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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X,  doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200, Monthly

Volume 8 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 77); July 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0807

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Investigation Using Artificial Neural Networks in Electric Power Sectors

 

Firoozeh Bagheri

 

MSc in Electronic Engineering, Digital Electronics Field, Iran University of Science and Technology

 

Abstract: This paper presents an initial survey of the uses of Neural Networks in the Electric Power Industry. The objective of the Electric Power Industry is to supply electricity at the least possible cost with a constant service quality. Among the factors that provoke difficulties in achieving this goal, the inherent variability of the load and the fast growth of the demand are foremost, followed by requirements of clean environment, weather, and quality fuels, and accelerated aging of the plants and fast changes in technology. Promising Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approaches have been developed to solve problems in power plants and power systems --tuning of controllers, process identification, sensor validation, monitoring and fault diagnosis, in power plants, and security assessment, load identification, load modeling, forecasting and fault diagnosis, in power systems.

[Firoozeh Bagheri. Investigation Using Artificial Neural Networks in Electric Power Sectors. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.01

 

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Electric Power Sectors

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2

Toxicological Evaluation of Graded Levels of Areca catechu seed flour on Performance of Albino Rats

 

Ajayi Ibironke A., Ifedi Emmanuel N. and Ayinde Folakemi T.

 

Industrial Unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The toxicological evaluation of graded levels of Areca catechu seed flour (ACSF) on albino rats was investigated in order to determine its suitability as an additive in feed supplement. The proximate analysis of ACSF showed that it had high carbohydrate and crude fibre values of 79.180.64% and 34.250.01% but low protein, moisture, and ash contents of 4.200.08%, 6.790.02%, and 1.76 0.03% respectively. The ACSF also contains iron, magnesium, copper and zinc at high concentrations. The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed that ACSF contains tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Twenty eight rats with an average weight of 40-60g were randomly allotted to four dietary treatment containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of ACSF incorporated into the feed. During the rat experiment which lasted for eight weeks, rats in both the control and experimental groups appeared to suffer no major toxicological effect and weekly monitoring showed good physical appearance. Histopathological analysis of the organs of the rats showed no visible lesion in both the kidney and liver in the 10% incorporation. ACSF might be a good additive in feed supplemented at 10% level of inclusion.

[Ajayi Ibironke A., Ifedi Emmanuel N. and Ayinde Folakemi T. Toxicological Evaluation of Graded Levels of Areca catechu seed flour on Performance of Albino Rats. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):5-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.02

 

Keywords: Areca catechu seeds; mineral element; proximate; phytochemical; rats feed and toxicological evaluation

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Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Plasmid Profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Some Hospital Patients in Benin City, Nigeria.

 

Jonathan O. Isibor* 1 and Courage Uwabor1

 

1Department of Microbiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.

* Present Address: Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state, Nigeria.

Corresponding author:-Tel: (234) 803 5515 110; E-mail: scido1951@gmail.com

Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative rod is one of the most problematic bacterial pathogens due to its ability to readily develop resistance to many antibiotics using mechanisms like biofilm formation, production of β-lactamases, and multi-drug resistance efflux pumps. This study was aimed at investigating the resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens. Forty (40) mid-stream urine specimens and sixty- one (61) swabs were aseptically obtained from consenting volunteers after approval from the hospital ethical committee. Specimens were inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar and incubated at 37oC for 24hrs. Colonies growing on media were gram – stained and identified using standard identification procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique, and results were interpreted following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute’s guidelines. Multi-drug resistant isolates were screened for the presence of plasmids using 10% sodium deodecyl sulphate while plasmid DNA was extracted using the technique of Bimboim and Doly and electrophoresed on a 0.8% agarose gel. Results showed that 32 (32%) of the 101 specimens yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with 13(40.6%) of these showing multi-drug resistance phenotype. Resistance to the tested antibiotics was in the following decreasing order: Nalidixic acid and Ceporex (92.3%), Ampicillin (76.9%), Augmentin and Gentamicin (46.2%), Septrin (38.5%), Ciprofloxacin and Reflacine (30.8%), and Streptomycin (15.4%). Eleven (85%) of the resistant isolates harbored plasmids with bands ranging from 150bp to 300bp. This study has shown that plasmid mediated multi-drug resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is rife in this locality. There is therefore urgent need for relevant health providers to initiate concerted strategies at monitoring prescribing habits of clinicians, the diagnostic efficiency of hospital microbiologists, the dispensing habits of pharmacists as well as the inappropriate use of antibiotics. Good hygienic measures are of great importance in controlling possible transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections within and outside the hospital environment.

