue) (p = 0/0001). Conclusion: organizations can make improvements in employee behavior by coordination among members as well as continuous improvement considering the significance of relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organization health.

[Arash Zia pour, Vahid Naraghi, Somayeh Haidari, Neda Kianipour. Relationship between organizational health and organizational citizenship behavior Among hospitals staff of Medical Sciences University in Kermanshah, 2013. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):1-7]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.01

 

Keywords: organizational health, organizational citizenship behavior, Hospital, Kermanshah

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Effect of total aflatoxin on the growth characteristics and chlorophyll level of sesame (Sesamum  indicum L.)

 

Anjorin Toba Samuel1, Inje, Tersoo Valentine2

 

1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Crop Science, University of Abuja, Abuja

2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja

oyindamola35@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated the effect of total aflatoxin (1000g/l, 500g/l, 250g/l, 125g/l, and 0g/l) on the chlorophyll level and some growth characteristics of sesame (Sesame indicum) using bogoro, E8, Ex-sudan varieties as the plant bioindicators. The experiment was conducted on the Department of Biological Sciences experimental field, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja. Abuja.  The experimental design adopted was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) involving three replicates. The seedling emergence, shoot length, root length, seedling vigour and chlorophyll level of the sesame cultivars at 10 Days After Sowing (DAS) under the control plot was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other treatments. All the parameters measured under the control plots of E8 and Ex-sudan cultivar were significantly (p<0.05) higher than other treatments. However, the number and area of leaves and number of flowers of bogoro cultivar at 56 DAS were significantly (p<0.05) higher at 125g/l treatment than at other levels. The study showed an inhibitory effect on all the growth characteristics of sesame by total aflatoxin especially above 125g/l. The biotest of mycotoxin on various crop seeds is imperative. Also the fate of total aflatoxin on the sown seeds in the rhizosphere requires investigation.

[Anjorin Toba Samuel, Inje, Tersoo Valentine. Effect of total aflatoxin on the growth characteristics and chlorophyll level of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):8-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.02

 

Keywords: Chlorophyll, Growth Characteristics, Sesame, Total Aflatoxin

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“A Critical Analysis Of The Development Of The ‘Inventive Step’ Criteria For Grant Of Patent In Uk And India”

 

Jamshed Ansari

 

Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com; Mob. No. 09811365596

Address: F-379, Main Jagatpur Road, Wazirabad, District- North Delhi, State- Delhi- 110084 Country- India

 

Abstract: The object of the paper is to see whether the inventive step criteria for grant of patent in UK and India is appropriate. The untested notion such as person skilled in the art and the common general knowledge is to be discussed. The authorr has adopted the descriptive, comparative, analytical and case study methods as a research methodology throughout the course of this paper and he is relying on books, articles and online databases. The author is opined that the test laid down by the UK court in Windsurfing case and the Supreme Court of India in Bishwnath Prasad Radhey Shyam case regarding the assessment of inventive step is not appropriate. The paper is limited to critically analyze the inventive step criterion which is one of the important pillars for grant of patent in UK and India. The author has formulated the following questions and has tried to find out the answer: (1) Whether the inventive step criteria for grant of patent in UK is appropriate. (2) Who is ‘the person skilled in the Art’ and what skills and knowledge do they have? (3) Whether India follows the tests laid down by UK court, if yes, what is the effect in India?

[Ansari, Jamshed. A Critical Analysis Of The Development Of The ‘Inventive Step’ Criteria For Grant Of Patent In Uk And India”. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):14-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.03

 

Key Words: Inventive Step, Patent, novelty, industrial application, Non-obviousness, Person skilled in the art etc.

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The Minimal Stimulation Protocol for ICSI: An Alternative Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation

 

Adel Elsayed Ibrahim, MD

 

