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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print), ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200,  Monthly

Volume 8 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 74); April 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0804

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Contribution of Mortar and Pestle Production to Rural Livelihood in Southwest Nigeria

 

Larinde, S. L. and A. A. *Aiyeloja

 

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Email: adedapo.aiyeloja@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Traditional knowledge of wood utilization as cookware is acknowledged in nature and science but evidence relating to its direct contribution to livelihoods and household income is often overlooked. Mortar and Pestle (M&P) production contributes to livelihood improvement and household incomes in most rural areas adjoining natural forest and forest reserves. However there is paucity of information on its contribution to rural livelihood. This study provides such information on production and trade of M & P in southwest, Nigeria. Primary data was generated mainly from pre-tested structured questionnaires and field observations among producers and marketers. The results showed that majorities (73.3%) of the producers were married, which made M & P production a stable enterprise in the study area, 40% of the respondent families were as large as 6-9 in number, 22.2% (1-5) and 26.7% (10-14), about 89% of the respondent fell within the age group 18-50 years. More than half (55.6%) of the respondents had no formal education, while the rest had formal education: primary (33.3%), secondary (6.7%) or post-secondary education (4.4%). Wood species used include Milicia excelsa, Vitellaria paradoxum, Daniella olliveri. The study further revealed the mean annual profit to be N40, 260.33. This implies that investment in M & P production is worthwhile. In addition, the cost benefit ratio (CBR) in the study areas was 1.79. While the mean RORI for the three years was 78.07%, this value indicates the profit potentials of the enterprise. Apart from generating income to local artisans, M & P production facilitates long-term locking-up of carbon in utilized wood thereby contributing to carbon sequestration; it is also an important material for indigenous food preparations.

[Larinde, S. L. and A. A. Aiyeloja. Contribution of Mortar and Pestle Production to Rural Livelihood in Southwest Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):1-7]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.01

 

Keywords: culture, household income, food, livelihood, wooden cookware.

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2

Effect Of Aerobic Exercise And Diet On Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 In Obese Egyptian Patients

 

AbdelMohsen Mostafa AbouAlia1*, Awny Fouad Rahmy 2, Akram Abd El-Azziz Sayed2 and Magda Mohamed Abdellatif Rashed2

 

1 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Alzhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular, Respiratory disorder and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

abdelmohsen1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a novel inflammatory biomarker that is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of and additive to traditional risk factors. Lp-PLA2 activity is correlated with the degree of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque and is associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Objective: In this present study, we examined the efficacy of combination of aerobic physical activity and diet control without hypocholesterolemic drugs on reducing the Lp-PLA2 levels. Methods: This prospective study includes 30 hypercholesterolemic obese Egyptian patients (50% men and 50% women) who completed the aerobic physical activity and diet control for 3 months. Initial and after protocol complete the following were assessed: weight, body mass index (BMI), Lipid profile and the Lp-PLA2 levels. Results: The study revealed a 6.21% reduction in mean Lp-PLA2 values (baseline 24.63 2.74 vs 23.12.65 ug/L after protocol complete; P < 0.001). The change observed in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) was 17.46 %, (baseline 174.36 38.5 vs 143.932.33mg/dL after protocol complete), which also was significant (P < 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was 15.83 %, (baseline 31.96 4.57vs 37.034.45 mg/dL after protocol complete), which also was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Lp-PLA2 is reduced with the use of combined aerobic physical activity and diet control without lipid lowering therapy. This change in Lp-PLA2 may be partially explained by the changes in LDL-C.

[AbouAlia A, Rahmy A, Sayed A, Rashed M. Effect Of Aerobic Exercise And Diet On Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 In Obese Egyptian Patients. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):8-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.02

 

Keywords: Lp-PLA2; LDL-C; aerobic exercise

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3

A political approach in poetries of, Mehdi Akhavan Sales andAbd al-Bayati

 

Faras Dehdari 1, Dr. Sohad Jaderi 2

 

1.  Department of Arabic Language and literature, Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2.  Assistant Professor, Abadan Branch , Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: Most contemporary poets (Persian and Arabic) had an obligation towards society. Mehdi Akhavan-Sales of Iran and Wahhab al-Bayati of Iraq with regard to condition and similar political problems werecommon inlyrical themes. In this paper, wetry to describe the political situation in Iraq in the period ofAbd al-Wahhab Al-Bayatiand also we deal with the political situation in Iran during the period of AkhavanSales and then we addresses biographies and biographical literature of Akhvan Sales and Lbiyati. At the end we examinethecomparative literature ofthe poems that have political implications.

