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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 8 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 71); January 25, 2015

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0801, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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The Study of Effect of Alternate Furrow Irrigation on Quality and Quantity of Sugarcane at Different Stages of Growth


Boroomand-Nasab, S.1 and Noori, M.2


1-  Professor, Irrigation Dept., Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Iran.

2-  Experienced top researcher, Karun Agro Industry, Inc.



Abstract: Sugarcane is one of the important crops in Khuzestan province which consumes large amount of water, specially in the warm season. In this study in order to optimize water consumption in a high efficiency, five treatments with three replications using randomized complete block design were applied in Karun Agro Industry, Inc. The first treatment was contained of conventional irrigation method which was used in the area (untreated as an example of witness). The second treatment was alternate furrow irrigation method during the growth season. The treatments third, forth and fifth were irrigated by alternate furrow irrigation method in the portion of the growing season and then shifted to the conventional irrigation method for the remaining of the growing season. These treatments were sequentially included with the alternate furrow irrigation method, at the beginning of the growing season, during the mid-stage growing season and finally at the late stage of growing season. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between all treatments, but the third treatment showed an increased of 8.02 tons/ha of sugarcane and 2.08 tons/ha sugar more than the conventional irrigation method. With the view of percent of recovery sugar, sequentially treatments fourth, fifth, and third have showed about 5% in surface area in better performance in comparison with the conventional method. The results also, indicated that water use efficiencies of treatments second and first were 0.51 kg/m3 and 0.38 kg/m3 respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the alternate furrow irrigation system in general can cause an increase in cane yield and water productivity.

[Boroomand-Nasab, S. and Noori. The Study of Effect of Alternate Furrow Irrigation on Quality and Quantity of Sugarcane at Different Stages of Growth. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):1-3]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1



Keywords: sugarcane, alternate furrow irrigation, water use efficiency.

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Impacts of Human-induced Deforestation, Forest Degradation and Fragmentation on Food Security


OLAGUNJU, Temidayo Ebenezer


Ecology and Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Email: olagunjutemidayo@gmail.com


Abstract: Forest is an extensive area composing of dense and tall species of trees and other biota in symbiotic relationships. Forests exist in all regions of the world capable of sustaining tree growth at altitudes up to the tree line, where the environment is not challenged with frequent inundation that can impede forest establishment. Forests across the world vary in structure and composition from one geographical location to the other, it performs environmental functions including biodiversity conservation, climate moderations, soil management and carbon sequestration; it also perform socio-cultural and economic functions as it includes food security, source of employment, income and revenue generation, provision of raw materials for industries and place of religious worship among others. In spite of the various beneficial functions of forests, it is been threaten with deforestation, forest degradation and fragmentation. While deforestation is simply the conversion of forest areas to non-forest areas, forest degradation is the reduction in the density or structure of forest and forest fragmentation is the conversion of a continuous forest area into patches of forest separated by non-forest lands. Deforestation is a menace in many part of the world, highest in countries of Africa, then Latin America and part of Asia. Worldwide, Brazil has the highest annual net loss of forest areas but Nigeria has the highest deforestation rate of its primary forest and Comoros has the highest rate of annual reduction of forests of all sorts. The agents that bring about deforestation include slash-and-burn farmers, commercial farmers, cattle ranchers, livestock herders, loggers, commercial tree planters, firewood collectors, mining and petroleum industrialists and land settlement planners while the main causes of human-induced deforestation include logging, agriculture croplands and pasture expansion, urbanization, fuel wood collection, mining and resource extraction, hunting and, slash and burn practices. Food security is the accessibility of people to adequate quantity and safe food that enhance healthy living at all times. Deforestation directly impact on food security through the loss of biodiversity that are source of food to man and indirectly through its effect on soil degradation and alteration of the weather elements which in turn reduce agricultural productivity. Approaches to combat deforestation include environmental education and literacy, agroforestry practice, increasing of protected area, development of alternatives, development of policy and enforcement strategies, and furthermore, reforestation, afforestation and avoided deforestation.

