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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200, Monthly

Volume 8 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 80); October 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0810


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Investigating of the relationship between air pollution and intensity of energy among the members of OPEC


Vahid Farhadi cheshmehe morvari


Department of Energy Economy, College Of Humanities, Aligoudarz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aligoudarz, Iran


Abstract: One of the most important phenomena which people encounter is air pollution. One of the main causes is the high consumption of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels has the largest share of greenhouse gases and air pollution is responsible. Given the importance of this issue, this study examines the relationship between air pollution and energy intensity in the OPEC countries in the period 2013-1985 using Data from the World Bank and the International Energy Agency in Eviews software and econometric models such as panel data and vector error correction is discussed. The results indicate that the GDP per capita, economic openness, energy intensity and urban population has a significant positive effect on the carbon dioxide gas emissions per capita. Vector error correction model showed that there are three optimal lag in the model. It was also noted by both the test and the maximum amount of special effects, there is a vector of cointegration between the variables of the model.

[Vahid Farhadi cheshmehe morvari. Investigating of the relationship between air pollution and intensity of energy among the members of OPEC. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):1-8]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.01


Keywords: Air Pollution, Energy Intensity, The Degree of Economic Openness, GDP Per Capita

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A comparative study of the force constants from different force fields


Nihal S. Elbialy, Bahaa Mostafa Abdelazim and Wafaa A. Khalil


Faculty of Science, Department of Biophysics, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt



Abstract: The force constants in internal coordinates can be derived from the hessian matrix in Cartesian coordinates. Selecting the bond coordinates from the hessian matrix allows the construction of the force constants of all types of internal coordinates upon eigen-decomposition of each interaction matrix. Force constants for bonds or for any pair of atoms ingeneral are defined by means of the eigenanalysis of their pair interaction matrix. Force constants for the angles are derived from their corresponding submatrices of the two bonds or distances forming the angle, the Urey-Bradley interaction can be treated the same way as bonds, and the improper force constants are similarly obtained using their corresponding three-pair interaction matrices. This method helps to find the force constants for all force fields, especially CHARMM, AMBER and MMFF. The resulting force constants were validated against other force fields.

[Nihal S. Elbialy, Bahaa Mostafa Abdelazim and Wafaa A. Khalil. A comparative study of the force constants from different force fields. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):9-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.02


Keywords: force field, CHARMM, AMBER, hessian, parameterization

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The problems and consequences of divorces in Karakalpak family


M. Utepbergenov


The Institute of retraining and qualification upgrading of public education staff, Nukus 230100, Uzbekistan.    mutepbergenov@maiI.ru


Abstract. In article the problem of divorces actual for the present, their reasons and consequences is covered, some static data on number of divorces are given in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan as a whole and separately in Karakalpakstan. Among negative consequences of divorces are called: formation of incomplete families that health effects on upbringing of children, their moral and physical; material difficulties of these families; psychological instability of parents, informal polygamy and illegitimate relations. One of the main reasons for the gap of the family in the article as migration (mostly young men), that creates the problem of imbalances. The author designated the most widespread factors promoting disorder of a family, and need of a message preparation at the state level of youth to family life is proved. Along with it a number of the objective motives conducting to disintegration of a family are called also, a number of the positive moments which are reached thanks to divorce are noted.

[M. Utepbergenov. The problems and consequences of divorces in Karakalpak family. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):14-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.03


Keywords: Family relations; conflict; divorces; marital relationship

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Effect of the Systemic Disease in the Endodontic Treatment Clinical Microbiological Analysis


Ali Kamel Ibrahim1, Fatima Al harbi1, Yara Ali 2, and Amani Motawia3


1Consultant Of Endodontic Al-noor Specialist hospital; 2 Dentist in Msa UN.; 3 Oral surgen


Abstract: Patients with diabetes have increased periodontal disease in teeth involved endodontically and have a reduced likelihood of success of endodontic treatment in cases with preoperative periradicular lesions.

[Ali Kamel Ibrahim, Fatima Al harbi, Yara Ali, and Amani Motawia. Effect of the Systemic Disease in the Endodontic Treatment Clinical Microbiological Analysis. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):17-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.04


Key word; Systemic Disease, Endodontic Microbiological

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Effects Of Nutrient Sources And Variety On The Growth And Yield Of Three Cultivars Of Pepper (Capsicum Annum L.) In Southwestern Nigeria


1*Olatunji, Ademola and 2Agele, O. S.