[Faras Dehdari, Sohad Jaderi. A political approach in poetries of, Mehdi Akhavan Sales andAbd al-Bayati. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):14-17]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.03

 

Keywords: politics, commitment, resistance, colonialism, tyranny and exploitation.

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4

Evaluation of a Passive Solar Chimney Dryer for Rural Farmers Using Arachis Hypogea at Uyo, Nigeria

 

*John F. Wansah1, Alice E. Udounwa2, Kufreabasi E. Essien2 and Aondoever U. Mee3

 

1Department of Physics, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola

2Department of Physics, University of Uyo, Uyo

3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

*wansahj@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The performance of a passive solar chimney dryer for rural farmers using Arachis hypogea (groundnut) has been evaluated and the results compared with the traditional open-sun drying. The solar chimney dryer consists of the solar collector and the chimney drying chamber with five trays with dimensions of 100 x 70 x 20 cm3 and 100 x 70 x 50 cm3 respectively. The experiment was carried out at Uyo (Latitude 52'60N and Longitude 755'60E). The results show a reduction in mass from 20.00kg to 2.30kg and from 20.00kg to 2.50kg for solar chimney dryer and open-sun drying respectively. The results obtained also reveal that the moisture content left in Arachis hypogea after three days was 11.5% in the dryer and 12.50% in the open-sun. The passive solar chimney dryer efficiency using Arachis hypogea at Uyo was about 7.3%.

[John F. Wansah, Alice E. Udounwa, Kufreabasi E. Essien and Aondoever U. Mee. Evaluation of a Passive Solar Chimney Dryer for Rural Farmers Using Arachis Hypogea at Uyo, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):18-22]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.04

 

Keywords: Passive solar chimney dryer, open-sun drying, solar collector, dryer efficiency

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5

Impacts of beehive stands’ heights and hives’ types on the ergonomics of honey harvesting in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

1Aiyeloja, A. A., 1Adedeji, G. A. and 2Emerhi, E. A.

 

1Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Delta State University, Asaba, Nigeria

 

Abstract: Beekeeping has a great ecological and economic importance across the globe. In Nigeria, sustainable harvesting of honey presents wide range of possibilities for ergonomic conditions improvement. Yet, most of the reported ergonomic studies largely utilized secondary information given by the respondents working in wood conversion and processing industries. More so, no ergonomic study on beekeeping and honey harvesting has been reported in relation to hive stand heights and hive types. This study was therefore designed to assess the impacts of beehive stands’ heights and hives’ types on the ergonomics of honey harvesting based on participatory and on-site experiences of the honey harvesting crews. A total number of eight experimental hives were used; consisting of four Kenyan Top Bar hives and four Langstroth frame hives mounted on two varying iron stands’ heights of 40cm and 70cm in the Apiary Unit of the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt respectively. The study showed that the most impactful task of harvesting was the cutting of the honey combs which demanded much bending of the waist, wrist, neck, and awkward postures. This result indicated height as the most important factor influencing extent body parts bending. Moreover, utilization of Langstroth frame hives impacted more negatively to ergonomic harvesting conditions on the harvesting crews than Kenyan Top bar because of the manner in which the inner bars were constructed making it difficult for easy removal and placement. Dehydrating effects of the protective clothes (bee suite) was also recognized as contributing factor to the debility of harvesting crews. Experiences in the two stand heights and hive types showed that 70cm stand height and Kenyan Top bar hive seemed moderately adequate to improve ergonomic conditions in honey harvesting for an average human height (1.5 – 1.8 metres). The study recommended ergonomic guideline of 80-84cm stand height and Kenya Top bar hive with felling buffer for beekeeping.

[Aiyeloja, A. A., Adedeji, G. A. and Emerhi, E. A. Impacts of beehive stands’ heights and hives’ types on the ergonomics of honey harvesting in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):23-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.05

 

Keywords: Appropriate work design; fatigue; musculoskeletal diseases; productivity; work load

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6

Effects Of Poultry Manure, Npk 15-15-15 Fertilizer And Their Combination On Vegetative Growth And Yield Parameter Of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Mill.)

 

1Ewulo, B. S. and 2Sanni, K. O.

 

1Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. 2*Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, P. O. Box 249, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.