[OLAGUNJU, Temidayo Ebenezer. Impacts of Human-induced Deforestation, Forest Degradation and Fragmentation on Food Security. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):4-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2



Keywords: forest, human-induced, deforestation, forest degradation, forest fragmentation, food security

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Impact of different levels of salinity and pressure on emitter performance and clogging


Pirooz far, V. R.1 Boroomand-Nasab, S.2 Jahani, B.3


1- Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

2- Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University Ahwaz Branch, Iran

3- Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran



Abstract: This study was conducted at the experimental hall of Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz to assess the performance and clogging of two auto-regulator emitters (A) Eurodrip and (B) Netafim, under (1) three levels of salinity (3, 4 and 5 ds/m) which were obtained by solubolizing calcium-chloride and magnesium-chloride salts with water obtained from river of Karoun in Ahvaz, and by keeping  sodium absorption ratio fixed, and (2)three levels of pressure (1, 1.5 and 2 bar). The experiment was accomplished with a three day irrigation frequency and the system worked for approximately three hour at each day of irrigation. Then, once the irrigation was completed, the discharge of each single drip was measured for eight times. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that, the rate of discharge, discharge variety coefficient and Christensen variety coefficient of both emitter types decreased in all treatments. However, the discharge variety coefficient of Eurodrip was rather larger than Netafim, when pressure was fixed and salinity was increased.

[Pirooz far, V. A., Boroumand Nasab, S. and Jahani, B. Impact of different levels of salinity and pressure on emitter performance and clogging. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):17-21]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3



Keywords: Drip irrigation, saline water, auto pressure regulator, clogging.

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Effect of anthropogenic disturbances on plant diversity in Oak dominated forests of Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India


Anita Joshi and Anil Kumar Yadava


Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena campus, Almora. akyadava09@gmail.com


Abstract: The present study was conducted during 2012-14 between 2922 and 2923 N latitude and 79 26 and 79 28E longitude, located in Nainital catchment to assess variation and impact of disturbances in oak-dominated (Quercus leucotricophora and Quercus floribunda) forest. Forest structure, species composition and biodiversity changes due to anthropogenic disturbance through foliage removal (lopping), deforestation, grazing, surface burning, and litter removal. In Q. leucotrichophora forest, tree species richness, declined with increasing level of disturbances, the tree density ranged from (715-765ind/ha), sapling density (115-190ind/ha), seedling density (420-580ind/ha), shrub density (1420-2360ind/ha) and herb density (861000-1032000). The anthropogenic pressure were high on Quercus species at disturbed sites as a result the tree and herb species richness, density, total basal area and diversity were low in disturbed forest compared to undisturbed forest. Shrub and herb richness were maximum in moderate forest.

[Anita Joshi and Anil Kumar Yadava. Effect of anthropogenic disturbances on plant diversity in Oak dominated forests of Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):22-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4



Key words: anthropogenic disturbance, biodiversity, conservation, diversity, oak-forest

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Studying Effective Elements on learning Arabic among Payam-e-Noor Students Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province


Leila Ghanbari Broujeni, Maryam Davtalab


Lecturer in Payam-e-Noor University of Broujen, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province, Iran



Abstract: Formation, persistence and survival of human society is based on learning and transfer of learning and training based on the teachings of the man from one person to another, from one group to another and from generation to generation. Arabic as one of the most striking features of languages with a rich and attractive teaching and it gives more importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the learning of Arabic language students in PNU Demographic information is in the 2010-2011 school year. For this study, a sample of 200 people randomly selected provinces of Payam-e-Noor University. Participants made questionnaire on factors affecting the learning variables such as interest, motivation, practice and effort, targeted, focused, social class were included, participants completed and grades as the criterion of Arabic learning lessons. The Arabic language scores in participants based on their status variables using the t-test and one-way ANOVA (One Way ANOVA) were compared. The results showed that except economic class and other variables affect the learning of Arabic language students.

