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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200; Monthly

Volume 7 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 67); September 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0709; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Haematology of Rottweiler Dog in a Tropical Environment


Olamide E. Adebiyi, Jonathan O. Ajayi, Funso O.  Olayemi


Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology,

University of Ibadan, Ibadan



Abstract: This present study was carried out to investigate the haematological values of Rottweilers in a tropical environment with respect to sex, age, and breed. There were no significant (p > 0.05) breed-related differences in the values of red blood cell counts (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) of the Rottweiler dog and the Nigerian local breed. There were also no age and sex related statistically significant difference in the haematological parameters of the Rottweiler in Nigeria. This study revealed that there was no gender, breed or age differences in the erythrocyte values of the Rottweiler dog. These considerations are especially critical in the establishment of reference ranges of blood parameters for this breed of dogs in the tropics.

[Adebiyi OE, Ajayi JO, Olayemi FO. Haematology of Rottweiler Dog in a Tropical Environment. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.01


Keywords: Haematology, Rottweiler, Nigerian local dogs

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Comparison of TCSC and UPFC for Increasing Power Transfer Capability and Damping Power System Oscillation


Salah Kamal El sayed


Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, AL-Azhar University



Abstract: This paper focuses on comparing two types of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices such as thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) for increasing power transfer capability and damping power system oscillation. The location of (FACTS) devices in deregulated electricity market is determined to reduce the congestion, hence increasing power transfer capability of the system. Identification of congested line based on local marginal price (LMP) difference is developed by using a standard optimal power flow (OPF) tool. Continuation power flow (CPF) is used to evaluate the effects of these devices on system loadability. The damping oscillation problem is analyzed based on Hopf bifurcations and critical eigenvalues of power system by using small signal stability analysis tool (SSS). The Comparison is illustrated on IEEE 14-bus system. Power System Analysis Toolset (PSAT), is computational tool under Matlab program for effective simulation and monitoring is used. Test system reveals that (UPFC) give higher maximum loading point and improve damping oscillation more than inserting (TCSC) in congested line.

[Salah Kamal El sayed. Comparison of TCSC and UPFC for Increasing Power Transfer Capability and Damping Power System Oscillation. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):5-11]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.02


Keywords: FACTS, TCSC, OPF, LMP, SSS and CPF.

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Physiological and Psychological Retrogression of Mankind

Theory by


Dr Mohammed Faig Abad Alrazak  


MBCHB (Baghdad), FRCS/London



Abstract: This theory takes a look at the various changes, physiological, genetic, and psychological and others that Mankind and human race has been facing in modern history. This theory also explores the effect of global pollution, changing environmental conditions and the dramatic psychosocial changes on the future of Mankind. The natural abilities and the power of adaptation of the modern Mankind has declined dramatically. All indicators suggest that Mankind is heading towards speedy physiological and psychological retrogression in which Mankind has already started the journey of a retrogression phase, at the same time generating features in their physiological, psychological status that are progressing and threating the existence of Mankind on the planet.

[Mohammed Faig Abad Alrazak. Physiological and Psychological Retrogression of Mankind. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):12-14]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.03


Key words: Retrogression; physiology; environment; mankind; adamite race; behaviour; Evolution; the intelligent hybrid(1); human race; genes; pollution; planet.

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Dietary Intake During Fasting In The Month Of Ramadan


Mirza Arsalan Baig1, Samrah Baig 2, Muhammad Ali Ghoto3, Mohsin Ali Baloch3


1Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology (F.U.U.A.S.T), Gulshan-e-iqbal campus, Karachi

3Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan



Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the level of awareness of diet plan and common physical & mental health problems faced by the people, during fasting in the month Ramadan. Study design: Study survey. Setting: Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. Study period: July, 2014. Subjects and Methods: A survey based study was conducted through a questionnaire, to collect the information regarding the awareness of diet plan and common physical & mental health problems faced by the people. Several relevant factors were considered in study like associated diseases and particularly diabetes mellitus, natural substitutes for insulin as well as antioxidants which can be useful for the prevention of such diseases. Inclusion criteria: Those individual having fast or experience of fasting for whole month. Exclusion criteria: Individual does not like to participate in study and Individuals with any systemic problem other than diabetes mellitus were excluded. Results: only 26 people (20%) had awareness of balanced diet plan during fasting in Ramadan. Dehydration (48%) was reported as a most common problem faced by participants. Diabetics were reported more strict follower of dietary plan simultaneously decreased working capability and hyperphagia were reported more common among them as compared to healthy participants. Conclusion: Most of the people do not take into consideration a healthy and balanced diet plan required for their body during fasting, and sometimes increase their saturated fat consumption manifolds that may aggravate the health issues particularly in cases of diabetes, Gastrointestinal (G.I) Disorders, & cardio-vascular diseases. It is needed to change nutrient intake and choose a healthy and balanced diet particularly during fasting.