[Isibor J, Uwabor C. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Plasmid Profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Some Hospital Patients in Benin City, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):14-19]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.03

 

Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, Plasmids, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Hospital Patients, Benin City, Nigeria

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4

Post Butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy Pulmonary Haemodynamic Changes

 

Nasr H. Khalil1, Gamal M. Soliman2, Mohamed Abd El-Rasheed2, Mahmoud Abd El-Rasheed3, Nabil FathyEsmael Hassan4 and Gamal Zakaria Elmorsy Elkhatib4

 

1Chest Department - Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, 2Tropical Medicine Department - Al-Azhar University, 3Internal Medicine Department - Al-AzharUniversity, 4Clinical Pathology Department - Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

m-allam74@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for gastric variceal bleeding using butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) began to be used in the mid-1980’s. As Histoacryl is rapidly polymerized on contact with blood, the use of Histoacryl is the initial treatment of choice for gastric variceal bleeding. Although Histoacryl is considered to be best suited for larger varices due to ease of intravariceal injection, it is more difficult to calculate the exact volume needed for variceal obliteration. The occurrence of systemic embolization with Histoacryl injections has been reported. Aim: Post endoscopic intravaricealHistoacryl injection pulmonary vascular complications evaluation.Patient and Methods:- Thirty patients with bleeding from gastric varices who were treated with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) were enrolled in this study from October 2013 to October 2014, 22 patients were emergency cases and 8 patients as a follow up sclerotherapy cases. For all patient, full clinical assessment, routine laboratory tests and D-dimer were done. Pulmonary imaging as x-ray and Helical CT scanning were done. Echocardiography supplemented with Doppler was done before, 10 minutes and 24 hours post procedure.Result: Acute variceal bleeding was initially controlled in all patients with Histoacryl injections. But, rebleeding was reported in 5 cases (16.6%).Apart from, 2 patients presented with hypotension and shock, no significant post procedure clinical findings was detected. One patient was admitted to ICU for 72 hours, where he was diagnosed as stable acute pulmonary embolism (3.3%). The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was based on Helical CT scan.  Tracing the mean pressure of pulmonary artery before and after the procedure showed no significant changes. Conclusion: However Histoacryl injection for controlling gastric variceal bleeding is considered as an invasive maneuver, the incidence of major complications as pulmonary embolism is low. Further study with more number of patients is recommended for evaluating the risk factor for post histoacryl pulmonary embolism.

[Nasr H. Khalil, Gamal M. Soliman, Mohamed Abd El-Rasheed, Mahmoud Abd El-Rasheed, Nabil Fathy Esmael Hassan and Gamal Zakaria Elmorsy Elkhatib. Post Butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy Pulmonary Haemodynamic Changes. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):20-23]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.04

 

Keywords: Post Butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl); Endoscopic Injection; Sclerotherapy; Pulmonary; Haemodynamic

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Scientific Investigation of Text Mining

 

Sedigheh Damavandi

 

MSc in Information Technology, software design, Shiraz University, E-learning School

 

Abstract: The increasing growth of database almost in any area of human activity has caused that increases need for new powerful tools for changing the data into useful knowledge. To meet this need, researchers in areas such as machine learning, pattern recognition, statistical data analysis, data visualization, neural networks, econometrics, information retrieval, information extraction and .... have explored methods and ideas. Unstructured nature of these texts, applying the same methods that we use about no text database, makes it impossible. Therefore methods and specific algorithms are required for processing (pre-processing) for extracting useful patterns. Text mining uses unstructured textural information and examines it to explore the structure and hidden implicit meanings in the text. In this article, we examine one of the newest fields studied in data mining; text mining. In this paper are described existing methods for pre-processing, classification, information extraction, methods of finding relations. At the end of any part, evaluation and comparison carry out on expressed methods in that part and in the end; number of text mining applications is expressed.