[Leila Ghanbari Broujeni, Maryam Davtalab. Studying Effective Elements on learning Arabic among Payam-e-Noor Students Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):28-35]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5



Keywords: learning, Arabic teaching, PNU student motivation

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Costs and Returns of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria


Musa D. Baba, Garba Yakubu, Jibril M. Yelwa and Lukman Haruna


Department of Agricultural Extension and Management,Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria.



Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate profitability associated with Moringa production in Zuru local government area of Kebbi State. It examined the costs and returns of Moringa production as well as constraints faced by Moringa farmers in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 100 Moringa farmers using purposive sampling technique in 2013. Descriptive statistics and farm budgeting technique were used in the analysis of the data. The study revealed that 48% of Moringa farmers in the study area belong to the active population in the age bracket of 31 - 40 years, majority (78%) of Moringa farmers were females, majority (69%) of Moringa farmers had formal education at various levels, majority (89%) of Moringa farmers in the study area had a farm size of 0.5 – 1.0 hectares and 46% had experience in Moringa production within the range of 16 – 20 years. The costs and returns analysis indicated that, variable cost constituted 42.27% of the total cost of Moringa production in the study area, while the fixed cost constituted 57.73%.  However, the average total cost of production per hectare was N75, 350, the average total revenue was N187, 500 and the net income was N112, 150 indicating that Moringa production was profitable. Despite the profitability of Moringa production, farmers identified pest and disease, lack of technical advice and lack of capital as their major constraints. It is therefore recommended that trained personnel to educate Moringa farmers with new method of Moringa production in the study area should be emphasized. Moringa farmers should form cooperative societies to enable them have easy access to improved inputs, credit and other forms of assistance.

[Musa D. Baba, Garba Yakubu, Jibril M. Yelwa and Lukman Haruna. Costs and Returns of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):36-40]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6



Key words:  Costs, Returns, Profitability, Moringa production, Zuru

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Distinctiveness And Characteristic of Competent Manager and Leader In This Advanced Epoch


Engr. Muhammad Mujtaba Asad 1, Engr. Fahad Sherwani 2


1. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,Parit Raja Batu Pahat, mujtabaasad11@gmail.com

2. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Batu Pahat, fahadsherwanis@gmail.com


Abstract: In this paper researchers try to identify the characteristics and differences of competent manager and leader. Leadership and management are terms that are often used interchangeably in the business world to depict someone who manages a team of people. In reality leadership vs. management have very different meanings. To be a great manager you must understand what it takes to also be a great leader. Management and leadership skills are often regarded as one and the same to many businesses. While the two inherently share many similar characteristics, they differ in that not all managers are leaders, but all leaders are managers. They are complementary qualities inexorably linked to each other, and any attempt to extricate one from the other is impossible. Whereas the manager exists to plan, organize and coordinate, a leader serves to inspire and motivate. Militarily speaking, a manager is the battlefield general while the leader is the commander-in-chief. A great quote that shows the differences between managers and leaders: 'Leaders conquer the context - the volatile, turbulent, ambiguous surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will surely suffocate us if we let them- while managers surrender to it. The manager administers, the leader innovates.

[Engr.Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Engr. Fahad Sherwani. Distinctiveness And Characteristic of Competent Manager and Leader In This Advanced Epoch. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):41-44]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7



Keywords: Leadership; Management; Human resource, visible leadership, Business environment, Change management.

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Ecological studies of macrophytes of two major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam , India


Upen Deka* and Sarada Kanta Sarma


Department of Botany, Gauhati university, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Author of correspondence: upen_deka@yahoo.in


