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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 7 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 64); June 25, 2014, ISSN 1554-0200; Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0706

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Ecological studies of macrophytes of two major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam , India

 

Upen Deka* and Sarada Kanta Sarma

 

Department of Botany, Gauhati university, Guwahati, Assam, India.

*Author for correspondence: upen_deka@yahoo.in

 

Abstract: The present study deals with the investigation of the macrophytic diversity of Borbilla beel and Borali beel which are two largest wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam covering an area of 55 hectares and 40 hectares respectively and its ecological status, particularly among the plant communities. While Borali beel is regularly affected by river flood water, the other one faces no such disturbances and are very rich in resources which are utilized by the people living in its vicinities.The study was carried out for a period of two years i.e. from January 2012 to December 2013. Altogether 92 macrophytic species belonging to 77 genera and 34 families have been reported from these wetlands. Of these species, monocotyledons are represented by 43 species under 37 genera and 15 families while dicotyledons are represented by 49 species under 40 genera and 19 families. Various diversity indices of the wetland plant communities were calculated to show the species richness (Margalef, 1964), Shannon – Weiver Diversity Index (Shannon and Weiver, 1963), Simpson’s Dominance Index (Simpson, 1949), Evenness Index (Pielou, 1966) and Similarity index (Sorensen, 1948). During the study period maximum values of species richness, diversity and dominance index, and evenness of the macrophytic communities were shown at Borbilla beel during the summer season and similarity index was also found to be maximum during the summer season ( 0.686) between the two wetlands. The study shows that the two wetlands although situated away from one another yet so far as species contents are concerned, the two wetlands have similarities in their plant species composition.

[Upen Deka and Sarada Kanta Sarma. Ecological studies of macrophytes of two major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam, India. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):1-8]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.01

 

Key Words: Wetland; Macrophytic species; Species richness; Diversity and Dominance Index; Evenness Index; Similarity Index.

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Childhood Septicemia; Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Maiduguri, Nigeria

 

Okon KO1, Askira UM2, Ghamba PE3, Isyaka TM4,5, Hamidu IM5, Kankop JW6, Aguoru CU7

 

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi

2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medical Sciences University of Maiduguri,3WHO National Polio/ITD Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri 4Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri

5 Department of Immunology and Infectious diseases,University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri

6Department of Heamatology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri

7Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.

E-mail-okonkenneth@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Childhood septicemia remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children aged less than 5 years in sub-Saharan African countries. Appropriate choice of antimicrobial agents for treatment and management will depends on adequate knowledge of the bacterial agents and their antimicrobial pattern recovered from positive blood culture in the hospital. The retrospective study determined the bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in suspected cases of childhood septicemia presented at the hospital over the study period. A total of 2134 patients aged less than 12 years admitted into the Pediatrics department with suspected cases of childhood septicemia were recruited into the study. 255(11.5%) yielded significant bacterial growth, high bacterial isolation rate was recorded within the age-group 12-60months (29.8%), followed by 1-3months (28.2%), and <1 month (27.5%) respectively. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 66.7% pathogens isolated compared to gram-positive bacteria (33.3%). Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, and Salmonella spp were isolated at the following frequency, 66.7%, 12.9%, and 7.5%.High sensitivities were observed with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ceftazidime, cefuroxime and erythromycin and resistance with ampicillin-cloxacillin, co-trimoxazole and augmentine. In conclusion, this retrospective study identified the common bacterial pathogens associated with childhood septicemia, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and possible factors influencing negative blood cultures results.However,periodic studies should be encouraged for better understanding of the local epidemiology of the clinical conditions and the antibiotic therapy approach.

[Okon KO, Askira UM, Ghamba PE, Isyaka TM, Hamidu IM, Kankop JW, Aguoru CO. Childhood Septicemia; Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Maiduguri, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):9-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.02

 

Keywords: Childhood septicemia, bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, Maiduguri.

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3

Anti-anaemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Spinacia oleracea Leaf in Phenylhydrazine-treated Rats

 

1Luka, C.D., 1Abdulkarim, M., 1Adoga, G.I., 2Tijjani, H. and 1Olatunde, A.

