New York Science Journal
Volume 7 -
Number 6 (Cumulated No. 64); June 25, 2014,
Cover Page, Introduction,
Contents, Call for
You can use
the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.
To get Microsoft
Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article,
change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to
.doc (or .docx)
When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is
submitted to New York Science Journal
Ecological studies of
macrophytes of two major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam ,
Upen Deka* and Sarada Kanta Sarma
Department of Botany, Gauhati university, Guwahati, Assam,
*Author for correspondence:
The present study
deals with the investigation of the macrophytic diversity of
Borbilla beel and Borali beel which are two largest wetlands of
Nalbari district of Assam covering an area of 55 hectares and 40
hectares respectively and its ecological status, particularly
among the plant communities. While Borali beel is regularly
affected by river flood water, the other one faces no such
disturbances and are very rich in resources which are utilized
by the people living in its vicinities.The study was carried out
for a period of two years i.e. from January 2012 to December
2013. Altogether 92 macrophytic species belonging to 77 genera
and 34 families have been reported from these wetlands. Of these
species, monocotyledons are represented by 43 species under 37
genera and 15 families while dicotyledons are represented by 49
species under 40 genera and 19 families. Various diversity
indices of the wetland plant communities were calculated to show
the species richness (Margalef, 1964), Shannon – Weiver
Diversity Index (Shannon and Weiver, 1963), Simpson’s Dominance
Index (Simpson, 1949), Evenness Index (Pielou, 1966) and
Similarity index (Sorensen, 1948). During the study period
maximum values of species richness, diversity and dominance
index, and evenness of the macrophytic communities were shown at
Borbilla beel during the summer season and similarity index was
also found to be maximum during the summer season ( 0.686)
between the two wetlands. The study shows that the two wetlands
although situated away from one another yet so far as species
contents are concerned, the two wetlands have similarities in
their plant species composition.
[Upen Deka and Sarada
Ecological studies of macrophytes of two major wetlands of
Nalbari district of Assam, India.
N Y Sci J
Wetland; Macrophytic species; Species richness; Diversity and
Childhood Septicemia; Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial
Pathogens and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Maiduguri,
Okon KO1, Askira UM2, Ghamba PE3,
Isyaka TM4,5, Hamidu IM5, Kankop JW6,
of Medical Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi
of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medical Sciences
University of Maiduguri,3WHO National Polio/ITD
Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri
4Department of Medical Microbiology, College of
Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri
Department of Immunology and Infectious diseases,University of
Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri
of Heamatology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital,
of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.
Childhood septicemia remains the leading cause of morbidity and
mortality among children aged less than 5 years in sub-Saharan
African countries. Appropriate choice of antimicrobial agents
for treatment and management will depends on adequate knowledge
of the bacterial agents and their antimicrobial pattern
recovered from positive blood culture in the hospital. The
retrospective study determined the bacterial pathogens and their
antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in suspected cases of
childhood septicemia presented at the hospital over the study
period. A total of 2134 patients aged less than 12 years
admitted into the Pediatrics department with suspected cases of
childhood septicemia were recruited into the study. 255(11.5%)
yielded significant bacterial growth, high bacterial isolation
rate was recorded within the age-group 12-60months (29.8%),
followed by 1-3months (28.2%), and <1 month (27.5%)
respectively. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 66.7%
pathogens isolated compared to gram-positive bacteria (33.3%).
Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, and
Salmonella spp were isolated at the following frequency,
66.7%, 12.9%, and 7.5%.High sensitivities were observed with
ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ceftazidime, cefuroxime
and erythromycin and resistance with ampicillin-cloxacillin,
co-trimoxazole and augmentine. In conclusion, this retrospective
study identified the common bacterial pathogens associated with
childhood septicemia, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern
and possible factors influencing negative blood cultures
results.However,periodic studies should be encouraged for better
understanding of the local epidemiology of the clinical
conditions and the antibiotic therapy approach.
[Okon KO, Askira UM, Ghamba PE, Isyaka TM, Hamidu IM, Kankop JW,
Aguoru CO. Childhood Septicemia; Retrospective Analysis of
Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in
N Y Sci J
Childhood septicemia, bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial
susceptibility pattern, Maiduguri.