*sannikehinde2002@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fertility is known to influence crop yield, in other to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on growth and yield parameters of tomato. An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology Akure, The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The treatments applied involved combination of reduced level of poultry manure and NPK, which gives six treatments viz: 100% Poultry Manure (PM) = (360g/plant), 100% NPK 15:15:15 = (7.2g/plant), 25% PM + 75% NPK = (90g PM + 5.4g NPK/plant), 50% PM + 50% NPK = (180g PM + 3.6g NPK/plant), 75% PM + 25% NPK = (270g PM + 1.8g NPK/plant) and Control (no fertilizer). Growth parameter were collected once every two weeks on plant height, leaf number, branch number, and stem girth. The yield was computed on fresh weight basis. Based on the research outcome the combination of 50%PM (180g) + 50%NPK (3.6g) gave the overall best result. Sole application of poultry manure is found to be the best for tomato production as against sole application of inorganic (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizer. Soil samples were collected before and during the experiment. The sample were chemically analysed for pH, OC, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, H, Al, CEC, and BS.

[Ewulo, B. S. and Sanni, K. O. Effects Of Poultry Manure, Npk 15-15-15 Fertilizer And Their Combination On Vegetative Growth And Yield Parameter Of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Mill.). N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):28-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.06

 

Keywords: Poultry; Manure; Npk 15-15-15; Fertilizer; Vegetative Growth; Yield Parameter; Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Mill.)

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7

Ability of judging the claims of civil liability arising from the violation of Geographical Indications

 

Saadyeh Rashidi Bachay1, Dr. Faysal Saeidi 2

 

1.Department of Law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, Khorramshahr, Iran

2.Assistant professor, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: Judgment in claims of civil liability arising from the violation of geographical indications is due to the specific nature of their qualifications and their facilities. It seems that this applies to all claims arising from the handling of intellectual and functional property. Due to the specifying of nature of arbitration in relation with civil liability arising from the violation of geographical indications, it seems that in the claims the beneficiaries of geographical indications of some people aren’t determined and limited. So investigating to their claims is not possible by judicial ways, and those who are as a claim to right by arbitrating to reach to their own right. However, this paper tries to investigate this possibility (judgment in claims of civil liability arising from breach of geographical indications). Finally, we should say that the most important problems of judgment in relation to judgment of the judge decisions that issued by arbiter in the field of intellectual property because of the wide range don’t include the limitation of special places and times. These issues and challenges will be assessed in this study.

[Saadyeh Rashidi Bachay, Faysal Saeidi. Ability of judging the claims of civil liability arising from the violation of Geographical Indications. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):34-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.07

 

Keywords: vote, citizenship, residence of court, judge

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8

Biodiversity and correlation studies among various traits of Digeria arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria adescendense and Sorghum halepense

 

Harrem Khalid1, Qurban Ali2, Sadia Anwer1, Mobeen Ali1, Ali Ahmad3, Arfan Ali2, Muhammad Shafiq1, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Idrees Ahmad Nasir2 and Tayyab Husnain2

 

1.  Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

2.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

3.  Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

Emails: saim1692@gmail.com, qurban.ali@cemb.edu.pk

Cell No: +92(0)321-9621929

 

Abstract: The prescribed study was carried out to access the weeds for plant population and plant moisture percentage. Data of Digeria arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria adescendense and Sorghum halepense from three places of four locations viz., Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IAGS), University of the Punjab Lahore, Hanjerwal colony near Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore and Road side area of Ferozepur Road Kasur. It was found that higher plant population was recorded for Cyperus rotundus, higher moisture percentage in the plant body and inflorescence was recorded for Digeria arvensis. The weed plants population per square meter was significantly correlated with all studied traits. Fresh inflorescence weight was strongly and significantly correlated with dry plant weight, dry inflorescence weight, total plant moisture percentage and inflorescence moisture percentage. The strong and significant correlation of total plant moisture percentage and inflorescence moisture percentage with other traits indicated that there is important association among the weeds with respect to all locations. It was suggested that the weed controlling measuring practices should be carried out to minimize the yield losing effects of weeds. The herbicide resistant crop varieties should be developed to control weeds.