1Ondo State Agricultural Development Project, Alagbaka, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

2Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*olatunji69@yahoo.com; +2348034335774


Abstract: The effect of nutrient sources and variety on the growth and yield of three cultivars of pepper was investigated in a field experiment carried out at the Teaching and Research Farms of Federal University of Technology, Akure. Treatments were 3 x 3 factorial combinations of three cultivars of pepper (Bell pepper, Sweet pepper and Cayenne pepper) and three types of fertilizer (5t ha-1 poultry manure, 5t ha-1 organominerals and 2lts ha-1 liquid NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer). There was a control treatment with no fertilizer application. The treatments were replicated three times. The results showed that varietal effects were significant on some plant characters such as plant height, number of lateral branches, root length, number of days to 50% flowering, number of fruits and weight of fruits per plant. Nutrient sources significantly influenced growth parameters and yield attributes evaluated per plant compared to the unmanured plants. The applied nutrient sources brought about improvement in soil chemical properties; soil pH, total N, available P, organic matter and exchangeable cations were improved. It is evident from the study that pepper variety responded independently to nutrient source. Findings revealed that organominerals could be used for soil management as they improve soil nutrient status and could be used for sustainable pepper production in the study area.  Application of organomineral gave the best performances on bell pepper.

[Olatunji, Ademola and Agele, O. S. Effects Of Nutrient Sources And Variety On The Growth And Yield Of Three Cultivars Of Pepper (Capsicum Annum L.) In Southwestern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):21-29]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.05


Keywords: buffering effects, nutrient sources, plant characters, soil pH, Sweet pepper, varietal effects

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First Record of Ficus geniculata Kurz in Manipur, North East India


Mairembam Thoibi Devi1,5, Sanjoy Singh Ningthoujam2, *Deshworjit Singh Ningombam3, Dilip Kumar Roy4, Ajit Kumar Das5, Kumar Singh Potsangbam3


1 Department of Botany, Modern College, Imphal, India

2 Department of Botany, Ghanapriya Women’s College, Imphal, India

3 Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur, India

4 Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Shillong, India

5 Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, India



Abstract: Ficus geniculata and Ficus geniculata var. insignis are reported first time for Manipur, India. Concise taxonomic descriptions along with photograph were provided for easy identification. The young twigs along with leaves of both varieties are eaten as favourite wild edible foods and also traditional treatment for various gynaecological problems of women folks residing in Manipur. These twigs in bundle are available in the local markets.

[Mairembam Thoibi Devi, Sanjoy Singh Ningthoujam, Deshworjit Singh Ningombam, Dilip Kumar Roy, Ajit Kumar Das, Kumar Singh Potsangbam. First Record of Ficus geniculata Kurz in Manipur, North East India. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):30-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.06


Key words: Ficus; north east India; Manipur; khongnang taru

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Performance of a Full-Scale Activated Sludge Process for Sakket ( Musrata – Libya) Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant


Khaled Shahot1, Ibtesam Habib2 and Ahmed Ekhmaj3


1. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Almergib University Khom-Libya

2. Department of Environment and Water Resources, Faculty of Technical Engineering Masalata – Libya

3.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tripoli, Libya

kmshahot@gmail.com1, ibteshahot@gmail.com2, ekhmaj@gmail.com3


Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and sampling time on the efficiency of remove the organic matter and the suspended solids from Musrata municipal wastewater treatment plant. Many laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine parameters such as BOD5, COD, TSS and VTSS. The samples of water were collected before and after treating wastewater by means of activated sludge process among different time of the day i.e., 9a.m, 11a.m and 1p.m, with the temperature ranges between (10-20)oC and (25-30)oC during February and November 2011, respectively. The results revealed that at 16oC during February the removal percentage of BOD5, COD, TSS and VTSS were 90%, 80%, 80% and 89%, respectively. At 28oC during November, the removal percentage of BOD5, COD, TSS and VTSS were 90%, 85% and 85% and 86%, respectively .Such results successfully verified the significance of using the activated sludge process to treat wastewater in both warm and cold area.

[Khaled Shahot, Ibtesam Habib and Ahmed Ekhmaj. Performance of a Full-Scale Activated Sludge Process for Sakket (Musrata – Libya) Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):34-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.07


Keywords: biological treatment, Activated sludge, wastewater treatment, organic removal, suspended solids removal.