Potential of Aqueous Extract of Spinacia oleracea Leaf in
C.D., 1Abdulkarim, M., 1Adoga, G.I.,
2Tijjani, H. and 1Olatunde, A.
of Biochemistry, University of Jos,
P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Bauchi State University,
P.M.B. 65, Gadau, Nigeria
The effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of
leaf on some haematological indices
and body weight changes in
phenylhydrazine-treated rats as well as its phytochemical
constituents were investigated. Extract was administered to
anaemic and normal rats at
100 mg/kg bwt. once daily for 28 days.
Extract was found to be rich in phytochemicals and improved the
body weight of anaemic and normal treated rats. No significant
(p>0.05) change was observed in PCV of anaemia treated group and
normal treated group compared with control. However, there was a
significant (p<0.05) increase in level of Hb of the normal
The PCV, Hb and RBC level of the anaemia treated group increased
(p<0.05) significantly when compared with that of the anaemia
extract of S. oleracea leaves reversed anaemic conditions
in the phenylhydrazine-treated rats; these may be attributed to
its rich phytochemical, nutrient and vitamin contents.
C.D., Abdulkarim, M., Adoga, G.I., Tijjani, H. and
Olatunde, A. Anti-anaemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of
Spinacia oleracea Leaf in Phenylhydrazine-treated Rats.
N Y Sci J
Anti-anaemic potential; Phenylhydrazine; Haematological
The study of
temporary marriage on the approach of imamites and the common
people canon law
Islamic Azad University, Isfahan science Research Branch
Department of Faculty of Theology,
Of view of whole
muslims,the temporal marriage was permissible at early islam.
For this was in point on the great quran and the prophet's sunah
as well on the time of Abubakrvicegerency and parts of "umar"
one's people are doing it. The only issue of dispute about the
temporary marriage on islamis it's continuance or abrogation of
this decree of god. The shi'ites and some of distinguished
companions of the prophet are believed that this decree hasn't
abrogated yet. However some of the sunni orthodoxy claim that
this decreeof god has abrogated. And this is when there are
plenty of reports on the discord of "umaribnkhatab" concerned
with this divine decree on it'svicegerency. Some objections also
are related on this cause of "umar",for his prevention is in
reality on apparent objection with the book of god and the
sunnah of prophet. As a result of this matter the sunniorthodoxy
jurisprudents are planned for its justification and some of
concubine verse and as well as some other people aknowledged
"umar's" prevention the same of prophet one,and narrated some
contradictory traditions on this case,whichshiite scholars of
jurisprudents bu using from presented narration and verses in
this field rejected their inferences. At the cessation of this
paper it was hinted that the islamic state ought to prepare some
limitations and terms for prevention of arduousnesseson temporal
marriage based upon benefits due to the time and place and at
the same time to coach the ground to the logical using of it.
Zarchi. The study of temporary marriage on the
approach of imamites and the comon people canon law.
N Y Sci J
marriage, concubine, sunnism, abrogation.
The Strategy of "Sword and
Smile" In New IRAN &US Foreign policies
Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh (PhD) 1, A.
Askari (PhD) 2 Amir Abbas
Ghassempour (M.A) 3
Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Iran
Head of Sub-Committee of Foreign
Relations at Iranian Parliament (7th.&
8th.terms of Legislature). Email:
2. Department of Iran
Broadcasting University, Iran, PhD in
International Relations, Experton Inter-Parliamentary affairs &
political researcher, Email:
of "Dionysus" of the year 2009 was substituted with the goddess
of "Apollo", just four years later in the election atmosphere of
2013. These two Greek goddesses, always competing and
incompatible to each other, suggest certain fluctuations
occurred aftermath of past two presidential elections in Iran.
Dionysus as the god of sensation, exaltation, love, inebriation,
excitement and revolt vs. Apollo, the god of wisdom, order,
quiet, calculation and law. The mistake, being often made by
most of the Western as well as American officials in particular,
is that they have occasionally pursued the policy of misusing
Dionysus conditions of Iranians for disturbing Apollonian order
of the country. In other words, they have misused the Iranians’
sensations to disturb peace of the people. More interestingly,
instead of recognition of the realities of the Iranian society,
they have been following the goal of imposing an identical and
self-made definition on a nation that are not disposed and
willing to witness their own order, peace and tranquility and
also their think of development and progress to be sacrificed by
foreign coveting, though they are master in Dionysius behaviors
construed by "Hannah Arendt" as pre-requisite for freedom.