Assisted Reproductive Unit – Azhar University

Adel.sayed29@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The long agonist protocol has become the standard protocol in the IVF unit all over the world, because it associated with highest pregnancy outcome. In other hand the long agonist protocol is extremely complex and costly, creating considerable side effects, risk of complications notably ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome and twins pregnancy. So an alternative protocol for minimal stimulation IVF was developed to alleviate some of concerns associated with long agonist protocol. Setting; Azhar ART unit. Patient and methods; A retrospective study carried out at Azhar ART unit in the period from January 2012 to April 2013, in which 100 women with good prognosis were recruited for ICSI,they were classified into;50 patients were received the minimal stimulation protocol and 50 patients were received long agonist protocol. The outcome measures were duration of stimulation, number of HMG ampules, total number of oocyte retrieved, total number of embryos available for transfer, number of transferred embryos and pregnancy outcome. Results; the duration of stimulation was significantly shorter in the minimal stimulation protocol, as well as number of HMG ampules was significantly lower in the minimal stimulation protocol. The incidence of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome and twins pregnancy were significantly lower in the minimal stimulation protocol, but cancellation rate were significantly higher in the long agonist protocol (25 %).As regard clinical pregnancy outcome per embryo transfer, there were no significant differences between minimal stimulation protocol and long agonist protocol (35% vs 40%), but the pregnancy outcome per initiated cycle was significantly higher in the long agonist protocol. Conclusions; The minimal stimulation protocol is associated with minimal side effects, lower coast and comparable pregnancy outcome per embryo transfer, and can be used as alternative for long protocol in the selected patients.

[Adel elsayed Ibrahim. The Minimal Stimulation Protocol for ICSI: An Alternative Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):19-23]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.04

 

Keywords: ICSI, long protocol, short protocol, minimal stimulation protocol, OHSS, multiple pregnancies

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Bounded Operators  with Imaginary Powers in Hilbert Space

 

Ahmed Alnaji Abasher

 

Department of  Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia

ahmednb99@hotmail.com

 

Abstract. This paper deals with two aspects of the subject of the study. The first one consists of an operator of positive type in Hilbert space without bounded imaginary powers. The second one is concerned with the closedness of the sum of two closed operators in a Hilbert space. It  shows the corresponding operators in   with commuting resolvents and closable.

[Ahmed Alnaji Abasher. Bounded Operators  with Imaginary Powers in Hilbert Space. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):24-31]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.05

 Keywords: Hilbert space; imaginary power;  ; commutin

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Lead Nitrate Induced Basic Amino Acid Alterations In Liver Of Albino Rats: Chromatographic Studies.

 

Shabnum Nabi

 

Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre

Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P.

shabnum_nabi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lead is one of the most toxic metals that pollute the natural environment due to human interference and exploitation of nature. As lead cannot be degraded, it accumulates in the atmosphere, water, food and in organisms living in contaminated areas. In an attempt to study the mechanism of its toxicity, the present experiment was designed to assess the effects of lead nitrate on lysine, arginine and histidine in liver cells of rats. For the present work, six male wistar rats (3months old) were divided into saline controls(C) and lead nitrate treated group (LN). Treated rats were intoxicated with LN at a dose of 1mgkg body weight intraperitonially once a day for seven consecutive days at an interval of 24hours while control animals received a corresponding volume of isotonic saline. Health and weights of rats were monitored daily. All the animals were sacrificed on 8th day following the last exposure. Three paper strips were taken on which nine spots were placed and the results revealed absence of Arginine in T2 treated liver homogenate, Histidine was absent in T1 and T3 liver homogenate, while Lysine was found absent in all the three homogenates (T1, T2, T3) on comparing with control rats. In summary, depletion of basic amino acids in liver cells during lead nitrate intoxication support the hypothesis that their decline leads to early ageing and growth retardation in experimental animals.

[Shabnum Nabi. Lead Nitrate Induced Basic Amino Acid Alterations In Liver Of Albino Rats: Chromatographic Studies. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):32-35]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.06

 

Keywords: Lead nitrate, Lysine, Arginine, Histidine, Liver, Rat

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Temperature dependent hopper development period of Acrida exaltata Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Kashmir, India.

 

S. Tariq Ahmad

 

Entomology Research Unit, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in, drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in

 

Abstract: This paper is based on experimental studies carried out in the laboratory with the aim to study the effect of temperature on hopper development period of Acrida exaltata. The species under study was subjected to two different temperatures viz. 250C and 300C in B.O.D. cabinets. At 250C males emerged after 96.01 days and that of females after 111.15 days while as at 300C males and females emerged after 82.77 and 93.59 days, respectively. Increase in temperature not only decreases the overall development period but also of individual instars proportionally. The ANOVA results were significant clearly indicating that the development period is decreased by increase in temperature.