[Sedigheh Damavandi. Scientific Investigation of Text Mining. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):24-35]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.05

 

Keywords: Text Mining, Information Technology, Database

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6

Checking sociological concepts of employment, and the views of Imam Khomeini, Imam Muhmmad Ghzaliand Ayatollah Sadr

 

Gholamreza Etminan

 

Department of Sociology, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Employment in any society typically is influenced by the interaction of the community's social system. Social components such as politics, economy, population, geography and culture of each community how employment keepspersonality of community s people. This paper seeks to answer the question that the employment of view of Islam with an emphasis on ideas of three religious characters, Imam Khomeini Imam Mohammad Ghazali and martyr Ayatollah Sadr, What is sociological characteristics? From Imam Khomein s view, general characteristics of employment is the importance of faith and divine inspiration in the work, the work equals with the jihad in the way of Allah and the work is worship, and so on. Imam Mohammad Ghazali divided the work into three categories: legitimate jobs, jobs and jobs forbidden abomination, and he knows jobs as a change in human nature through the use of tools on one hand, providing services on the other hand. Characteristics of work of his view are the work of human social life, the necessity of having a business background for independence of everyone, even religious people, social responsibility against everyone and vice versa, and useful work. martyr Ayatollah Sadr in a view as the distribution of wealth in Islam stressed comments on the concept of divided work in distributed background include: distribution of material resources, the distribution of wealth produced in this division and working on tools and resources indirectly is explained and analyzed.from his view, the agent for the work on natural raw materials is the owner of his own work product and for the product of the work is the owner of the conditions and possibilities of exploitation of nature. In addition to pay attention to the type and nature of work in this theory, it is noticed to discuss the results. They work in two types: useful work and imposed work, focused on the community, element of continuity are among the conclusions of the article.

[Gholamreza Etminan. Checking sociological concepts of employment, and the views of Imam Khomeini, Imam Muhmmad Ghzaliand Ayatollah Sadr. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):36-41]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.06

 

Keywords: work, employment, nature of work, Imam Khomeini, Imam Mohammad Ghazali, Ayatollah Sadr

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7

A Comparison of API of Key-Value and Document-Based Data-Stores with Python Programming

 

Ehsan Azizi Khadem1, Emad Fereshteh Nezhad2

 

1. MSc of Computer Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering, Lorestan University, Iran

2. MSc of Computer Engineering, Communications Regulatory Authority of I.R of Iran

 

Abstract: Today, NoSql data-stores are widely used in databases. NoSql, is based on NoRel (Not Only Relational) concept in database designing. Relational databases are most important technology for storing data during 50 years. But nowadays, because of the explosive growth of data and generating complex type of it like Web2, RDBMS are not suitable and enough for data storing. NoSql has different data model and API to access the data, comparing relational method. NoSql data-stores can be classified into four categories: key-value, document-based, extensible record or column-based and graph-based. Many researches are analyzed and compared data models of these categories but there are few researches on API of them. In this paper, we implement python API to compare performance of key-value and document-based stores and then analyze the results.

[Ehsan Azizi Khadem, Emad Fereshteh Nezhad. A Comparison of API of Key-Value and Document-Based Data-Stores with Python Programming. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):42-48]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.07

 

Keywords: NoSql, DataBase, Python, Key-value, Document-based

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8

Cluster of Differentiation (CD)

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The cluster of differentiation (or cluster of designation or classification determinant, abbreviated as CD) is a group of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. CD can act as receptors or ligands to play the functions as cell signaling and cell adhesion etc. Human CD number is up to 364. In the animal the CD system is normally play a role as cell marker in immune purpose to recognize the molecules in the cells’ surface. Several markers combine is a normal condition in the immune reaction.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Cluster of Differentiation (CD). N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):49-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.08

 