Iranian are well aware that these powers had stood against the
revolutionaries’ Dionysus-inspired love and enthusiasm in the
second half of the 1970s, in order to maintain the despotic
order of the deposed Shah of the day, and now the same power are
using the same Iranians' excitement and stimulation to weaken
diplomatic bargaining power, denying their undeniable rights,
imposing sanctions on them, chaos making, interferences as well
as taking their peace and tranquility away.
[Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh, A.
Askari Amir Abbas Ghassempour (M.A).
The Strategy Of "Sword and Smile" In New IRAN &US Foreign
policies. N Y Sci
Arab world, popular uprisings,
Iran's national security.
security of web-based electronic payment systems
1, Dr.Nasser modiri 2
Department of Electrical, Computer & IT, Zanjan Branch, Islamic
Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
Professor in Department of Electrical , Computer & IT, Zanjan
Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
Secure web-based electronic payment
system is one of the
main concerns of
governments and individuals and
the world. However,
determining the degree
of safety of the
system is still one
of the most challenging
and important issues
in the world
The method presented
in this paper for evaluating
the safety and
electronic payment systems,
mail and other
electronic payment systems
to be used.
mehdizadeh, Nasser modiri.
Evaluation security of web-based electronic payment systems.
N Y Sci J
network security, e-commerce.
Understanding of ADHD. A Critical Review
Educational Graduate Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.
Box: 80200, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a commonly
diagnosed disorder in children, and is thus diagnosed during
childhood years with prevalence rates of between 3% and 7%. In
their own environment, children with ADHD experience many
challenges in their everyday learning and self-worth perception,
and thus they are in need of support throughout their lives and
in several different aspects. ADHD symptoms have the potential
to lead to considerable problems in children, in and with their
family, and schooling. The core symptoms of ADHD have
considerable negative effects on the child development of
social, emotional and cognitive skills, and pose considerable
costs to healthcare and education systems. For example, a child
with ADHD frequently faces low levels of self-esteem, as well as
frustration and depression.
Current Understanding of ADHD. A Critical Review.
N Y Sci J
Epidemiology; Developmental Course.
dynamics, diversity and abundance of medicinal plants vis-à-vis
anthropogenic interferences-A Review
Irshad A. Wani1,
Shabeer A. Wani2, S. Tariq Ahmed 3, S.
Poornima4, Mushtaq A. Najar5
Department of Life sciences, Bhagwant University, Ajmer,
Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology,
University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu
Govt. Boys Degree College, Anantnag, Kashmir, J & K
paper reviews important and outstanding work on population
dynamics, diversity and abundance of economically important
medicinal plants vis-à-vis selected ones. Perusal of the
literature revealed that the climate and edaphic factors are
responsible for the proper growth and development of select
medicinal plant of the area.
Wani SA, Poornima S, Ahmad TS, Najar MA. Population dynamics,
diversity and abundance of selected medicinal plants at
disturbed and undisturbed sites-A Review.
N Y Sci J
Abundance, Diversity, Medicinal plants, Kashmir.
Rectus Muscle Recession Surgery: Outcome & Patients’ Dose
Sanjari1, Farideh Davoudi2, Kourosh
Shahraki3, Amin Najafi4, Hamidreza
Seifmanesh5, Parva Namiranian2
professor of ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research
center, Iran University of medical sciences and health services,
2- Student of
medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of medical
sciences and health services, Tehran, Iran.
3- Resident of
Ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran
University of medical sciences and health services, Tehran,
4- Resident of
Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of medical
sciences and health services, Tabriz, Iran.
5- Student of
medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of medical
sciences and health services, Ilam, Iran.