[Harrem K, Qurban A, Sadia A, Mobeen A, Ali A, Arfan A, Muhammad S, Muhammad SH, Idrees AN and Tayyab H. Biodiversity and correlation studies among various traits of Digeria arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria adescendense and Sorghum halepense. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):37-42]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.08

 

Keywords: Digeria arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria adescendense, Sorghum halepense, biodiversity

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9

Antagonistic activity of Solanum nigrum (L.) extracts against causative organisms of diarrhoeal diseases

 

IT Gbadamosi1, AJ Afolayan2

 

1 Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

1&2 Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa

gita4me2004@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: This study screened the ethanol extracts of Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae) against causative organisms of diarrhoeal diseases to ascertain its effectiveness in the treatment of the diseases. The leaf of S. nigrum was screened for the presence of secondary metabolites. The antibacterial assay of the extracts against indicator organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Escherichia coli 0157:H7; Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 13311; Salmonella typhi; Shigella flexneri KZN; Vibrio cholerae) was done using agar-well diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/ml of various extracts against indicator organisms (102 cfu/ml) was determined using agar dilution method. The plant contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and tannins. The ethanol extract of the berry was most active against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with 20.0 mm zone of inhibition. The root extract was active against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (30.0 mm), Shigella flexneri KZN (20.0 mm) and Vibrio cholera (35.0 mm). Overall, the root extract gave the highest antibacterial activity against 4 out of 6 indicator organisms. The leaf extract of S. nigrum gave the least (0.1 mg/ml) MIC value against all organisms. From this study, the extracts of S. nigrum showed the potential to be used in treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.

[Gbadamosi IT, Afolayan AJ. Antagonistic activity of Solanum nigrum (L.) extracts against causative organisms of diarrhoeal diseases. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):43-46]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.09

 

Keywords: Solanum nigrum; phytochemical screening; diarrhoeal diseases; antibacterial activity; solanaceae

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Estimation of Correlation among various morphological traits of Coronopus didymus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Cyperus difformis and Aristida adscensionis

 

Mobeen Ali1, Qurban Ali2, Sadia Anwer1, Harrem Khalid1, Ali Ahmad3, Arfan Ali2, Muhammad Shafiq1, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Idrees Ahmad Nasir2 and Tayyab Husnain2

 

1. Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

2.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

3.  Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

Emails: saim1692@gmail.com, qurban.ali@cemb.edu.pk

Cell No: +92(0)321-9621929

 

Abstract: The prescribed study was conducted to access the weed plant population and correlation among morphological traits of weeds during March 2015. Higher plant population was recorded for Coronopus didymus and Euphorbia helioscopia. Higher plant and inflorescence moisture percentage was recorded for Aristida adscensionis and Coronopus didymus. Higher population and moisture contents indicated that these weeds may cause the reduction in crop plant yield due to intense competition for water and nutrients. It was found that inflorescence fresh weight was strongly and significantly correlated with total plant moisture percentage, plant population, dry plant weight and inflorescence dry weight. Number of plants per square meter or plant population was strongly and significantly correlated with inflorescence fresh weight, inflorescence dry weight and total plant moisture percentage. Total plant moisture percentage and inflorescence moisture percentage was significantly correlated with each other. The positive and significant correlation suggested that the weed plants used much of the soil nutrients and water due to which the plant population is increased to so high that may cause reduction in the yield of crop plants. It was concluded that the weed plant population has to be controlled to minimize the yield reducing effects of weeds.

[Mobeen A, Qurban A, Sadia A, Harrem K, Ali A, Arfan A, Muhammad S, Muhammad SH, Idrees AN and Tayyab H. Estimation of Correlation among various morphological traits of Coronopus didymus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Cyperus difformis and Aristida adscensionis. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):47-52]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.10

 

Keywords: Coronopus didymus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Cyperus difformis, Aristida adscensionis, correlation

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Literary arrays in Quran

 

Mansour Hamil Pour 1, Dr.Sohad Jaderi 2

 

1.Department of Arabic Language and literature, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

2.Department of Arabic Language and literature, Assistant Professor, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad university, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: One of the fundamental aspects of this precious book is verbal and rhetorical miracle.many bookshave written about rhetorical aspects of Quran and all books on rhetoric and exquisite aspect noticeto the Quran and the examples of the Koran usually are used. In this paper is attempted  among a variety of industries in the Quran, to refer to few examples. And in the extent of ability, mask can be removed from beautiful face.

[Mansour Hamil Pour, Dr.Sohad Jaderi. Literary arrays in Quran. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):53-55]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.11

 

Keywords: industry, array, literature, the Quran.