 

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

2DBR Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Bauchi State University, P.M.B. 65, Gadau, Nigeria

olatundeahmed@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea leaf on some haematological indices and body weight changes in phenylhydrazine-treated rats as well as its phytochemical constituents were investigated. Extract was administered to anaemic and normal rats at 100 mg/kg bwt. once daily for 28 days. Extract was found to be rich in phytochemicals and improved the body weight of anaemic and normal treated rats. No significant (p>0.05) change was observed in PCV of anaemia treated group and normal treated group compared with control. However, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in level of Hb of the normal treated group. The PCV, Hb and RBC level of the anaemia treated group increased (p<0.05) significantly when compared with that of the anaemia untreated group. Aqueous extract of S. oleracea leaves reversed anaemic conditions in the phenylhydrazine-treated rats; these may be attributed to its rich phytochemical, nutrient and vitamin contents.

[Luka, C.D., Abdulkarim, M., Adoga, G.I., Tijjani, H. and Olatunde, A. Anti-anaemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Spinacia oleracea Leaf in Phenylhydrazine-treated Rats. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):14-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.03

 

Keywords: Spinacia oleracea; Anti-anaemic potential; Phenylhydrazine; Haematological indices.

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The study of temporary marriage on the approach of imamites and the common people canon law

 

Fatemeh Rezaei Zarchi1, Elham Rezaei Zarchi 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Isfahan science Research Branch

Email: fatemarezaei@yahoo.com

2. Department of Faculty of Theology, Yazd University, Iran

 

Abstract: Of view of whole muslims,the temporal marriage was permissible at early islam. For this was in point on the great quran and the prophet's sunah as well on the time of Abubakrvicegerency and parts of "umar" one's people are doing it. The only issue of dispute about the temporary marriage on islamis it's continuance or abrogation of this decree of god. The shi'ites and some of distinguished companions of the prophet are believed that this decree hasn't abrogated yet. However some of the sunni orthodoxy claim that this decreeof god has abrogated. And this is when there are plenty of reports on the discord of "umaribnkhatab" concerned with this divine decree on it'svicegerency. Some objections also are related on this cause of "umar",for his prevention is in reality on apparent objection with the book of god and the sunnah of prophet. As a result of this matter the sunniorthodoxy jurisprudents are planned for its justification and some of concubine verse and as well as some other people aknowledged "umar's" prevention the same of prophet one,and narrated some contradictory traditions on this case,whichshiite scholars of jurisprudents bu using from presented narration and verses in this field rejected their inferences. At the cessation of this paper it was hinted that the islamic state ought to prepare some limitations and terms for prevention of arduousnesseson temporal marriage based upon benefits due to the time and place and at the same time to coach the ground to the logical using of it.

[Fatemeh Rezaei Zarchi, Elham Rezaei Zarchi. The study of temporary marriage on the approach of imamites and the comon people canon law. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):19-22]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.04

 

Keywords: temporal marriage, concubine, sunnism, abrogation.

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5

The Strategy of "Sword and Smile" In New IRAN &US Foreign policies

 

Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh (PhD) 1, A. Ali Askari (PhD) 2 Amir Abbas Ghassempour (M.A) 3

 

1. Department of Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Iran

Head of Sub-Committee of Foreign Relations at Iranian Parliament (7th.& 8th.terms of Legislature). Email: drfalahatpisheh@yahoo.com, Tel:+989121473148

2. Department of Iran Broadcasting University, Iran, PhD in industrial engineering, Disposition: Systems and efficiency

3. International Relations, Experton Inter-Parliamentary affairs & political researcher, Email: Tarjoman_2020@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The goddess of "Dionysus" of the year 2009 was substituted with the goddess of "Apollo", just four years later in the election atmosphere of 2013. These two Greek goddesses, always competing and incompatible to each other, suggest certain fluctuations occurred aftermath of past two presidential elections in Iran. Dionysus as the god of sensation, exaltation, love, inebriation, excitement and revolt vs. Apollo, the god of wisdom, order, quiet, calculation and law. The mistake, being often made by most of the Western as well as American officials in particular, is that they have occasionally pursued the policy of misusing Dionysus conditions of Iranians for disturbing Apollonian order of the country. In other words, they have misused the Iranians’ sensations to disturb peace of the people. More interestingly, instead of recognition of the realities of the Iranian society, they have been following the goal of imposing an identical and self-made definition on a nation that are not disposed and willing to witness their own order, peace and tranquility and also their think of development and progress to be sacrificed by foreign coveting, though they  are master in Dionysius behaviors construed by "Hannah Arendt" as pre-requisite for freedom. Iranian are well aware that these powers had stood against the revolutionaries’ Dionysus-inspired love and enthusiasm in the second half of the 1970s, in order to maintain the despotic order of the deposed Shah of the day, and now the same power are using the same Iranians' excitement and stimulation to weaken diplomatic bargaining power, denying their undeniable rights, imposing sanctions on them, chaos making, interferences as well as taking their peace and tranquility away.

[Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh, A. Ali Askari Amir Abbas Ghassempour (M.A). The Strategy Of "Sword and Smile" In New IRAN &US Foreign policies. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):23-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.05

 

Keywords: Arab world, popular uprisings, Iran's national security.

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6

Evaluation security of web-based electronic payment systems

 

Mehdi mehdizadeh 1, Dr.Nasser modiri 2

 

1-MSc, Department of Electrical, Computer & IT, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2- Associate Professor in Department of Electrical , Computer & IT, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

post_mehdizade@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Secure web-based electronic payment system is one of the main concerns of governments and individuals and entities throughout the world. However, determining the degree of safety of the system is still one of the most challenging and important issues in the world of computers. The method presented in this paper for evaluating the safety and security of electronic payment systems, e-commerce enterprise can set mail and other electronic payment systems to be used.

[Mehdi mehdizadeh, Nasser modiri. Evaluation security of web-based electronic payment systems. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):37-48]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.06

 

Keywords: electronic payments, network security, e-commerce.

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7

Current Understanding of ADHD. A Critical Review

 

Mohaned Abed

 

Program of Educational Graduate Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box: 80200, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

mabed@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed disorder in children, and is thus diagnosed during childhood years with prevalence rates of between 3% and 7%. In their own environment, children with ADHD experience many challenges in their everyday learning and self-worth perception, and thus they are in need of support throughout their lives and in several different aspects. ADHD symptoms have the potential to lead to considerable problems in children, in and with their family, and schooling. The core symptoms of ADHD have considerable negative effects on the child development of social, emotional and cognitive skills, and pose considerable costs to healthcare and education systems. For example, a child with ADHD frequently faces low levels of self-esteem, as well as frustration and depression.

[Abed M. Current Understanding of ADHD. A Critical Review. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):49-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.07

 

Keywords: ADHD; Epidemiology; Developmental Course.

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8

Population dynamics, diversity and abundance of medicinal plants vis--vis anthropogenic interferences-A Review

 

Irshad A. Wani1, Shabeer A. Wani2, S. Tariq Ahmed 3, S. Poornima4, Mushtaq A. Najar5

 

1, 4 Department of Life sciences, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan

2,3 . Entomology Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir,  Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

5 Govt. Boys Degree College, Anantnag, Kashmir, J & K

Corresponding Author e-mail: waniirshaddn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper reviews important and outstanding work on population dynamics, diversity and abundance of economically important medicinal plants vis--vis selected ones. Perusal of the literature revealed that the climate and edaphic factors are responsible for the proper growth and development of select medicinal plant of the area.

[Wani IA, Wani SA, Poornima S, Ahmad TS, Najar MA. Population dynamics, diversity and abundance of selected medicinal plants at disturbed and undisturbed sites-A Review. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):60-68]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.08

 

Keywords: Abundance, Diversity, Medicinal plants, Kashmir.

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9

Bilateral Medial Rectus Muscle Recession Surgery: Outcome & Patients’ Dose Response

 

Mostafa Soltan Sanjari1, Farideh Davoudi2, Kourosh Shahraki3, Amin Najafi4, Hamidreza Seifmanesh5, Parva Namiranian2

 

1- Associate professor of ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran University of medical sciences and health services, Tehran, Iran.

2- Student of medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of medical sciences and health services, Tehran, Iran.

3- Resident of Ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran University of medical sciences and health services, Tehran, Iran.

4- Resident of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of medical sciences and health services, Tabriz, Iran.