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Attaining Competitiveness through Competition Law: A Universal Perspective in Indian Context


Vijay Kumar Chaurasia


Law Officer, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Odisha, India

E-Mail- vijaykumarchaurasia123@gmail.com


Abstract: In the era of digitalization, competitiveness is must for the survival of economic entities. The survival is the most efficient one. Though in U.S. the Competition Law is not a single legislation unlike India. In U.S. there are Antitrust laws like Sherman Act, Clayton Act, Robinson Act to regulate and prohibit antitrust activities whereas in European Countries there is common law known as EC Competition Law and there is common Authority i.e. EC Commission for dealing with the competition issues with other countries and European Countries. As far as India is concerned, before Competition Law there was MRTP Act, 1969. After 1990 when Indian economy was opened for the World, it was very difficult to regulate the market with the provisions of MRTP Act, 1969. In the Year 2002, the Competition Act, 2002 replaced the MRTP Act, 1969 but the Commission actually started functioning from the year 2009.

[Chaurasia, Vijay Kumar. Though the phenomenon of Competition Commission of India is new but the Commission is functioning well & there are some leading decisions of the Commission which are to be really appreciated like DLF Decision given by the Competition Commission of India. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):38-43]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.08


Key Words: Competition Law, Competitiveness, Antitrust Law, Efficiency, Dominance, MRTP Commission, EC Competition Law.

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Outcome of percutaneous pedicle screw placement versus open pedicle screw placement in thoraco-lumbar spine fixation


El Hawary, Magdy A., M.D.


Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery, Al-Azhar University-Cairo-Egypt



Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the operative outcome of the relatively new percutaneous pedicle screw placement technique with the open one in order to sort out how much accuracy, safety and surgical benefit it provides the new one. A total number of 21 patients with percutaneous pedicle screw placement and 50 patients with open pedicle screw placement were operated and compared to each other regarding the accuracy, safety, and cosmesis. I concluded that percutaneous pedicle screw placement technique is as effective as, but safer and more cosmetic than the open pedicle screw placement in thoracolumbar spine.

[El Hawary, Magdy A. Outcome of percutaneous pedicle screw placement versus open pedicle screw placement in thoraco-lumbar spine fixation. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):44-47]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.09


Keywords: Percutaneous pedicle screws, thoraco-lumbar spine fracture

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The residential complex architectural design review with emphasis on the link between private life and public life


Marzieh Bahmani 1, Akbar Mousaei Joo 2


1.  Department of Architecture, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2.  Department of Architecture, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran


Abstract: Buildings and structures when designing complex and its real meaning is that comfort And the comfort of users. Architectural design, in turn, when can the community. That can affect the comfort of the users from all directions meet. Needs to be Includes beliefs and family size and lifestyle, and so on. Therefore, a proper design and Optimized to meet the needs of the community. So we can provide new approaches in the design Architectural spaces beautiful and safe method compatible with the culture and social relations to be achieved. Architectural spaces beautiful and safe method compatible with the culture and social relations to be achieved. So in this research was the study of the needs of the community and provide a questionnaire Experts to achieve the full plan and a link between the private life cause.

[Marzieh Bahmani, Akbar Mousaei joo. The residential complex architectural design review with emphasis on the link between private life and public life. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):48-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.10


Key words: architecture, private and public life, housing, welfare

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The Ways Of Utilizing Jalāl Ad-Dīn Rumi’S Views In The Process Of Upbringing Of A Perfect Generation


Gulchehra Valerievna Izbullaeva


The Senior Science Fellow Researcher, Bukhara State University, Bukhara, Uzbekistan


Abstract: The article gives information about education sources of learning personality and scientific heritage of Jaloliddin Rumiy (1207-1273), his philosophical views and role in the process of upbringing, the problem of spiritual upbringing of the person in his works “Fihi Ma Fihi” (In It What's in It), “Maṭnawīye Ma'nawī” (Spiritual Couplets), “Dīwān-e Kabīr” (Great Work) , “Dīwān-e Shams-e Tabrīzī” (The Works of Shams of Tabriz), “Majāles-e Sab'a” (Seven Sessions), “Makatib” (The Letters) and theoretically substantiated information about using his vies during the process of education. His views on spiritual and moral upbringing in the system of continuous education the forms, methods and the means of this process are presented in the article. The impact of Rumi’s views on the quality index of the sphere of education and upbringing in Higher Education is well grounded.