Key words: cluster of differentiation (CD); life; cell

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9

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Kidney Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs, EC 1.14.13.39) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. NO is an important cellular signaling molecule that helps to modulate the vascular tone, insulin secretion, airway tone and peristalsis, etc, and NO is involved in angiogenesis and neural development. It may function as a retrograde neurotransmitter. NO is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS). The inducible isoform, iNOS, is involved in immune response, binds calmodulin at physiologically relevant concentrations, and produces NO as an immune defense mechanism, as NO is a free radical with an unpaired electron. It is the proximate cause of septic shock and may function in autoimmune disease. NOS isoforms catalyze other leak and side reactions, such as superoxide production at the expense of NADPH. As such, this stoichiometry is not generally observed, and reflects the three electrons supplied per NO by NADPH.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Kidney Research Literatures. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):54-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.09

 

Key words: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); kidney; research; literatures; life; cell

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Studies on the Physico-chemical Parameters of the fresh water segment of the Lower Cross River System, South Eastern Nigeria.

 

Michael Mfon Akpan1., George, Ubong Uwem2 , Ekpo, Eyo Antai3

 

1Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Akwa Ibom State Civil Service, Uyo.

2Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography University of Calabar, Calabar.

3Department of Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanography University of Calabar, Calabar.

talk2georgeubong@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: The physico-chemical characteristics of the Lower Cross River system was determined fortnightly at two stations (Itu bridge-head and Akpamfrukim) over a period of 12 months (Jan. – Dec., 2014) using standard procedures. Parameters changed mainly in response to the seasonal regimes of meteorological events such as rainfall. Some attributes showed high dry season levels with respect to water temperature; transparency; conductivity; TDS; free CO2; total alkalinity; NH4-N; PO4-P; NO3-N; SO42- ; salinity and silicate. 1.2 mgl-1 of free CO2 was commonly recorded at the two stations as its lowest with the peak (2.71mgl-1) at station 1; while SO42- and salinity was devoid at times (Aug. – Sept. and July – Sept., respectively) in station 1. Zero levels were also recorded in station 2 for salinity between August – September with seasonal significant difference (t=1.964, P<0.05) while seasonal significant difference in station 1 (t=4.699, P<0.001) and station 2 (t=4.002, P<0.01) were recorded for NO3-N. NH4-N also recorded a significant difference (t=5.802, P<0.05) at station 2.

[Michael M. A., George, U. U., Ekpo, E. A. Studies on the Physico-chemical Parameters of the fresh water segment of the Lower Cross River System, South Eastern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):60-65]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.10

 

Keywords: Lower Cross River, Physico-Chemical parameters, Fresh Water, Segmemt, south Eastern Nigeria

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In-vitro antimicrobial activities of crude and diluted Nigerian honey against some bacteria isolated from infected wound

 

Yahaya Usman 1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir 2, Nafiu Ahmed 3

 

1.Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 05 Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

2.Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, PMB 228, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

3.Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069 Maiduguri, Nigeria

(eedris888@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Wound infections have become a leading cause of frequent hospital visits and antimicrobial agents are crucial in their management. Regrettably, most incriminating bacteria are largely resistant to readily available conventional antibiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Nigeria honey on some frequently isolated bacteria from wounds swabs at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of the honey and comparative activity of pefloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis, were conducted using standard broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Our finding showed that all pathogens were susceptible to the honey. Staphylococus aureus exhibited increasing zones of inhibition (ZI) in a dose- dependent gradient of honey but less sensitive than pefloxacin with complete ZI of 6mm. Klebsiella pneumonia showed partial ZI at 100% (3.5mm), with no ZI seen at other dilutions, it was also resistant to pefloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed increasing ZI as concentration of honey increases, honey was also more effective than pefloxacin. Escherichia coli only exhibited ZI was at 100% (1.8mm) and was sensitive to pefloxacin with ZI of 3mm. Proteus mirabilis showed no ZI at all dilution except at 100%. It was also resistant to pefloxacin. Based on our findings, Nigerian honey produced significant in-vitro antibacterial activities against all test bacteria and it’s more efficacious than pefloxacin. This supports the use of honey for the management of infected wounds especially in resource-limited communities.