[Mirza Arsalan Baig, Samrah Baig, Muhammad Ali Ghoto, Mohsin Ali Baloch. Dietary Intake During Fasting In The Month Of Ramadan. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):15-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.04


Keywords: Fasting, Diet, Diabetes mellitus, Cardio-Vascular Diseases.

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Universe Is Expanding Or Cooling And It Will Die As Planck Era


Er. Gurpreet Singh Jangla


Amateur Astronaut, India

Graduated as Computer Science Engineer  in 2004 from Punjab Technical University, India.

Post Graduated in MBA in 2008 from Bangalore University, India.



Abstract: Big Bang is the most popular theory of Universe Creation. The echo of Big Bang is still received on earthas radiation called Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It is assumed to be bath of photonsconsisting of ripples particles which can stretch to enormous size during inflation. These microwaveradiations started as optical radiation from different galaxies. The places from which it starts are calledsurface of scattering. This get weak during propagation and loose energy to become red shift microwaveradiations. When we check these radiations wavelength with interval of time, it is found that wavelengthof  received CMBR is increasing with  time. That is CMBR received today and CMBR received fromsame surface of scattering  after one month have different wavelength which is more than previous, whichmake clear that surface of scattering is moving away from us  in other words our universe  is expanding. These findings are already discovered by Radio astronomer Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1964. As per Zhang Dongsheng (张洞) in New York Science journal Volume 7, Number 1, 2014, Singularityof universe was not possible at time of Big Bang  which is supposed and the same is not possible infuture. Dr.Hawkins gives the concept of Cosmic Black Hole CBH. He assumes Singularity in Pre BigBang and Post CBH. But as per me it is possible that before Big Bang there was Planck era and in futureit will be Planck era ie. complete darkness. In our holy book Guru Granth Sahib it is mentioned that instarting, Universe was completely dark and in future also our Universe will become completely dark withno mass. There will be presence of only Hawking quantum radiations mss.

[Er. Gurpreet Singh Jangla. Universe Is Expanding Or Cooling And It Will Die As Planck Era. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):19-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.05


Keywords: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation CMBR; Surface of scattering; Recombination epoch; Photon decoupling; Optical radiation; Microwave Radiation; Photons; Inflation; Hawking quantum radiation; mss, minimum BH--Mbm; Planck particles  Mp; Planck Era.

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Study of seaweeds diversity of port ‘Okha’ in winter


Jagbeer Cheema1 , Aniket Bhattacharya2, Ishan Saini1 and Ashok Aggarwal1*


1Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

2 Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

 West Bengal, India

* aggarwal_vibha@rediffmail.com


Abstract: The present study was conducted in seaweed rich moist coastal zone of Port “Okha” of Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India in winter (December, January and February) during the year 2012 & 2013 consecutively to document the seaweed diversity of the area. A total of 72 species belonging to 26 families and 46 genera were recorded from the study area. The Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae were represented by a total of 19, 22 and 31 species, respectively. Of the 26 families recorded, 7 were represented by single species, 6 by two species, 5 by three species and 6 with more than 3 species. Dictyotaceae was the dominant family with 13 species, followed by Sargassaceae and Ulvaceae with 5 species each. The maximum species richness was found to be in the month of February in comparison to December and January. This paper presents the current status of seaweed wealth of different beachfronts of 'Okha'.

[Jagbeer Cheema,, Aniket Bhattacharya, Ishan Saini and Ashok Aggarwal. Study of seaweeds diversity of port ‘Okha’ in winter. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):21-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.06


Keywords: Seaweed Diversity, Okha Port, Gulf of Kutch, Seasonal Variations.