Abstract: The present study deals with the investigation of the macrophytic diversity of Borbilla beel and Borali beel which are two largest wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam covering an area of 55 hectares and 40 hectares respectively and its ecological status, particularly among the plant communities. While Borali beel is regularly affected by river flood water, the other one faces no such disturbances and are very rich in resources which are utilized by the people living in its vicinities. The study was carried out for a period of two years i.e. from January 2012 to December 2013. Altogether 92 macrophytic species belonging to 77 genera and 34 families have been reported from these wetlands. Of these species, monocotyledons are represented by 43 species under 37 genera and 15 families while dicotyledons are represented by 49 species under 40 genera and 19 families. Various diversity indices of the wetland plant communities were calculated to show the species richness (Margalef, 1964), Shannon – Weiver Diversity Index (Shannon and Weiver, 1963), Simpson’s Dominance Index (Simpson, 1949), Evenness Index (Pielou, 1966) and Similarity index (Sorensen, 1948). During the study period maximum values of species richness, diversity and dominance index, and evenness of the macrophytic communities were shown at Borbilla beel during the summer season and similarity index was also found to be maximum during the summer season ( 0.686) between the two wetlands. The study shows that the two wetlands although situated away from one another yet so far as species contents are concerned, the two wetlands have similarities in their plant species composition.

[Upen Deka and Sarada Kanta Sarma. Ecological studies of macrophytes of two major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam , India. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):45-52]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8



Key Words: Wetland, Macrophytic species, Species richness, Diversity and Dominance Index, Evenness Index, Similarity Index.

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Spatial Nitrate Distribution in the Drinking Water Sources Found in Ethiopia; Retrospective study


Andualem Mekonnen1*, Tsigereda Assefa2, Kuribel Tesfaye3, Derbu Getahun4


1Center for Environmental Science, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 33348, Addis Ababa Ethiopia

2, 3 & 4 Ethiopian Health & Nutrition Research Institute, Non-Infectious Diseases Research Team

* E-mail: andumk21@gmail.com, andualem.mekonnen@aau.edu.et


Abstract: High levels of nitrate in drinking water can cause methaemoglobinaemia, cancer, hypertension, infant mortality and birth defects. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive study that shows level of nitrate in the drinking water sources across the country. The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the spatial variation of nitrate concentration in the drinking water sources nationally. The study was conducted using the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute water quality database from 1993 to 2007. The results in the study indicated that nitrate concentration in the water samples were varied from below 0.00mg/l to 1295.00mg/l throughout the country. The average nitrate concentration in the well water exceeding the WHO guideline was observed in Dire Dewa (104.8mg/l) and exceeding the threshold value were found in Somali (37.0 mg/l), Afar (34.9 mg/l), Harari (26.3 mg/l) and Addis Ababa Regions (20.5mg/l). In the rest region, it was below the threshold value of nitrate. Nitrate in the spring water was below the threshold value except Dire Dewa and Harari regions. Nationally, 15.3 % (n=186) of the wells, 10 % (n = 33) of the springs and 12.4 % (n=21) of the taps had nitrate concentration exceeding the threshold value of 20mg/l and 5.7 % (n = 70) of well water and 2.7 % (n = 9) of spring water samples had nitrate concentrations higher than 50mg/l. Water resources control management can be important at these areas and it needs to apply some actions to reduce or remove nitrate from drinking water.

[Andualem Mekonnen, Tsigereda Assefa, Kuribel Tesfaye, Derbu Getahun. Spatial Nitrate Distribution in the Drinking Water Sources Found in Ethiopia; Retrospective study. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):53-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9



Key words: Nitrate, drinking water, well water, spring water, tap water

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Haematology of Rottweiler Dog in a Tropical Environment


Adebiyi E. Olamide, Ajayi O. Jonathan and Olayemi O. Funso


Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan



Abstract: This present study was carried out to investigate the haematological values of Rottweilers in a tropical environment with respect to sex, age, and breed. There were no significant (p > 0.05) breed-related differences in the values of red blood cell counts (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) of the Rottweiler dog and the Nigerian local breed. There were also no age and sex related statistically significant difference in the haematological parameters of the Rottweiler in Nigeria. This study revealed that there was no gender, breed or age differences in the erythrocyte values of the Rottweiler dog. These considerations are especially critical in the establishment of reference ranges of blood parameters for this breed of dogs in the tropics.