[S. Tariq Ahmad. Temperature dependent hopper development period of Acrida exaltata Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Kashmir, India. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):36-39]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.07

 

Keywords: Temperature, hopper development, A. exaltata, Kashmir

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Queries about EGTR, it is innate defects----Part One ==No heat to resist the gravities of particles in the item of Energy-momentum Tensor (EMT) can be one of innate defect of The Equation of General Theory of Relativity (EGTR)==

 

Zhang Dongsheng

 

17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook,com

 

Abstracts: This article aims to demonstrate that, the mainly innate defect of EGTR is no heat in item of Energy-momentum Tensor (EMT) of EGTR to resist the gravitational contraction of particles, it must let the gravitational contracts of pure matter-particles violate the thermodynamic laws, and finally lead to the appearance of Singularity in the Universe and black holes (BH). However, if the heat energy could be added on every particle of EMT, the solution of complex EGTR would not be solved. It has been a selection of dilemma for scientists in about 100 years. Secondly, the law of mass-energy swap E=MC2 would be widely applied to black holes (BH) and cosmology, but radiations in EGTR could not be considered as having its mass. Therefore, E=MC2 could not applied in EGTR to solve any problems of BHs and cosmology. In BHs and in the process of forming any BH,  and in the evolution of our Universe, the mass-energy swap would be inevitably occurred at anytime, how could have no expression of E = MC2 in EGTR? Thirdly, the dot structure of particles in EGTR should be other important reason to produce Singularity in solving EGTR. On the times of Einstein establishing EGTR, there were no BH-theory, no universal expansion, no nuclear fusion, no ‘Big Bang’ of the Universe, etc. so, above important problems in EGTR were probably limited by the historical reasons and the scientific-technical levels and not be considered into EGTR by Einstein. However, above important defects of EGTR cannot conceal its great virtues yet. Einstein’s GTR and EGTR could have epoch-making significance in mankind and scientific history. 1*; Einstein established the united time-space world outlook of four dimensions; 2*; Formula E=MC2 had laid on the solid foundation for modern science, even if no EGTR, Einstein had reached to the scientific summit too. 3*; The great success of solving EGTR might be the special solution to EGTR got by Schwarzschild in 1916, i.e., GMb/Rb = C2/2it was the first important formula for BH theory, and defined the exsistent and necessary condition for Schwarzschild BHs (included Kerr BHs) of no chargesno moments of momentum and spherical symmetry. Why can the Schwarzschild solution to EGTR be the sole correct result? Because formula GMb/Rb = C2/2 is just to expresses the result of existence of any BH, but has no relevant with the process to form a BH. However, that process must be a thermo-dynamically irreversible process, instead, EGTR is only considered as a availably reversible process.

[Zhang Dongsheng. Queries about EGTR, it is innate defects. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):40-45]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.08

 

Key Words: The Equation of General Theory of Relativity (EGTR); innate defects of EGTR; Energy-momentum Tensor (EMT); no thermal resistance; to violate the thermo-dynamical laws; Schwarzschild solution to EGTR; Schwarzschild black holes; blackhole(BH)-theory; Plank Era.  

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Listeria Species And Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles Of HIV/AIDS Patients In Lagos, Nigeria.

 

Akano, S. O; Deji-Agboola, A. M. and Oluwadun A.

 

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology

Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

E- mail: akanosao@yahoo.com, Tel: +2348037062648.

 

Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species, as bacterial opportunistic infectious agents in HIV/AIDS patients, are rarely studied prospectively, particularly in developing nations of the world like Nigeria. Furthermore antibiotic susceptibility data of Listeria are scarce, and from the initial observation of Listeria as being generally antibiotic susceptible, its resistance to antibiotic agents has gradually evolved over the years. The incidence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in HIV/AIDS patients in Lagos, Nigeria were therefore investigated. Fecal samples from 326 HIV/AIDS patients and 200 HIV sero-negative gastroenteritis patients (control) of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were screened for the presence of 6 different species of Listeria and the antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates were determined by the disc diffusion method of antibiotic susceptibility test. There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes (8.9%) and Listeria species (23.3%) in HIV/AIDS patients compared with the incidence of (1%) and (5.5%) respectively in HIV sero-negative patients (control). This finding agrees with previous ones which have identified immune-suppressive status in HIV/AIDS patients as a risk factor of the disease, listeriosis. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates revealed marked resistance to antibiotics tested in varying degrees. The implication of this in deciding the drug of choice for the treatment of the disease listeriosis, and also the status of Listeria monocytogenes as a vector candidate in HIV/AIDS vaccine research, in view of the emerging resistance of the organism to antibiotics, were discussed.