5- Student of medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of medical sciences and health services, Ilam, Iran.

kourosh.shahyar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To identify success rate and response to bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in patients with esotropia. Methods: In this retrospective study we reviewed records of 130 patients (aged 6month to 48 years) who had recession surgery for correction of esotropia at 1 month, 3 month and 2 years after the surgery. Results: One month after operation (n = 109), there were 85 (78.1%) successful cases, 18 (16.4%) cases of under correction, and 6 (5.5%) case of overcorrection. The success rate at the two postoperative years (n =82) was 78.2% with 13.3% under correction and 8.5% over correction. The preoperative angle of esodeviation and patients’ age are found to significantly influence the response to the surgery. Conclusion: Surgery is effective because of high success rate and acceptable alignment after 2 years follow up. Dose response increased in patients with larger angle of preoperative esodeviation, and was lower for patients who were older at the time of the surgery.

[Sanjari MS, Davoudi F, Shahraki K, Najafi A, Seifmanesh H, Namiranian P. Bilateral Medial Rectus Muscle Recession Surgery: Outcome & Patients’ Dose Response. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):69-75]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.09

 

Keywords: Esotropia, Bilateral Medial Rectus Recession.

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Surgical results of intermittent exotropia

 

Mosfata Soltan Sanjari1, Kourosh Shahraki2, Amin Najafi3, Kaveh Abri Aghdam4, Shahbaz Nekoozadeh5, Amir Salami5, Kianoush Shahraki6

 

1- Associate professor of ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2- Resident of Ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3- Resident of Ophthalmology, Tabriz University of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4- Assistant professor of ophthalmology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5- Student of medicine, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Eye research center, Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6- Student of medicine, Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

kourosh.shahyar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Intermittent exotropia is disease of outward deviation of the eye. The choice of treatment is surgery. In this study, we check the factors affecting the outcome of the surgical procedure and compare the results with and without the use of adjustable sutures in surgery periodically. In this cross-sectional study, which analyze a nonrandomized convenient record of 238 patients who underwent surgery between 2006 to 2012 in Rasoul-Akram hospital. Follow up was two times, first one day after operation and next in the last visit. At each follow-up examination, strabismus and size of the deviation was determined. At the first follow up a significant correlation was found between the success rate of surgery and type of the sutures used, also at the last follow up visit significant difference found between the success rate of surgeries by adjustable and non-adjustable sutures. According to the results obtained in this study, surgical success was independent of the age. The study also showed that the success rate of the operation is independent of the type of surgical techniques. However, the success rate of the surgery and the correction of strabismus in patients who had surgery with adjustable sutures were significantly greater than in patients that operated with non-adjustable sutures.

[Sanjari MS, Shahraki K, Najafi A, Abri Aghdam K, Nekoozadeh SH, Salami A, Shahraki K. Surgical results of intermittent exotropia. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):76-79]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.10

 

Keywords: Intermittent Exotropia, Surgery.

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Susceptibility of some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria against some brands of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid

 

Adeleke O E*, Ogunniyi O.A and Olarinde J D

 

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

adelzek@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase in leaps and bounds cutting across different classes of antibiotics. Among the strategies adopted to combat the menace is combination drug therapy. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination finds application in this regard. Branded antibiotic combinations are equally on the increase thereby posing a problem of making the right choice among the different brands by the medical personnel. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of five different brands of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against twenty-eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species from four Genera. All the isolates produced beta-lactamase and were mostly multidrug-resistant. The Gram-negative bacterial isolates showed least resistance rates to ofloxacin. Seven of the 10 highly resistant strains revealed one copy each of plasmid DNA. Generally, curing of plasmid DNA was obtained at 200 g/ml of ethidium bromide in all the six isolates tested using 30 g/ml and 12 g/ml of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Minimum Inhibitory and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations obtained by tube-broth dilution for the Gram-negatives were high compared to the Gram-positives. The study reflects no differences in the potency of the brands of AMC tested and increase in the resistance of all the bacterial isolates to beta-lactam antibiotics.

[Adeleke O E, Ogunniyi O A and Olarinde J D. Susceptibility of some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria against some brands of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):80-86]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.11

 

Key word: amoxicillin-clavulanate, brands, bacteria, susceptibility.