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Nature of Arbitration in Islamic Republic of Iran


:Afra Validi 1, Ehsan Nazari (M.A)2


1. Department of law, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department law, college of private law, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran


Abstract: Today, with possibilities which technology has provided human with, different relations in various communicational areas have changed. One result of these transformations is increasing expansion of international business. Modern business is crossing countries' boundaries with a significant speed, calling all nations for interacting and trading with each other. This institution has special rules and mechanisms in order to achieve its own goals. In the past legal orders, governments were using similar rules and mechanisms limitedly domestically. Although those national rules are still being exercised by governments in different legal orders, in relation to international business, those rules are such that they resolve problems created by the absence of a single legal order at international level and by government on the path of global business development. One of these institutions and mechanisms is prosecution which plays a crucial role in settlement of international merchants' disputes. Major character of arbitrators is their being consensual and contractual, which distinguishes this mechanism from others being used to settle disputes. Having looked at the background, advantages and characteristics of arbitration, present paper compares its nature with the most important other settlement methods, that is, judiciary consideration, compromise, and expert advice. [Ehsan Nazari, Mohammad Reza Ghaleghi . Nature of Arbitration in Islamic Republic of Iran.

[Afra Validi, Ehsan Nazari (M.A) . Nature of Arbitration in Islamic Republic of Iran. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):27-32]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.07


Keywords: Arbitration nature, Arbitration, International business, capacity

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Rules governing a policy relationship


Mohammad Javad Jafari (PhD)


PhD. Department law, college of private law, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran


Abstract: Islamic rules efficiency is one of important and essential options. In this research concept of policy and source of its detection and the rules of it in legacy analysis and different types of policy were discussed. In conclusion we find out that policy isn’t the cause of unruly and we find use of policy in legacy legal source and it’s based on exact professional elements.

[Mohammad Javad Jafari. Rules governing a policy relationship. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):33-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.08


Keywords: Rules, governing, policy, relationship, Islamic.

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Effect of Morinda citrifolia Supplementation on the Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) levels of Athletes


Anugweje KC1 and Ayalogu EO2


1Department of Health Services, Lulu Briggs Health Centre, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

e-mail: kanugweje@hotmail.com; Tel: +2348033382154


Abstract: The influence of M. citrifolia on serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels of athletes was investigated in this study. Preliminary studies involving a 30 months-long exploratory monitoring of athletes consuming wide-ranging doses of M. citrifolia juice were carried out to establish dosage and toxicity. Administration of M. citrifolia (noni) and placebo juices were respectively performed on two groups of one hundred subjects each, comprising highly trained athletes and non-athletes randomly assigned. Both groups were subjected to a 6-week physical training programme prior to the commencement of a 30 months assessment period. Morinda citrifolia juice supplementation remarkably decreased LDH levels in serum of the test group; 493.4 12.60 and 401.3 10.3 for Pre and Post supplementation. Paired t-test results for enzyme assay showed that there was significant difference (p=0.009) in lactate dehydrogenase levels (IU/L) after supplementation with M. citrifolia juice. Concentration of LDH before and after placebo juice supplementation showed no significant difference (p≤ 0.05). Further analysis showed that M. citrifolia juice does not contain any banned substance. Correlation analysis showed very significant differences in the rise in lactate dehydrogenase levels of both males and females in the experimental group after supplementation. Thus, Morinda citrifolia supplement can reduce muscle breakdown during vigorous exercise.

[Anugweje KC and Ayalogu EO. Effect of Morinda citrifolia Supplementation on the Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) levels of Athletes. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):37-42]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.09


Key words: Morinda citrifolia, Supplementation, LDH, Athletes

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Aegle marmelos leaves protect Liver against Toxic effects of Cyclophosphamide in mice


Sangita Singh1, Swarn Lata1*, Kavindra Nath Tiwari2


1 Department of Zoology, MMV, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

2Department of Botany, MMV, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

Email,: bioinfo.sangita@gmail.com, Swarn Lata: swarn_vns@rediffmail.com, swarnlatabhu12@gmail.com, K. N. Tiwari: kntiwaribhu@gmail.com


Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical screening of leaves of A. marmelos and the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AEAM) against CPA-induced liver damage in mice.  AEAM (400, 500, and 600 mg/kg bw, orally) and CPA (200 mg/kg bw, intraperitonially) were administered to mice for 5 weeks, once a week. Silymarin (100 mg/kg bw) was given as reference standard. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased, accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of albumin in CPA-induced hepatotoxic group of mice compared to the control. However, significant amelioration in these parameters was found in AEAM treated groups of mice. CPA treatment markedly decreased the level of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver as well as white blood cells and red blood cells counts, which were significantly enhanced by AEAM treatment. Histopathological examinations have also confirmed the protective efficacy of AEAM. The phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and phenols, which may have hepatoprotective role. Hence, the results of the present study indicated that AEAM may be effective as a hepatoprotectant in CPA-induced toxicity.