[Adebiyi E. Olamide, Ajayi O. Jonathan and Olayemi O. Funso. Haematology of Rottweiler Dog in a Tropical Environment. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):60-63]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10



Keywords: Haematology, Rottweiler, Nigerian local dogs

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Investigation the effectiveness of assertiveness training using neuro-linguistic strategies (NLP) to reduce anger among married women


Fatemeh Tabrizi1, Dr. Abdollah Shafiabadi2, Dr. Kianoush Zahrakar3


1. MA in consultation

2. Professor in Allameh Tabatabaei University (ATU)

3. Assistant Professor in Kharazmi University



Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of assertiveness skills training using neuro-linguistic strategies to reduce anger in married women. The sample group consisted of 30 married women admitted to home health from the municipality in 2011, who were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 15 experimental and control groups. The experimental group during the 12 sessions of assertiveness training in neuro-linguistic strategies was investigated. 57 items of questionnaires was used to measure participants spielberger state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI-2) as a pre-test-post-test was used. The reliability coefficient for the scale and subscales of the questionnaire by spielberger state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI-2) was 0.84. And for monitoring the expression of state anger and trait anger control scales and the overall index of anger state was 0.73. Experimental group within 12 sessions (each session takes 2 hours) assertiveness skills training program using neural-verbal strategies and the control group received no training. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance) was used. Analysis of the data revealed a significant difference between the anger score of pre-test and post-test in the experimental group and also showed that training skills, assertiveness, using strategies of neuro-linguistic most effective in reducing state anger, anger expression show few signs of influence in reducing trait anger.

[Fatemeh Tabrizi, Abdollah Shafiabadi, Kianoush Zahrakar. Investigation the effectiveness of assertiveness training using neuro-linguistic strategies (NLP) to reduce anger among married women. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):64-72]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11



Keywords: Assertiveness training, anger, neuro-linguistic strategies

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Trans generational effects of male age on son’s mating success, Acps and sperm traits in D. melanogaster


Abolhasan Rezaei, M. S. Krishna


Drosophila stock center, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore - 560 006. Karnataka, India

drosokrish@gmail.com, rezaei54@gmail.com


Abstract: Studies on human and nonhuman organisms have shown that the quality of gametes decreases with increasing of male age. Paradoxically, in many taxa, female prefer to mate with older males; however the adaptive significance of such preference is not clear until today due to lack of studies involving accessory gland proteins (Acps) and sperm traits. We used both cross sectional and longitudinal approaches to study male age effects on son’s mating success, accessory gland proteins and sperm traits in D. melanogaster. It was noticed that in D. melanogaster, females of all age classes discriminated between sons of different male age classes and preferred to mate with sons of young males more frequently than with the sons of middle aged and old males. In pairwise mating, sons of young males showed a significantly greater courtship act compared to sons of middle aged and old males. In turn, females showed least rejection responses to the sons of young males than towards the sons of middle aged and old males. Further, sons of young males with smaller accessory glands, with a few larger main cells in their accessory glands, had produced greater quantities of Acps and were able to transfer significantly greater quantities of Acps and sperms to the mated females. As a result, females mated with them had greater fecundity and fertility than those mated with sons of middle aged or old males. Further, the sons of young males lived longer but females mated with sons of young males shorter life. Thus, our study suggests that with increasing of male age, the quality of gametes increases, resulting in reduction of Acps, and sperm traits of sons. Thus females of D. melanogaster obtain indirect genetic benefits by mating with young males.

[Abolhasan Rezaei, M. S. Krishna. Trans generational effects of male age on son’s mating success, Acps and sperm traits in D. melanogaster. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):73-84]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12



Key words: Offspring quality, male age, copulation duration, accessory gland proteins.