To identify success rate and response to bilateral medial rectus
muscle recession in patients with esotropia. Methods: In
this retrospective study we reviewed records of 130 patients
(aged 6month to 48 years) who had recession surgery for
correction of esotropia at 1 month, 3 month and 2 years after
the surgery. Results:
One month after operation (n = 109), there were 85 (78.1%)
successful cases, 18 (16.4%) cases of under correction, and 6
(5.5%) case of overcorrection. The success rate at the two
postoperative years (n =82) was 78.2% with 13.3% under
correction and 8.5% over correction.
The preoperative angle of esodeviation and patients’ age are
found to significantly influence the response to the surgery.
Surgery is effective because of high success rate and acceptable
alignment after 2 years follow up. Dose response increased in
patients with larger angle of preoperative esodeviation, and was
lower for patients who were older at the time of the surgery.
MS, Davoudi F, Shahraki K, Najafi A, Seifmanesh H, Namiranian P.
Bilateral Medial Rectus Muscle Recession Surgery: Outcome &
Patients’ Dose Response.
N Y Sci J
Bilateral Medial Rectus Recession.
Surgical results of intermittent exotropia
Soltan Sanjari1, Kourosh Shahraki2, Amin
Najafi3, Kaveh Abri Aghdam4, Shahbaz
Nekoozadeh5, Amir Salami5, Kianoush
Associate professor of ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye
research center, Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran,
of Ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center,
Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Resident of Ophthalmology, Tabriz University of medical
sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Assistant professor of ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye
research center, Iran university of medical sciences, Tehran,
Student of medicine, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center,
Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Student of medicine, Mashhad University of medical sciences,
Intermittent exotropia is disease of outward deviation of the
eye. The choice of treatment is surgery. In this study, we check
the factors affecting the outcome of the surgical procedure and
compare the results with and without the use of adjustable
sutures in surgery periodically. In this cross-sectional study,
which analyze a nonrandomized convenient record of 238 patients
who underwent surgery between 2006 to 2012 in Rasoul-Akram
hospital. Follow up was two times, first one day after operation
and next in the last visit. At each follow-up examination,
strabismus and size of the deviation was determined. At the
first follow up a significant correlation was found between the
success rate of surgery and type of the sutures used, also at
the last follow up visit significant difference found between
the success rate of surgeries by adjustable and non-adjustable
sutures. According to the results obtained in this study,
surgical success was independent of the age. The study also
showed that the success rate of the operation is independent of
the type of surgical techniques. However, the success rate of
the surgery and the correction of strabismus in patients who had
surgery with adjustable sutures were significantly greater than
in patients that operated with non-adjustable sutures.
MS, Shahraki K, Najafi A, Abri Aghdam K, Nekoozadeh SH, Salami
A, Shahraki K. Surgical
results of intermittent exotropia.
N Y Sci J
Intermittent Exotropia, Surgery.
some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria against some
brands of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid
Adeleke O E*, Ogunniyi O.A and Olarinde J D
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan,
Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase in leaps and
bounds cutting across different classes of antibiotics. Among
the strategies adopted to combat the menace is combination drug
therapy. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination finds
application in this regard. Branded antibiotic combinations are
equally on the increase thereby posing a problem of making the
right choice among the different brands by the medical
personnel. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of
five different brands of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against
twenty-eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species
from four Genera. All the isolates produced beta-lactamase and
were mostly multidrug-resistant. The Gram-negative bacterial
isolates showed least resistance rates to ofloxacin. Seven of
the 10 highly resistant strains revealed one copy each of
plasmid DNA. Generally, curing of plasmid DNA was obtained at
200 µg/ml of ethidium bromide in all the six isolates tested
using 30 µg/ml and 12 µg/ml of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
Minimum Inhibitory and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations
obtained by tube-broth dilution for the Gram-negatives were high
compared to the Gram-positives. The study reflects no
differences in the potency of the brands of AMC tested and
increase in the resistance of all the bacterial isolates to
[Adeleke O E, Ogunniyi O A and Olarinde J D.
Susceptibility of some Gram-positive and Gram-negative
bacteria against some brands of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
N Y Sci J
2014;7(6):80-86]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).
amoxicillin-clavulanate, brands, bacteria, susceptibility.
Bacteriocin as Bio-preservative in Foods
1*, Elouboudy S.S. 1, Abdelaziz Z.K.
2, Hassan M.A. 3 and Emara M.B. 1
and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar
University, Cairo, Egypt.