[Singh S, Lata S, Tiwari KN. Aegle marmelos leaves protect Liver against Toxic effects of Cyclophosphamide in mice. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):43-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.10


Key Words: Cyclophosphamide, Aegle marmelos, hepatoprotective role

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Position and role in the governance according to Nasir al-Din Tusi


Gholamhossein Shojaei, Abdolreza Shojaei, Siavash Shojaei




Abstract: In the history of human civilization as a whole and in that of Islamic civilization in particular, there have been outstanding figures that played decisive roles in forming or changing various aspects of human life. Some of them are still surrounded by a mass of historical data containing contradictory judgments about them. In the history of Islamic civilization, Khaja Nasir al-Din Tusi (597-1201/672-1274) was a unique scholar, in one of the most crucial periods, whose real role and personality are still obscure. His age was full of such harsh socio-political events in all parts of the Islamic world that some regarded it as the worst period in human history considering these difficulties, this paper attempts to assess Tusi’s role as a person who witnessed the situation but stood apart from it, preventing himself from assimilating to his age. Holding the chain of Islamic thought, Tusi played an active role in linking pre-Mongol civilization to the post-Mongol world.

[Gholamhossein Shojaei, Abdolreza Shojaei, Siavash Shojaei. Position and role in the governance according to Nasir al-Din Tusi. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):54-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.11


Keywords: Khajeh Nasir, People, Government, Democracy

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A New Technique to Recognize Human Facial Using Neural Network


Dr. Khalaf fakhri Khatatneh


Al-Balqa Applied University Jordan Al-Salt Department of Computer Science



Abstract: This paper explains the approach of face recognition using neural Network (NN) and back propagation algorithm. Face recognition can be obtained using holistic, featured-based and hybrid approaches. The Eigen face in holistic approach is faster and more efficient than the other techniques which are used when the whole face region is taken into account as input data. The feature- based approach used characteristic parameters of face where the parameters can be found by any facial extraction. The Hybrid approach uses a combination of holistic and feature- based approaches. The neural network is used to perform the face recognition by using the back propagation networks technique. The recognition performance of the proposed method is tabulated based on experiments performed on a number of images.

[Khalaf fakhri Khatatneh. A New Technique to Recognize Human Facial Using Neural Network. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):60-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.12


Keywords:  technique, human facial, neural network

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Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) reduces aflatoxin formation in poorly stored maize grains


Chibundu N. Ezekiel1,*, Chinedu P. Anokwuru2,3, Bamidele M.W. Amos-Tautua4, Ebelechukwu E. Ejiofor1, Oyinkasola R. Oriola1, Tochi Obani5 and Olaitan O. Olajuyigbe6


1Mycology/Mycotoxicology Research Unit, Department of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. 2Department of Basic Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Chemistry, University of Venda, South Africa. 4Department of Chemistry, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 5Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 6Department of Fish Technology, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.



Abstract: This study evaluated the influence of co-storing Ashanti pepper (AP), Piper guineense, with maize grains under poor conditions on aflatoxin formation/levels and aflatoxigenic fungal population in the grains. Maize grains were co-stored for 56 days with 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% (w/w) concentrations of either whole AP fruits or powder. Aflatoxin content and population of Aspergillus section Flavi in the grains were analyzed at intervals of 14 days. Aflatoxin formation in the whole and powdered AP–treated grains was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited in a concentration and time dependent manner while reduction in aflatoxigenic fungal population was significantly (p<0.05) more observed in the whole AP–treated grains compared to those co-stored with AP powder. The 2.5% AP powder treatments proved more effective than other powder concentrations against aflatoxin formation (% inhibition = 93.5) at 28 days of storage. However, 5% whole AP treatment was the most effective of all AP treatments against aflatoxin formation (% inhibition = 95.8–99.7) across the 56-day storage period. Co-storing maize grains with whole AP fruits therefore presents a farmer-friendly approach to aflatoxin mitigation during post-harvest storage.

