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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 8 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 81); November 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0811


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Effect Of Corncob Ash As Partial Substitute For Cement In Concrete


Owolabi T.A., Oladipo I.O and Popoola O.O


Department of Civil Engineering Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Nigeria



Abstract: This research work evaluates the effect of corncob ash (CCA) as a partial replacement for cement in concrete. Specific gravity, sieve analysis, slump test and cube test were carried out on the sample. Corncobs were collected at different locations in akure, Ondo State. The corncobs were air-dried for few days and burnt to ashes which were sieved using 75μm sieve size to produce fine ash. Concrete cubes were cast, cured and tested at curing ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days using 0, 5, 10 15, and 20 percentage replacement levels. The optimum compressive strength of 21.44N/mm2 was obtained at 5% replacement at 28 days of age. The slump test results show that the workability of the concrete decreased as the CCA content increases. The Compressive Strengths of concrete reduced as the percentage CCA replacement increased but increases with curing age. Recycling of waste materials in a more useful and economical way should be encouraged by government and any organization with viable programs and adequate funds to encourage interested researchers.

[Owolabi T.A., Oladipo I.O and Popoola O.O. Effect of corncob ash as partial substitute for cement in concrete. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):1-4]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.01


Keywords: Concrete, corncob ash, Compressive strength, Slump test

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Theory of structure in contemporary literature poetry and prose Nima Youshij


Hassan Rafiei


PhD student of Orientalism (Field of Iranian studies) State University of Yerevan, Armenia


Abstract: All of the Nima`s papers work coverig: letters,daly papers,value trace about man and his social life,nature artifice and nominate actualaretificer,important literary theories and… Nima didn`t use specific style in his papeteries, because his purposes had been giving message and his sights. The sentences generally are briefly, form and articlesare plainly and impressive.His languages and tone are simple, matey, and in address to several persons, also were amorous, poetic or affliction, and in totally faithfully and admonish. In fact Nima outmuches in these papeteries of oration poet or characterization storied pros, and moves accost to herself painful, lofty inside of life and share him to love in life and birthplace, thinks for better living, perception and Inflorescence, and in the end to insights and modern theory but them nobel attitude. Nima founds modern horizons of artifice which someone less had acceded to it.Artifice than was seemly responsiveing to modern needs society in evolution for literature, naturally for brave it needed to time and plenty activity. Than found his position in socity and community. That community which Nima sticks out confidentially and bloms for it`s cultural progress.

[Hassan Rafiei. Theory of structure in contemporary literature poetry and prose Nima Youshij. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):5-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.2


Keywords: Nima`s style-prose-poetry

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Epidemiology and pathological consequences of mycotoxicoses in Africa: a minireview


Adekola Hafeez Aderinsayo 1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir 2, Fatima Muhammad Sani 3


1. Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

2. Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, PMB 228, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

3. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069, Borno State, Nigeria

Corresponding address: eedris888@yahoo.com


Abstract: Mycotoxicosis causes range of disease conditions as a result of intoxication of the body system by mycotoxins produced by certain micro-fungi genera especially in foods and grains. Intoxification depends on the route of mycotoxin entry and type of mycotoxins. The clinical manifestations ranges from mild systemic dysfunctions to chronic pathologies with propensity to induce tissue/ organ damages, cancers and even death. The occurrence of mycotoxin in food-stuffs has been considered a serious public health threat. In recent time, there has been paucity of information in regards to the detection/ diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in African. In view of this we conducted this review of relevant published articles using extensive literature search made through PubMed and Scopus on the biology, pathology and epidemiology of mycotoxicoses in Africans. Findings from this study showed that there have been under-diagnosis of mycotoxicosis and this had led to poor understanding of its epidemiology. Due to the fact that there is no viable will for developing effective antitoxins for humans who suffer from mycotoxicoses, prompt and appropriate intervention strategies provide effective way of minimising and curbing the scotch; mycotoxicoses.