[Yahaya Usman, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Nafiu Ahmed. In-vitro antimicrobial activities of crude and diluted Nigerian honey against some bacteria isolated from infected wound. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):66-71]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.11

 

Keywords: Bee honey; Antimicrobial effects; Wound infections; pathogens; Nigeria

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Comparative Effects Of Compost And Poultry Manure On Bioavailability Of Pb And Cu And Their Uptake By Maize(Zea mays L.)

 

Thomas, E.Y and Dauda, S.O

 

Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Correspondence: E-mail: thomaseunice.eunice@gmail.com; Phone no: 08077625414

 

Abstract The contamination of soil with heavy metals will have adverse effects on soil ecology, agricultural production, animal and human health as well as groundwater quality. There is a growing trend towards the development of site-specific risk assessment technologies in which the necessity for remediation is linked to human health and/or ecological risk factors associated with the contaminated site. Thus, in-situ immobilization and phytoremediation are becoming increasingly an attractive remediation options. This study examined the effects of compost and poultry manure on bioavailability and uptake of Pb and Cu by Maize (Zea mays L.) biomass. The experimental soil was contaminated with Pb and Cu at different rates of concentration (0, 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm), incubated for one week and amended by compost and poultry manure. Three viable maize seeds were sown in the pots each containing 3kg of amended contaminated soil sample, replicated four times, and latter thinned to two seedlings per pot. The Pb and Cu contents of the seedlings, harvested 8-week after germination, were determined using AAS. All the data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, where F-values were significant at P=0.05. The means were separated by LSD with the use of Genstat Discovery. Compost and poultry manure played significant roles on bio-availability and uptake of Cu metal compared to the uptake of Pb metal. Therefore, both amendments are recommended for cleansing a Cu contaminated soil. Application of compost enhanced bioavailability, uptake and, consequently, resulted in high dry matter yield in both Pb and Cu degraded soil. Highest yield was found at 1500 ppm compared to control. Also, the results showed that poultry manure fixed or absorbed Pb metals, the highest concentration of which were found around the root zones of the plant, compared to the compost material.

[Thomas, E.Y and Dauda, S.O. Comparative Effects Of Compost And Poultry Manure On Bioavailability Of Pb And Cu And Their Uptake By Maize. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):72-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.12

 

Key words: Compost, Poultry manure, bioavailability, immobilization, Heavy metals.

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Geography or Spaciology, Constructing a palace anew

 

1MostafaRashidi , 2Mohammad Sadegh Yahyapour (Corresponding Author)

 

1PhD of Political Geography, Tehran University, Iran

2Sowmesara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sowmesara, Iran

 

AbstractProblem statement: Every phenomenon gains the meaning and identity according to the appearance in the space; as human being, we live in the space. The space dominates every phenomenon, idea, and notion. The human considerations flow from particularity of space, although the humans are part of space as well. We are a spatial phenomenon which gives meaning to the space with our appearance. This is not only about humans or specific phenomena; probably it can include whatever has the capacity of being in the space. Numerous people have incorrect and ambiguous understanding of scientific geography. Nowadays, we can still find people who think that the geography is the mass information about the countries, their population, world cities or mountains and plateaus. According to this perspective, we can understand an encyclopedia associated with the geography. Among the geographers, Areasof misunderstanding can be observed. Results: The boundary between the geography and other disciplines is so obscure, despite the fact that the contradictions and conflicts in understanding and explaining the approaches are more expanded and the knowledge and recognition in the geography is often faced with numerous problems. The most important problem in geography is about the methodology which has been traced back to inconsistent opinions of geographers who always perceive the crisis of geography in the methodology. Conclusion: The crises and problems of geography should be considered from the ontological and philosophical viewpoints. In fact, the frameworks and the body of geography discipline should be reconsidered in this regard.