[Ezekiel CN, Anokwuru CP, Amos-Tautua BMW, Ejiofor EE, Oriola OR, Obani T, Olajuyigbe OO. Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) reduces aflatoxin formation in poorly stored maize grain. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):64-71]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.13


Keywords: Aflatoxin, Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense), Aspergillus flavus, Biological control, maize (corn), Grain storage, Spices

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Investigation effects of Genistein on the expression of genes, FASN, XIAP -1, Smac / diablo, XAF, MMP-2, MMP-9 involved in apoptosis and metastasis in cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231


Parisa Saifzadeh1 (Corresponding author), Mohammad Fazilati2


1. MA in Biochemistry, Payam Noor University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2. Associate professor in Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Cells were cultured in medium environment with various concentrations of Genistein. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Toxicity rate and Genistein was assessed by LDH test, and then RNA was extracted and performed through cDNA Synthesis and Real-time PCR and finally the resulting data were analyzed. The results showed that Genistein inhibited the invasion and proliferation of cancer cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but it also has the ability to reduce angiogenesis in cancer, reduce the size of blood vessels and endothelial cell growth Vascularization Gary angiogenesis facilities are a useful tool for reducing metastasis cancer. This study examines the expression of XAF-1, XIAP-1, Diablo, FASN, MMP-2, MMP-9, which are involved in the mechanisms of metastatic breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and two MD-MBA231 treated with genistein that have been discussed. Our studies showed that genistein induced expression of smac/Diablo that genistein induced apoptosis as well as expression of XAF-1; reduced expression (XIAP-1) is induced apoptosis.

[Parisa Saifzadeh, Mohammad Fazilati. Investigation effects of Genistein on the expression of genes, FASN, XIAP -1, Smac / diablo, XAF, MMP-2,MMP-9 involved in apoptosis and metastasis in cell lines MCF-7,MDA-MB-231. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):72-84]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.14


Keywords: Genistein - apoptosis - metastasis - cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231

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Pathology of commercial advertising management in Iran


Zeinab Sadat Mirhadi1, Ali Akbar Farhangi2


1. MA student of Media Management, Alborz campus university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2. Professor of Tehran University, Head of Department of Media Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Advertising is one of the most important tools of communication in business. Today companies are faced with budget and time constraints in competitive environment, and if the huge cost of advertising does not spend in good time and proper condition certainly cause the loss of key resources, and finally the bankruptcy of advertising agencies and media organization. Pathology and review of the main problems in the planning process and managing advertising can stop wasting time and money and cause the attention to the impact of the message on an audience, and also increase effectiveness. Therefore, in this study the pathology of commercial management in Iran is discussed. The method chosen for this study is grounded theory or basis theory. In this method researcher has no hypothesis at the beginning so the study begins with a question: "what is the main issue of Iran’s commercial advertising? And how can be resolve? Then discuss the definition of key terms and show the theoretical literature related to this area After interviewing 15 examples that theoretically are chosen between experts in the field of ads such as university professors, managers of large advertising companies, and public relations managers and after extracting 1251 code, that 300 of them are original and the remaining are repeated the study reach to the theoretical saturation and according to these findings, they represent the advertising management process model. At the end, the conclusion is made and after stating the constraints, recommendations are expressed in general and for future researchers expressed specifically. Hope this can cause the development of organizations, improve of advertising quality, increase the effectiveness and increase cultural level of advertising.

[Zeinab Sadat Mirhadi, Ali Akbar Farhangi. Pathology of commercial advertising management in Iran. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):85-95]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.15


Keywords: Advertising, advertising Management, commercial advertising management

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Perception of Artificial Insemination among Fulani Cattle Rearers in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria


Musa D. Baba1, Aminu M. Sakaba2, Taibat A. Manga3 and Musa S. Ribah2


1Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.

2Department of Animal Health and Production, Kebbi State College of Agriculture zuru, Nigeria.

3Department of Crop Production Technology, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.