[Akano, S. O; Deji-Agboola, A. M. and Oluwadun A. Listeria Species And Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles Of HIV/AIDS Patients In Lagos, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):46-52]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.09

 

Key Words: Listeria species profile, HIV/AIDS patients, Antibiotic Resistance.

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Investigation authenticity verification protocols in wireless sensor networks and propose a suitable authenticity verification protocol

 

Ali Akbarian

 

MSc student of encryption, University of Imam Hossein

azaryali@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Thereof protocols in wireless sensor networks could not have any complex computation because of energy and memory constraints. So the light thereof protocols in networks with symmetric encryption algorithms must be used for construction of summary functions. Some authenticity verification protocol and objections in this regard have been investigated and then examined the expression them and finally an affordable and lightweight authenticity verification protocol offered not only good but also has the previous protocol, and deliver on them, this protocol is quite high.

[Ali Akbarian. Investigation authenticity verification protocols in wireless sensor networks and propose a suitable authenticity verification protocol. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):53-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.10

 

Keywords: authenticity verification protocols, wireless sensor networks, a symmetric encryption algorithm, abstracting functions, lightweight

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Jurisprudential investigation in use of Drugs

 

Marzieh Seifipoor1 (Corresponding author), Dr. Masoud Raei2

 

1- MSc of Jurisprudence and Principles of Islamic Law, College of Law, Islamic Azad University of Najaf Abad Branch, Isfahan, Iran

2- PhD in International Law, Assistant professor and faculty member of Law group, Islamic

Azad University of Najaf Abad Branch, Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: The word of drug means all kinds of drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens mantle that are physical and psychological painful followed by one or more times after taking the drug. One of the important issues of drug sentencing jurisprudence examine contemporary mother, which do not require extensive jurisprudence. Drugs were not known at the time of Islam, so that the question of infallible Imams (PBUH) is not a sentence them to be expressed. General rules and principles of law that came to be known as the Book and the Sunnah and Tafrigh Al Forou Men Al Osoul principle to review the sentence. Islam is a way to access the drug seemed to consist of: Investigate the properties, characteristics and consequences or effects that may arise regarding drugs, such as being harmful to the body, John, corruption and lies, and ... If Islam is clear about each of these features, we can sentence on the drug charge. It seems that the general rules of law and called the Book and Sunnah indicates that the use of prohibited substances that have a gross disadvantage is legitimate and rational prohibited.

[Marzieh Seifipoor, Masoud Raei. Jurisprudential investigation in use of Drugs. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):58-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.11

 

Key words: drugs, self-destruction, Qhaedat Al Zarar

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The scientific study of factors affecting the victim's psychology and the statute law in Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Shirzad Amiri 1, Amir Ahmadi2, Shahabuddin Naseri3, Shahab Ivan neshan 4

 

1. Department of law Islam Abad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, IranEmail: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com

3. Department of law Islam Abad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

4. Department of law Islam Abad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

 

Abstract: Today, along with new revolutions in the domain of criminology studies leads attentions to fours beyond criminal act, namely victims by the researchers of sociology according to victim –oriented approaches, the dominant conditions on forming the crime and victimization is investigated and analyzed to take step preventing crimes and its consequences victimization has physical effects,mental effects (decreasing the external relationship and emotions and continuous anxiety), cognitive disorders (memory and concentration, legal effects and economical effects in the present paper,while investigating different dimensions of victimization and different views about victim logy, we will investigate the effective factors on victimization.

[Shirzad Amiri, Amir Ahmadi, Shahabuddin Naseri, Shahabuddin Ivan neshan. The scientific study of factors affecting the victim's psychology and the statute law in Islamic Republic of Iran. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):64-70]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.12

 

Keywords: factors affecting, victim's, psychology, statute law, Iran

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Application of Integrated Geophysical Methods to Delineating Probable Area of Metallic Mineralization at Wadi El Homer at the South of Marsa Alam City, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Adel A.A Othman.,1 M. Fathy.,1 M. Mebed., 2 M. El Rahmany.,1and Ali. F. Hammam.2

 

1Geology Dep. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University., Cairo, Egypt, 2Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority, Cairo, Egypt