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Mutanabbi S Views in Eulogizing Saif al doule


Dr. Mohammad Jafari1, Samad gharavol mohammad abadi2


1 Assistant Professor, Kashmar Brunch, Islamic Azad University, Kashmar, iran

2 Kashmar Branch, Islamic Azad university, Kashmar, Iran


Abstract: Motanabbi praised many people, but after a bit, because Momdohans wanted the things beyond hisendurance, Mmdvhyn looked down himself and satirized them. But this is not true about Sayf al-Dawla, in spite of the fact that Sayf al-Dawla expelled the Motanabbi from his court because of stimulating jealous people not only he didn’t satirize Motanabbi but also song lyrics for his separation. Motanabbi from 337 until 346 AD. BC was serving Safi Al -Hamdani that at the time he said many odes about praising art. Motanabbi said these odes, not only for obtaining relationship and using their mind but also feeling,emotions and passion involved in it. He in the odes more used affectionand feel rather than art and wisdom, so listeners in these odes will not feel cold.

[Mohammad Jafari, Samad gharavol mohammad abadi. Mutanabbi S Views in Eulogizing Saif al doule. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):85-88]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13



Keywords: affection element, Motanabbi prayers,Sayf al-Dawla

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Hydrogeology And Groundwater Resources Of Nigeria


H.O Nwankwoala


Department of Geology, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Information Technology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

E-mail: nwankwoala_ho@yahoo.com; Tel: +234 – 803 672 3009


Abstract: Nigeria is endowed with enormous groundwater resources, far greater than the surface water resources. Groundwater constitutes an important source of water for domestic supply and agriculture in Nigeria. The occurrence of groundwater is greatly influenced by the local geological conditions which ultimately control yields. Recharge to aquifers, which influences the safe yields of wells, depends on rainfall over the area. Thus, rainfall ultimately controls the amount of groundwater recovered from wells in any given locality. The extent of amount of groundwater storage in Nigeria is not yet known, but available records indicate that major aquifers are located in the sedimentary deposit basins, which cover about 50% of the nation’s land area. The remaining 50% is underlain by crystalline rocks of the basement complex. Water supply provision is a major contribution to the Nigerian United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and groundwater component is significantly essential. However, the task of providing water supply for citizenry has remained daunting for decades. Quite unfortunately, in spite of the fundamental role groundwater plays in human well being, as well as that of many ecosystems, it is yet to be fully understood, appreciated and adequately managed and protected. It is a well known fact that groundwater basins are difficult to govern and manage, partly because of poor information, and also because of poor visibility of the resource, the need for proper understanding of the resource and information in support of water resource planning is central and vital for sustainability. Sustainable development of the groundwater resource depends on an understanding of groundwater availability and processes through which it is recharged and renewed. This paper therefore gives an overview of the hydrogeology and reviews the groundwater resources potential of Nigeria.

[H.O Nwankwoala. Hydrogeology And Groundwater Resources Of Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):89-100]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14



Keywords: Hydrogeology, geology, groundwater resources, aquifers, Nigeria

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The associative effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens in promoting growth, nutrient uptake and yield of Arachis hypogaea L.


Alpa Yadav and Ashok Aggarwal*


Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), India

* aggarwal_vibha@rediffmail.com


Abstract: A pot experiment was performed to examine the consortium impact of two different indigenous AM fungi i.e. Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis either alone and/or in combination with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth enhancement of groundnut under polyhouse conditions. All the treated/ combinations used significantly influenced the morphological, physiological as well as yield parameters over uninoculated control. Various parameters like plant height, shoot biomass, root biomass, root length, AM spore number, root and shoot phosphorus, protein percent and oil content were found to be in G. mosseae + A. laevis + T. viride + P. fluorescens treatment, whereas other parameters like, leaf area, stomatal conductance and leaf chlorophyll content were found to be maximum in triple inoculation of G. mosseae + T. viride + P. fluorescens. The presence of G. mosseae + P. fluorescens was efficient in increment in both (acidic and alkaline) phosphatase activity. These results emphasize the need for the incorporation of suitable bioinoculant with soil inoculation for ensuring better growth and improved productivity of this important oil yielding plant.

[Alpa Yadav and Ashok Aggarwal. The associative effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens in promoting growth, nutrient uptake and yield of Arachis hypogaea L. N Y Sci J 2015;8(1):101-108]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15



Key words: Arachis hypogaea, AM fungi, symbiosis, T. viride, P. fluorescens

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 2, 2015. 

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