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar
University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University,
Preservatives aim either to destroy or inhibit the growth of
harmful microorganisms in food by making an environment
unsuitable for them. Traditional means of controlling microbial
spoilage and safety hazards in foods are being replaced by
combinations of innovative technologies that include biological
antimicrobial systems such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and/or
their bacteriocins. The use of LAB and/or their bacteriocins,
either alone or in combination with mild physicochemical
treatments and low concentrations of traditional and natural
chemical preservatives, may be an efficient way of extending
shelf life and food safety through the inhibition of spoilage
and pathogenic bacteria without altering the nutritional quality
of raw materials and food products. In this study, both of
chemical preservative as sodium nitrite and natural preservative
as Bacteriocin and Nisin were used at different concentrations
to examine the effect of each one alone and in combined with
each other against different food pathogens. Minced meat samples
were inoculated with the prepared cultures of different pathogen
as E. coli O111:K58, E. coli O124:K72, E. coli
O128:K67, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus
aureus and Bacillus cereus at dose of 1×106/
CFU per gram. It was found that both of Sodium nitrite at 125
ppm and Nisin at 10 ppm has inhibitory effect on the examined
pathogens as their count was minimized but still viable, while
Nisin at 30 ppm prevent the growth of gram – positive pathogens.
When the two preservatives (Sodium nitrite at 125 ppm and Nisin
at 10 ppm) were used in combined with each other in presence of
Lactate (0.01%) no growth observed for both gram – positive or
gram – negative pathogens.
Elouboudy SS, Abdelaziz ZK, Hassan MA and Emara MB.
Application of Bacteriocin as Bio-preservative in Foods.
N Y Sci J
preservatives; Sodium nitrite; Bacteriocin; Nisin.
Distribution of Indoor and Outdoor Fungi in the Air of El-Beida
El-Gali1, Ebtisam Mohamed Abdullrahman 2
of plant pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of
Omer Al-Mukhtar , El-Beida, Libya.
objective of the present study was to assess culturable airborne
fungal colony, and types in different seasons. Open Petri Dish
with two media PDA and MEA were used. Culturable airborne fungal
concentrations were collected indoors and outdoors of 15 homes
in different localities from April 2013 to March 2014 in Libya.
The greatest colony were found in the Autumn and Summer seasons,
while the lowest was recorded in Winter. Alternaria
alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium
solani, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium digitatum
were the predominant genera indoors and outdoors, and the
abundance of genera varied by season.
ZI., Abdullrahman EM. Seasonal Distribution of Indoor and
Outdoor Fungi in the Air of El-Beida City, Libya.
N Y Sci J
Fungi, Indoor, Outdoor, seasonal distribution, Environment,
advantages in tourism attraction
Majid Rahmani Seryasat1,*,
Ahmad Pour Ahmad2, Taghi Karimian3, Mehdi
Shahram Samadi Khadem5
Professor, Faculty of Geography,
University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Ms.c Student, Faculty of
Geography, Department of Rural Planning, University of Tehran,
Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Considering the fact that health
tourism is one of the Tourism type that have both The effects of
the economic and cultural And medical aspects that To reduce
neurological disorders, muscle aches, etc are used. The Sarein
in Ardabil province Due to the special geographical conditions
and unique natural hot springs and mineral can be considered as
one of the major poles of health tourism. So the current survey
that is on a Descriptive - survey manner And using
questionnaire tools was carried out that The sample size
was estimated to be 350 that After gathering the information To
analyze the data using T-test And Spss software variance were
done so The findings show that Between favorable variables And
infrastructure development With tourism increasing in the area
there is a Significant relationship and As well as health
tourism Have increased on the Other types of tourism in the
region And finally some Guidelines In order to boost the tourism
sector were presented.
Seryasat, Ahmad Pour Ahmad, Taghi Karimian, Mehdi Hajilo,
Shahram Samadi Khadem.
advantages in tourism attraction
N Y Sci J
hot springs, health
tourism, Sarein, Ardebil province
The manuscripts in
this issue were presented as online first for peer-review,
starting from June 1, 2014.
All comments are
For back issues of the
Science Journal, click