Abstract: The study was conducted to examine the perception of artificial insemination among Fulani cattle rearers in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Proportionate random sampling was used for the study. A total of one hundred and seven (107) Fulani cattle rearers constitute the sample size for the study. The instrument used for data collection was interview scheduled and data was collected in 2012. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics; five (5) points’ likert scale was used to determine the perception of Fulani cattle rearers on artificial insemination and Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to establish the relationship between perception of Fulani cattle rearers on artificial insemination and some of their personal characteristics (Age, Educational level and Sex). The study revealed that the majority (71.02%) of the Fulani cattle rearers were male and 42% were within the age range of 31 – 35 years. Majority (53.27%) of the Fulani cattle rearers had no education. The results further revealed that 57.01% of the Fulani cattle rearers are aware of artificial insemination. The result also revealed that majority (54.1%) of the cattle rearers perceived artificial insemination unfavourably. However, age, educational level and sex of Fulani cattle rearers were not significantly related to their perception on artificial insemination. Therefore, more awareness should be created among Fulani cattle rearers to stimulate their involvement in artificial insemination. Demonstration centres should be established within and around the Fulani cattle rearers settlements for them to see, appreciate and seeks for assistance on artificial insemination.

[Musa D. Baba, Aminu M. Sakaba, Taibat A. Manga  and Musa S. Ribah. Perception of Artificial Insemination among Fulani Cattle Rearers in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):96-100]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.16


Keywords: Perception, Artificial Insemination, Fulani, Cattle Rearers, Zuru

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Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus potential on nodulation and N2-fixation of faba bean plants


Ahmed R. Sofy 1*, Mohamed S. Attia 1, Abd El-Monem M.A. Sharaf 1 and Khalid A. El-Dougdoug 2


1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Agric. Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University,11241 Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: This study was conducted to potency the effect of nodulated  faba bean plants and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) infected on bacterial nodulation and nitrogen fixation in faba bean plants. Significant reduction in number, weight and size of nodules, leghemoglobin contents, nitroginase activity and nitrogen fixed in nodulated faba bean plants compared with healthy ones. The bacteroidal cells of root nodules (in situ) in healthy and BYMV-infected nodules ones were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found different distribution of nodules on root system. The infection threads of Rhizobium were usually present in the young central tissue cells near the meristem of infected nodules and healthy ones. Rhizobia entered through the epidermis and moved intracellulary through the cortical region. Infected mature nodules of faba bean roots. Significantly reduction and deformation and aggregated the bacterial reduced significantly of meristem, cortex, vascular tissue and deformation bacteroid cells. As well as  the lateral showed both infected and non-infected cells mixed together. Vascular bundles were inversely collateral and distributed around the bacteroid cells. The bacteroids were enclosed in peribacteroid membrane in groups and showed prominent granules of polyhydroxybutyrate granules in their cytoplasm. The possible significance of these changes relative to the decreased efficiency of N2-fixation is discussed.

[Sofy AR, Attia MS, Sharaf AMA and El-Dougdoug KA. Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus potential on nodulation and N2-fixation of faba bean plants. N Y Sci J 2014;7(9):101-109]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.17


 Keywords: Viral infection; Vicia faba; Nodulation; leghemoglobine; R. leguminosarum bv. viceae; Nitrogenase activity; TEM

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Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC– ESI –MS Analysis of Alkaloids in Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. Grown in Egypt


Zeinab T. Abd El Shakour


Laboratory of phytochemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Cairo- Egypt.

e-mail: zizishakour@yahoo.com


Abstract: There is only one Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. tree grown in Egypt. It is an Asian medicinal plant well known for producing potent antileukemic alkaloid, so the present study was aimed at identifying these alkaloids and to investigate its cytotoxic activity. Five known alkaloids (cephalotaxine, harringtonine, homoharringtonine, isoharringtonine and deoxyharringtonine) were identified by HPLC–ESI–MS technique according to its spectral data and comparison with the literature, the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. was in vitro investigated for its cytotoxicity against HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines for first time, and resulted with IC50 = 4.77, 12.9 and 17.5 μg/ml, respectively.

[Zeinab T. Abd El Shakour. Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC– ESI –MS Analysis of Alkaloids in Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. grown in Egypt. N Y Sci J 2013;7(9):110-114]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnys070914.18


Keywords: Cephalotaxus harringtonia L., the aerial parts, alkaloid, cytotoxicity.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 19, 2014. 

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