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Application of Bacteriocin as Bio-preservative in Foods

 

Abdel-Shakour E.H. 1*, Elouboudy S.S. 1, Abdelaziz Z.K. 2, Hassan M.A. 3 and Emara M.B. 1

 

1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

*essam_hussain@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Food Preservatives aim either to destroy or inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms in food by making an environment unsuitable for them. Traditional means of controlling microbial spoilage and safety hazards in foods are being replaced by combinations of innovative technologies that include biological antimicrobial systems such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and/or their bacteriocins. The use of LAB and/or their bacteriocins, either alone or in combination with mild physicochemical treatments and low concentrations of traditional and natural chemical preservatives, may be an efficient way of extending shelf life and food safety through the inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria without altering the nutritional quality of raw materials and food products.  In this study, both of chemical preservative as sodium nitrite and natural preservative as Bacteriocin and Nisin were used at different concentrations to examine the effect of each one alone and in combined with each other against different food pathogens. Minced meat samples were inoculated with the prepared cultures of different pathogen as E. coli O111:K58, E. coli O124:K72, E. coli O128:K67, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus at dose of 1106/ CFU per gram. It was found that both of Sodium nitrite at 125 ppm and Nisin at 10 ppm has inhibitory effect on the examined pathogens as their count was minimized but still viable, while Nisin at 30 ppm prevent the growth of gram – positive pathogens. When the two preservatives (Sodium nitrite at 125 ppm and Nisin at 10 ppm) were used in combined with each other in presence of Lactate (0.01%) no growth observed for both gram – positive or gram – negative pathogens.

[Abdel-Shakour EH, Elouboudy SS, Abdelaziz ZK, Hassan MA and Emara MB. Application of Bacteriocin as Bio-preservative in Foods. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):87-93]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.12

 

Keywords: Food preservatives; Sodium nitrite; Bacteriocin; Nisin.

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Seasonal Distribution of Indoor and Outdoor Fungi in the Air of El-Beida City, Libya.

 

Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali1, Ebtisam Mohamed Abdullrahman 2

 

1Department of plant pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Omer Al-Mukhtar , El-Beida, Libya.

Email: Zelgali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of the present study was to assess culturable airborne fungal colony, and types in different seasons. Open Petri Dish with two media PDA and MEA were used. Culturable airborne fungal concentrations were collected indoors and outdoors of 15 homes in different localities from April 2013 to March 2014 in Libya. The greatest colony were found in the Autumn and Summer seasons, while the lowest was recorded in Winter. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium digitatum were the predominant genera indoors and outdoors, and the abundance of genera varied by season.

[El-Gali ZI., Abdullrahman EM. Seasonal Distribution of Indoor and Outdoor Fungi in the Air of El-Beida City, Libya. N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):94-100]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.13

 

Keywords: : Fungi, Indoor, Outdoor, seasonal distribution, Environment, Libya.

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Health tourism advantages in tourism attraction Case study (Sarein, Ardabil city)

 

Majid Rahmani Seryasat1,*, Ahmad Pour Ahmad2, Taghi Karimian3, Mehdi Hajilo4, Shahram Samadi Khadem5

 

1,3. Ms.c Student, Faculty of Geography, Department of Tourism Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2. Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4. Ms.c Student, Faculty of Geography, Department of Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5. Ms.c Student, Environmental Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

Email: ma.rahmani@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Considering the fact that health tourism is one of the Tourism type that have both The effects of the economic and cultural And medical aspects that To reduce neurological disorders, muscle aches, etc are used. The Sarein in Ardabil province Due to the special geographical conditions and unique natural hot springs and mineral can be considered as one of the major poles of health tourism. So the current survey that is on a Descriptive - survey manner And using questionnaire tools was carried out that The sample size was estimated to be 350 that After gathering the information To analyze the data using T-test And Spss software variance were done so The findings show that Between favorable variables And infrastructure development With tourism increasing in the area there is a Significant relationship and As well as health tourism Have increased on the Other types of tourism in the region And finally some Guidelines In order to boost the tourism sector were presented.

[Majid Rahmani Seryasat, Ahmad Pour Ahmad, Taghi Karimian, Mehdi Hajilo, Shahram Samadi Khadem. Health tourism advantages in tourism attraction Case study (Sarein, Ardabil city). N Y Sci J 2014;7(6):101-109]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys070614.14

 

Keywords: hot springs, health tourism, Sarein, Ardebil province

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 1, 2014. 
 
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