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A comparative study on phenological events in two populations of Peganum harmala

 

* Nida Aslam1, Aijaz A Wani1, Irshad A Nawchoo1, Khaleefa Aslam1 and Mohd Aslam Bhat2

 

1. Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar- 190006, J&K, India.

2. Department of Botany, Degree College Sopore, Baramulla-193201, J&K, India

*Corresponding Author: nidabhat42@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of present work was to study comparative phenological events in diploid and tetraploid populations of Peganum harmala. In this paper an attempt has been made to record data regarding Sprouting, Flowering, Fruiting, and Senescence. This was done for a period of two years and it was carried out in two provinces (Kasmir and ladakh) of Jammu and Kashmir. Diploid and tetraploid individuals show divergent phenologies but the duration of different phases was similar. The different phases started approximately 1 month earlier in diploids than in tetraploids. Such phenological separation may arise because of genetically based differences between the two as a consequence of chromosome doubling or selection subsequent to the chromosome doubling event. Alternatively, phenological separations may arise if diploids and tetraploids occupy slightly different environments, which affect the timing and rate of growth.

[Nida Aslam, Aijaz A Wani, Irshad A Nawchoo, Khaleefa Aslam and Mohd Aslam Bhat. A comparative study on phenological events in two populations of Peganum harmala. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):56-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.12

 

Keywords: Phenology, population, flowering, fruiting

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Hydrographic Characteristics of Two Estuaries on the South Western Coast of Ghana

 

Margaret F. A. Dzakpasu1 (corresponding author), Kobina Yankson2

 

1Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast,

Cape Coast, Ghana, Email: mfad1994@gmailcom

2Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,School of Biological Sciences,University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Email: kyankson201@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the hydrographic characteristics of the Kakum and Nyan estuaries located on the southwestern coast of Ghana in order to gather baseline information for subsequent monitoring. Surface and bottom measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and turbidity were taken using a water quality checker (TOADK – 22 A) at various sampling stations from August 2011 to July 2012 during low tides. Depth was also measured. During the “peak” dry and wet seasons (February and July respectively), measurements were taken at high and low tides and the extent of saltwater penetration into the estuaries was determined. Temperature and DO were generally similar in both estuaries, but turbidity and pH were higher in Nyan estuary than Kakum estuary for some months.  Salinity was higher at the mouths than the other stations. Both estuaries showed characteristics of positive estuaries with higher bottom salinities than surface ones at most stations except the mouths. Turbidity showed similar vertical variations as salinity.  Temperature, salinity and DO values were higher during peak dry season than wet season in both estuaries. Saltwater penetrated farther in the Nyan estuary than the Kakum estuary at both dry and wet seasons and over a longer distance in the dry season than the wet season. The results have been interpreted with reference to seasons, differences in the size and shallowness of the estuaries and also compared with other studies. There is the need for regular monitoring of our water bodies in the wake of rising environmental issues.

[Margaret F. A. Dzakpasu, Kobina Yankson. Hydrographic Characteristics of Two Estuaries on the South Western Coast of Ghana. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):60-69]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.13

 

Keywords: Positive estuaries, vertical variations, peak dry season, peak wet season, saltwater penetration

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Effects Of Poultry Manure, Npk 15-15-15 Fertilizer And Their Combination On Vegetative Growth And Yield Parameter Of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Var. Mill.)

 

1Ewulo, B. S. and 2Sanni, K. O.

 

1Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. 2*Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, P. O. Box 249, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.

*sannikehinde2002@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fertility is known to influence crop yield, in other to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on growth and yield parameters of tomato. An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology Akure. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The treatments applied involved combination of reduced level of poultry manure and NPK, which gives six treatments viz: 100% Poultry Manure (PM) = (360g/plant), 100% NPK 15:15:15 = (7.2g/plant), 25% PM + 75% NPK = (90g PM + 5.4g NPK/plant), 50% PM + 50% NPK = (180g PM + 3.6g NPK/plant), 75% PM + 25% NPK = (270g PM + 1.8g NPK/plant) and Control (no fertilizer). Growth parameter were collected once every two weeks on plant height, leaf number, branch number, and stem girth. The yield was computed on fresh weight basis. Based on the research outcome the combination of 50%PM (180g) + 50%NPK (3.6g) gave the overall best result. Sole application of poultry manure is found to be the best for tomato production as against sole application of inorganic (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizer. Soil samples were collected before and during the experiment. The sample were chemically analysed for pH, OC, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, H, Al, CEC, and BS.