[Gulchehra Valerievna Izbullaeva. The Ways Of Utilizing Jalāl Ad-Dīn Rumi’S Views In The Process Of Upbringing Of A Perfect Generation. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):55-58]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.11


Key words: perfect person, moral upbringing, spirituality, labour, word, will, inner world

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Theory of structure in contemporary literature poetry and prose Nima Youshij


Hassan Rafiei


PhD student of Orientalism (Field of Iranian studies)

State university of Yerevan, Armenia


Abstract: All of the Nima`s papers work coverig: letters,daly papers,value trace about man and his social life, nature artifice and nominate actualaretificer,important literary theories and Nima didn`t use specific style in his papeteries, because his purposes had been giving message and his sights. The sentences generally are briefly, form and articlesare plainly and impressive.His languages and tone are simple, matey, and in address to several persons, also were amorous, poetic or affliction, and in totally faithfully and admonish. In fact Nima outmuches in these papeteries of oration poet or characterization storied pros, and moves accost to herself painful,lofty inside of life and share him to love in life and birthplace,thinks for better living, perception and Inflorescence,and in the end to insights and modern theory but them nobel attitude. Nima founds modern horizons of artifice which someone less had acceded to it.Artifice than was seemly responsiveing to modern needs society in evolution for literature,naturally for brave it needed to time and plenty activity. Than found his position in socity and community. That community which Nima sticks out confidentially and bloms for it`s cultural progress.

 [Hassan Rafiei. Theory of structure in contemporary literature poetry and prose Nima Youshij. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):59-67]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.12


Keywords: Nima`s style-prose-poetry; life; literature

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Rights Of Transgender/Third Gender In India


Jamshed Ansari


Advocate, Delhi High Court and Ex- Faculty, University of Delhi


Address: J- 78, Gali No. 4, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi- 110092 (India)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com

Mob. No. 09811365596


Abstract: Seldom, our society realizes or cares to realize the trauma, agony and pain which the members of Transgender community undergo, nor appreciates the innate feelings of the members of the Transgender community, especially of those whose mind and body disown their biological sex. Our society often ridicules and abuses the Transgender community and in public places like railway stations, bus stands, schools, workplaces, malls, theatres, hospitals, they are sidelined and treated as untouchables, forgetting the fact that the moral failure lies in the society’s unwillingness to contain or embrace different gender identities and expressions, a mindset which we have to change. The author makes a little effort to show the situation of Transgender community under the Indian Society. There is proper law which needs to be implemented for the betterment of Transgender community. The Government does not wish to give rights to the Transgender even clear direction of the Supreme Court.

 [Jamshed Ansari. Rights Of Transgender/Third Gender In India. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):68-71]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.13


Key Words: Transgender, Third Gender, Supreme Court, Social Exclusion, Fundamental Rights

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Effect of Exercise on Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response in Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder


Simin Siri1, Narges Siri2


1.  MSc in Health Education, Tarbiat Modarres University

2.  MSc in Analytical Chemistry, Payam-e-Noor University, Qom Branch, Iran


Abstract: Background and purpose: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder started in childhood and is characterized by one or a combination of three behaviors, named hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness. The aim of this study was to find out the value of aerobic exercises on improvement symptoms of ADHD. Patients, Materials and Methods: This study included 84 students diagnosed as having ADHD. Their age ranged from eleven to sixteen years. The students were randomly divided into two equal groups. The exercise group received ten weeks aerobic exercises program included upper limb, lower limb, trunk and neck  exercises as well as  running three sessions per week( In the first four weeks the session lasted for about 40 minutes and in the last six weeks the session extended to be 50 minutes). Behavior rating scale was used to assess the student’s behavior before starting and after the end of ten weeks of the exercise program. Results: Results of the exercise group revealed a significant improvement in three of the five items involved in the scale(attention, motor skills and academic and classroom behavior) with  p < 0.05 while there was no improvement in the control group (p> 0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that regular aerobic exercises program has a positive effect in improving symptoms of ADHD.

[Simin Siri, Narges Siri. Effect of Exercise on Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response in Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):72-76]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.14


Keywords: ADHD, Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response, Student

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Effect of the Two Types of the Gunning Splint Used For Treatment of the Jaws Fracture