Geo_alifathy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work elucidates and delineates promising buried the occurrence of mineral deposits in wadi El Homer. The area under consideration is located south Marsa Alam, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. An initial geophysical survey consists of magnetic, self potential (SP) dc-electrical resistivity and chargeability (IP) were developed on one survey grid at selected location based on geological evidences to obtain four different types of maps. The data were put under specific treatments of application of certain processing. The results which obtained from the initial stage have be under consideration, consequently some promising sites were anticipated by combining the results of the initial stage of geophysical surveys performed in the selected area. Consequently, six detailed 2-D electrical resistivity and induced polarization tomography measurements were carried out along profiles over cross some of these selected promising sites. The survey results indicate the possibility of two types of mineralization, disseminated metallic mineralization and concentrated metallic mineralization, being present in the area which was explored.

[Adel A.A Othman., M. Fathy., M. Mebed., M. El Rahmany, and Ali. F. A. Hamam. Application of Integrated Geophysical Methods to Delineating Probable Area of Metallic Mineralization at Wadi El Homer at the South of Marsa Alam City, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):71-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.13

 

Keywords: Integrated Geophysical Method; Delineating Probable Area; Metallic Mineralization

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A comparative study of civil liability of Inaction on Laws of Iran and Egypt

 

Abdollah Ghaderi1, Peiman Latifi  2, Taher Rahbar3

 

1. Department of law, University of Tabriz, Iran. Email: Abdollah_gh2004@yahoo.com

2. Department of law, University of Tabriz, Iran. Email: peyman.latifi@yahoo.comm

3. Department of law Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

 

Abstract: The present work is concerned with civil liability arising from the non-verbal action, according to another example of them when they come to harm through indirect. To compensate for the loss incurred and due to the fact that no compensation of any loss remain, someone else is responsible for the loss Is sue based on various the orieshas been expressed by lawyers; Theories such as the theory of risk, complex theory, attribution theory and the theory of harm's fault. This paper discusses the basis of the blame has been placed, According to the civil liability arising from the actions indirect state in. Egyptian law that the has long stand most modern legal systems in Islamic countries has been studied compressively, in order to reach the conclusion which the legal systems discussed in relation to the subject is now more comprehensive. The result of Iran's rights and responsibilities of parents and employers liability with regard to the rights of the Egyptian improve transparency.

[Abdollah ghaderi, Peiman latifi, Taher rahbar. A comparative study of civil liability of Inaction on Laws of Iran and Egypt. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):82-88]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.14

 

Keywords: comparative, study of civil liability, Inaction, Laws , Iran , Egypt

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Response of liver enzymes to acute aerobic exercise in sedentary human subjects

 

Yazgaldi Nazari1(Corresponding author), Abuzar Mohamadimofrad 1, Araz Nazari 2, Rahim Jamshidi1, Foad Asjodi3

 

1. Ph.D student of physical education and Sport sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

2. MSc of physical education and Sport sciences, Higher Educational complex of Saravan, Iran

3. Applied scientific university of perspolis, sport nutrition branch, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding author email: y.nazari53@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to measure liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) in response to acute aerobic exercise in sedentary women. Materials and methods: For this purpose, 24 subjects were randomly divided in to experimental (n= 12) and controls (n= 12) groups. Exercise protocol consisted of running on a treadmill until exhaustion according to Astrand Test. Blood samples were taken from subjects before and after aerobic exercise. After assuring the normal distribution of data by Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, it was analyzed running independent and dependent T tests. Findings: Acute aerobic exercise increases the levels of AST and ALP enzymes in the experimental group in compare to pre exercise, but ALT enzyme levels did not change significantly. The comparison between groups showed that the experimental group compared with the control group had higher levels of AST and ALP. Also the ratio of AST to ALT, before and after exercise in both groups, was less than one. The significance level for all data was considered P ≤ 0/05. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise until exhaustion in sedentary women causes an increase in AST and ALP enzyme levels but it does not change ALT enzyme significantly.

[Yazgaldi Nazari, Abuzar Mohamadimofrad, Araz Nazari, Rahim Jamshidi, Foad Asjodi. Response of liver enzymes to acute aerobic exercise in sedentary human subjects. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):89-92]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.15

 

Keywords: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aerobic exercise.