[Ewulo, B. S. and Sanni, K. O. Effects Of Poultry Manure, Npk 15-15-15 Fertilizer And Their Combination On Vegetative Growth And Yield Parameter Of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Var. Mill.). N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):70-75]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.14

 

Key words: Poultry Manure, Npk 15-15-15 Fertilizer, Vegetative Growth, Yield Parameter, Tomato

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Airborne Mycodiversity in the Indoor environments of Dhanvantri Library of Jammu University (India).

 

S.P. Pourush Shrikhandia and Geeta Sumbali*

 

University of Jammu, B.R. Ambedkar Road, Jammu-180006 (India).

* corresponding author: geetasumbalippl@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Mycobial contamination in the indoor environments of libraries is a world-wide problem. These buildings are not only the store house of knowledge in the form of books, manuscripts, etc., but may also serve as conducive habitat for proliferation of this diverse group of fungal organisms due to ambient environment of temperature and humidity. These airborne bioparticles are not only responsible for deterioration and ageing of books and other important documents in the library but may also significantly affect the health of library users. In view of this, aeromycological studies were conducted to enumerate the mycodiversity that is associated with three indoor sites viz., stack areas, reading rooms and newspaper section of Dhanvantri library, which is the central library of University of Jammu. The main objective of the study was to find out the fungal flora at these places and its impact on the library materials, which are stored/processed there. By using settle plate method and modified Czapek Dox Agar medium with rose bengal and streptomycin sulphate, 17 fungal species belonging to 8 genera were recovered. Four measures of diversity are considered viz., species richness (S), Shannon-Wiener’s diversity index (H'), Simpson Diversity index (1-D) and Sorenson’s similarity index. The values so obtained showed that there is homogenity in the mycodiversity of all the three sites.

[S.P. Pourush Shrikhandia and Geeta Sumbali. Airborne Mycodiversity in the Indoor environments of Dhanvantri Library of Jammu University (India). N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):76-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.15

 

Key words: Mycodiversity, indoor air, library, mycoflora, diversity indices

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Mass Multiplication of Entomopathogenic Fungi Using Agricultural Waste

 

*Swapan Kumar Ghosh, Sujoy Pal

 

Molecular Mycopathology Lab., Post Graduate Department of Botany,

Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara, Kolkata 700118, India

*Corresponding address: swapan.krghosh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mass multiplication of entomopathogenic fungi is a crucial part of successful biological pest management programme. Agricultural wastes are the biodegradable low cost substrates from which mycoinsecticides are grown up in an adequate number very easily with commercial cost benefit. Rice straw, Rice husk, Rice bran, Sugarcane bagasse, Saw dust, Coconut coir, Corn cob and Vegetable waste were selected for mass multiplication solid substrate. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were selected for mass multiplication. In this experiment among the all substrates vegetable waste helps to produce maximum spore amount of all fungi strain; Beauveria bassiana produced 7.42 x 107 spores /g from it. Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma longibrachiatum produced 8.80 x 107 and 7.96 x 107 Spores /g respectively only after 15 days of incubation. Rice straw, sugarcane baggase, coconut coir and corn cob are the second easy available mass production substrates and gave moderate amount of spores. Mass multiplication of the entomopathogenic fungi was least in the saw dust where Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma longibrachiatum sporulate 1.32 x 107, 2.50 x 107 and 1.41 x 107 spores/g respectively. Spore quality is one of the challenging parts for mass multiplication. Spore production and viability are depending on the duration of incubation; germination was reached up to 95% after 15 days of interval at 280C and gradually decline during 45 days preservation.

[Swapan Kumar Ghosh, Sujoy Pal. Mass Multiplication of Entomopathogenic Fungi Using Agricultural Waste.. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):82-86]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.16

 

Key words: Mycoinsecticide, mass production, green waste.

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Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Renal Obstruction Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up and injure one or both kidneys. Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter. Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become hydronephrosis. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs, EC 1.14.13.39) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. NO is an important cellular signaling molecule that helps to modulate the vascular tone, insulin secretion, airway tone and peristalsis, etc, and NO is involved in angiogenesis and neural development. It may function as a retrograde neurotransmitter. NO is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS).

[Ma H, Young M. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Renal Obstruction Research Literatures. N Y Sci J 2015;8(4):87-104]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnys080415.17

 

Keywords:  inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); life; obstruction; renal

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 22, 2015

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