Dr Ebadri T DafallahFFD RCS Ireland


Cons. Oral Max. Facial Surgeon, Alnoor Sp. Hosp. Makkah

Email: albadridafallah@gmail.com


Abstract: Treating edentulous mandibular fracture is difficult in elderly patients due to compromised medical condition of the patient and various contraindications for the surgical approach. The complication rate of infection or malunion is higher compared to fractures in younger, dentulous patients. For such conditions, ‘Gunning splint’ is a better option as it provides close reduction and stabilization of mandibular fracture, thus improving the prognosis Traumatic injuries may cause anatomic deficiencies in soft and hard tissues. These defects often result in the loss of attached mucosa and alveolar processes, which might reduce potential prosthesis support and require bone and skin grafting. As a result of major maxillofacial trauma, complete or partial avulsion of the palate may require extensive surgical and prosthodontic rehabilitation. The appropriate treatment for the maxillary defect demands a multidisciplinary approach by a team which consists of various fields of dentistry and medicine. The planning prostheses should replace not only missing teeth but also lost soft tissues and bone, and they should include the hard palate, residual alveolar ridges, and, in some instances, the soft palate. This paper describes the treatment procedures including plastic surgery operation procedures and prosthetic rehabilitation. Material and Methods Fifty patients who had severe facial trauma was referred for dental rehabilitation after a series of esthetic surgery operations. Result. the gunning splints in two groups. bony healing of the gunning splints used first group by flexible acrylic resin heat curing acrylic resin slow bone healing from one month,3 months,and6months.while the bony healing of the gunning splints used first group by heat curing acrylic resin rapid bone healing from one month, 3 months, and 6months.

[Ebadri T Dafallah. Effect of the Two Types ofthe Gunning Splint Used For Treatment of the Jaws Fracture. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):77-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.15


Key words: trauma, splint, flexible, jaw fracture

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Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on the Index Properties, Strength and Permeability of Lateritic Soil


1Olowofoyeku Adeoye, 2Ofuyatan Olatokunbo, 3Ayoade Ademola


1.  Department of Civil Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos.

2.  Department of building College of Environmental Sciences and Management, Caleb University Lagos, Imota Lagos.

toksofuya@yahoo.com, adeolowoo@yahoo.com


Abstract: This research investigated the behavior of crude oil contamination on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil. The contaminated lateritic soil was prepared by adding different percentages of crude oil 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%. The Index properties test, compaction, shear strength test (California bearing ratio test and direct shear box test), and permeability test were determined on both contaminated and uncontaminated specimen, the uncontaminated specimen served as control. The results showed that crude oil contamination caused an increase in linear shrinkage, liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index between 0% -10% contamination.

[Olowofoyeku Adeoye, Ofuyatan Olatokunbo, Ayoade Ademola. Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on the Index Properties, Strength and Permeability of Lateritic Soil. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):82-86]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.16


Key words: Crude oil, Lateritic soil, Contamination, Shear strength, Geotechnical properties.

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Sniffers as an Aid in Crime Investigation


Parmod Singh 1, Manavpreet Kaur 1


1.Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119, India



Abstract: A lot of techniques are available and are being developed in the field of forensics to aid the criminal investigations. In any criminal investigation, the one thing that holds utmost importance is the evidentiary material that can provide some information about the identity of the individual or the material in question. One of the most reliable methods of Crime scene investigation, which has been used for the last so many years and is still being used without any expostulation is taking the assistance of “Sniffers”. The sniffers have the non-pareil power to differentiate between a large variety of smells and this quality has been highly assistive in solving a number of cases. The paper highlights the basic mechanism of sniffing, the specialization of dogs over other animals in sniffing and the advancements in the form of mechanical sniffers which are the machines formulated to replace the canine and for the facilitation to present the findings in the court of law.

[Singh P, Kaur M. Sniffers as an Aid in Crime Investigation. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):87-92]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.17


Keywords: Odorant; Vomeronasal; Stereophonically; Leptospirosis; Ambushes; Microfluidic

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Thromboxane (TX), Prostaglandins (PG) and Atorvastatin (Liptor) Literatures


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1


1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA



Abstract: Thromboxane (TX) is a vasoconstrictor, potent hypertensive agent, and facilitates the clumping of platelets, which is produced in platelets by TX synthetase from the endoperoxides by the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Atorvastatin (Lipitor) belongs to a group of drugs called HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), which reduces levels of bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) and triglycerides in the blood, while increasing levels of good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein). Lipitor acts by inhibiting the ability of the COX enzyme to synthesize the precursors of TX within platelets that could be influenced by the obstruction damage of the kidney. Prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Thromboxane (TX), Prostaglandins (PG) and Atorvastatin (Liptor) Literatures. N Y Sci J 2015;8(10):93-100]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnys081015.18


Keywords: thromboxane (TX); prostaglandin; partial ureteral obstruction (PUO); atorvastatin (Lipitor); cyclooxygenase (COX); platelet; vasoconstriction

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 4, 2015. 

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