[ MostafaRashidi,  Mohammad Sadegh Yahyapour. Geography or Spaciology, Constructing a palace anew. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):82-92]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.13

 

Keywords: Space, place, existence, spaciology, placiality, regionality, temporality

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Comparative study of the books of the fifth century Hijri and Persian texts date from the perspective of the words

 

Sara Mohammadi Moghadam, Dr. Mahmoud Ramazanzadeh Lak

 

MA in General Linguistics, School of Humanities, Payam Noor University of Mashhad

Assistant Professor, Payam Noor University of Mashhad

 

Abstract: This paper will investigate "Making the word of Persian literature in the fifth century Hijri and comparison with Today literature" and based on the model of the germ theory of Chomsky's transformation. Research tool in this article, are most from the books of Bayhaqi, Siyasatnama and four papers from fifth century literature. The two books Evening Sun and hundreds of fiction in Iran, which today are paragraphed prose is given. The results of the hypothesis in this paper show that: 1. a simple word frequency in the fifth century texts with contemporary Persian prose texts and derivative-compound comprising more than words. 2. With the help of a revival of affixes and word combinations used in the fifth century texts that are in decline and dementia can be used today, in the words of Persian literature. 3. Persian is a suffix Language.

[Sara Mohammadi Moghadam, Dr. Mahmoud Ramazanzadeh Lak. Comparative study of the books of the fifth century Hijri and Persian texts date from the perspective of the words. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):93-98]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.14

 

Keywords: Word building, vand synergy, postfix-simple, today Persian literature, Morsel prose

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15

Compensate for the loss of non-profit

 

Davar Tohidi, Ali Bazmi Haji Khajehlou, Mohammad Reza Marandi

 

Abstract: Non-profit group of jurists and lawyers who know the loss compensation benefits lost as a researcher, and it is not and does not guarantee it count. But another set up for it by treating it as a loss to know. At this point it should be noted that the law on non-profit ideas clearly expressed opposition or not. It is derived from the common law in certain instances, strengthen benefits are realized. For example, stunting his imprisonment artisans who make the daily business of living, Examples of deprivation of educational benefits realized that there are different opinions about the liability of its binding. In this section we evaluate the need to compensate for the loss of non-profit focused on jurisprudence and law various theories have been proposed in this field, we have analyzed and appropriate responses to the questions on that. (1) Foundations and documentation necessary to compensate for the loss of non-profit in Islamic jurisprudence is? (2) Principles and legal documentation necessary to compensate for the loss of rights is non-profit. (3) The terms of compensation for loss of Islamic law and the rights of non-profit in Iran? (4) The non-profit status or benefits may be obtained on Islamic law and the rights of Iran?

[Davar Tohidi, Ali Bazmi Haji Khajehlou, Mohammad Reza Marandi. Compensate for the loss of non-profit. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):99-101]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.15

 

Keywords: Non-profit group; jurist; lawyer; compensation; benefit; Islamic; Iran

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Evaluation of Serum Copper Levels in Patients with Leukemia and Lymphoma

 

Scientific Researcher

 

Abstract: Background: Copper is an important mineral involved in the regulation of body metabolism, which is required in different biological functions. Any significant change in its level in the body can be critical. The present study evaluated copper levels in the sera of patients with leukemia and lymphoma who had been referred to Ahvaz Shafa Hematology Oncology Hospital and compared the findings with those of a control group. Methods: In the current case-control study, 50 patients with leukemia and lymphomas and 50 healthy individuals were evaluated. Patients were classified into acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and lymphoma groups. Blood samples were collected from patients and the control group, and copper levels in the sera were measured by the flame atomic absorption method. Results: The patients consisted of six (12%) males and 44 (88%) females, and healthy subjects consisted of 11 (22%) males and 39 (78%) females. The mean age of patients in the patient group and individuals in the control group was 22.4 and 22.6 years, respectively, ranging from 10–30 years. The patients group included patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (24 cases), acute myeloid leukemia (16 cases), and Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (10 cases). The average value for sera copper was 905 g/l for patients, whereas the corresponding value for healthy controls was 801.1 g/l. When patients were compared with controls, the serum copper was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Evidence of elevated levels of copper was observed in leukemia and lymphoma patients, which might suggest a role for this element in cancer as an independent risk factor for malignancy.

[Scientific Researcher. Evaluation of Serum Copper Levels in Patients with Leukemia and Lymphoma. N Y Sci J 2015;8(7):102-105]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys080715.16

 

Keywords: Lymphoma, Leukemia, Copper

Full Text

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 10, 2015. 

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