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Architectural vision through Factors impacting on the safety against buildings’ collapse Egypt Delta a case study

 

Reda Mahmoud Hamada Aly

 

Architectural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

Reda211070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The factors affecting the safety of buildings are various, and it needs giving care to these factors throughout the various building stages, starting at the beginning of their design or implementation or even after finishing them, and during occupying or their maintenance. These factors can be classified into: natural factors (such as environmental, climatic, wind, heat, humidity, radiation, light, earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and the nature of the soil) and unnatural factors (like design mistakes, lack of building protection and fire, …. etc). Still, all the mentioned factors affecting the building and construction enterprises ramify throughout the research to grant a vast research space. Owing to the utmost importance the characterizes this matter, we constituted and clarified the main object of our present study which in fact lies in the analysis of some factors that contribute to the cracking of buildings and finally their ultimate collapse. Through it, we will come to the causes that led to the lean and collapse of the cases subjected to our study, as well as defining the most appropriate method to set the imperatives which can protect buildings against natural and unnatural factors. Having analyzed these causes, we can comprehend how much negligence was there that marked the stages of design and implementation (unless both are marked with such negligence) in a way that complies to the right contract criteria of design and implementation. First case in the city of Tanta, Two and third cases in the city of Al-Mahala Al-Kobra and a fourth in the city of  Kafr-Elsheikh have been studied and it was concluded that the lean and collapse causes lied in design and implementation faults alongside the lack of comply to the building regulating laws, according to what our study mentioned in detail and Non -securing the buildings against the fire.

[Reda Mahmoud Hamada Aly. Architectural vision through Factors impacting on the safety against buildings’ collapse Egypt Delta a case study. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):93-106]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.16

 

Keywords:  Building collapse, Earthquakes impact, Building safety.

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 Morphometric studies of the post embryonic developmental stages of Rice Grasshopper, Oxya japonica (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

 

S. TARIQ AHMAD1. &  MIR TAJAMUL2.

1.2.Entomology Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Morphometric analysis of the external body parts of each post embryonic development stage of rice grasshopper, Oxya japonica was carried out under laboratory conditions. Data collected included total body length, head length, antennal length, pronotum length, femur length, length of abdomen, prothoracic leg, mesothoracic leg, metathoracic leg, antenna and abdominal width,. The result of the study showed that the size of the measured body parts increased progressively during the post embryonic development. There was a strong positive relationship between the body length, femur length, antennal length and pronotum length. The life cycle of the insect included 5 instar stages. The study revealed that the total body length, head length, antennal length, abdominal length, hind femur length and length of metathoracic leg could be taken as indicators for the recognition of various instar stages.

 N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):107-111]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.17

 

Keywords: Oxya japonica; morphometrics; Vernier digital caliper

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Curbing the Menace of Prolific Breeding in “Aquatic Chicken” (Tilapia): A Way out to Improve Fish Production in Nigeria

 

Akeem Babatunde DAUDA1, Suleiman Omale YAKUBU1, Abdulfatai Olubukola OKE2

 

1 Department of Fisheries and Aquacultural Technology, Federal University Dutsin-ma, P.M.B 5001, Dutsin-ma, Katsina State.

2Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture P.M.B 7267, Umudike Abia State Nigeria.

dedabak03@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Global aquaculture production has been growing steadily since mid 1990s and in Africa, Nigeria is one of the significant strongly growing producers. Despite the increase in aquaculture production in Nigeria, the country still remains a net importer of fish therefore there is need for intensification and diversification. Clariids represents the major species of fish culture in Nigeria and to diversify there is need for development of the culture of other fish species. Development of Tilapia production will enhance the attainment of food security in fish production due to its positive Aquacultural characteristics. However the biological characteristics of early maturity and prolific breeding remain the major challenges in the development of tilapia culture. Though scientists have experimented different ways of managing the menace of prolific breeding but only the culture of “All male Tilapia” seems to be an effective methods of overcoming the menace. Therefore this paper reviews the masculinization techniques used in Tilapia production for preventing overcrowding of the culture medium and ensuring production of marketable sized fish. The challenges facing some of the techniques were also highlighted.

Dauda AB, Yakubu SO, Oke AO. Curbing the Menace of Prolific Breeding in “Aquatic Chicken” (Tilapia): A

Way out to Improve Fish Production in Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2014;7(4):112-118]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnys070414.18

 

Keywords: Tilapia, Prolific breeding, aquaculture, Nigeria

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 1, 2014. 
 
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