[Adekola Hafeez Aderinsayo, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Fatima Muhammad Sani. Epidemiology and pathological consequences of mycotoxicoses in Africa: a minireview. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):14-18]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.03


Keywords: Intervention strategies; Mycotoxins; Micro-fungi

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Evaluation of the SWAP model for simulation of soil salinity under condition using of saline irrigation water and maize cultivation


Shiva Birgani, Amir Soltani Mohammadi, Saeed Boroomand Nasab


Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran



Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate SWAP model for prediction of soil salinity under salinity stress on 2013-2014 in Ahvaz climatic condition. In the beginning, calibration and verification of SWAP model was done by using data from experimental field under maize cultivation. For this purpose, field experiment consists of five levels of salinity irrigation water (S0: Control treatment, S1, S2, S3 and S4) with three replications was performed in Research Field of Water Sciences Engineering Faculty at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. The experiment was arranged according to a randomized complete block design with split plot layout. During the cultivation, six times soil samples were collected from the depths of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm for all treatments to determine soil salinity. 70% of soil salinity data measured from control treatment used for calibration and 30% remaining data used for verification of model. Calibration and verification results show that the model can simulate soil salinity with high accuracy, also Coefficient of determination (R2) and the NRMSE for model calibration obtained 0.88 and 8.50 , respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) and NRMSE for the model verification was obtained 0.74 and 7.86, respectively. The calibrated model used to simulation of soil salinity of S1 to S4 treatments. The coefficient of determination and NRMSE for S1, S2, S3 and S4 treatments, calculated 0.76, 0.88, 0.92 and 0.94 and 23.35, 12.98, 16.22 and 11.91, respectively. The results showed the acceptable accuracy and appropriate performance of SWAP model for simulation of soil salinity under using of saline irrigation water. Also with increasing the salinity of irrigation water, the Coefficient of determination (R2) between soil salinity measured and simulated with model increased .

[Birghani Sh, Soltani Mohammadi A, Boroomand Nasab S. Evaluation of the SWAP model for simulation of soil salinity under condition using of saline irrigation water and maize cultivation. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):19-24]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.4


Keywords: Soil Salinity, calibration, verification, SWAP model.

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Double Cerclage is a fact or not


Almraghy Y.


Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit Al-Azhar University, Egypt



Abstract: Objective to evaluate the Double Cerclage in relation to Traditional Cerclage in reducing antenatal complication and improve perinatal outcomes. Patients and methods: pregnant women at higher risk of preterm labor, referred to the perinatal clinic of obstetrics' and gynecology, Faculty Medicine, Assuite Al-AZhar university, were enrolled into a parallel randomized clinical trial. In the investigational arm of the clinical trial, a double cervical cerclage procedure was performed addition to McDonald cerclage. In the control group however, only McDonald cerclage was performed. Extreme preterm labor (GA < 33 weeks) was the primary endpoint of this clinical trial. Results Age, gestational age at cerclage time, and gravidity were not found to be statistically different between the groups. Means of gestational age were 37.4 and 36.2 weeks, respectively, for the investigational and control groups. The gestational age was 1.2 weeks longer for double cerclage group but the difference was not found to be statistically significant. Preterm birth before 33 weeks of gestation was not experienced by any of the patients who received double cerclage, but five women in control group developed such an extreme preterm labor (P < 0. 0 5). The absolute risk reduction in using double cerclage over traditional method was 18 percent (95% confidence interval, 4%–32%). conclusions Double cerclage appeared to have higher efficacy than traditional cerclage in preventing preterm labor <33 weeks of gestation.

[Almraghy Y. Double Cerclage is a fact or not. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):25-29]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.05


Keywords: cerclage; antenatal; perinatal; patient; gestation

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The Critical Analysis of Some Comparative Eastern Africa Corporate Governance Standards After Financial Crisis, Corporate Scandals and Manipulation


Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, PhD candidate, MBA1*


1* Banking University, HCMC, Viet Nam - Graduate School of International Management, International University of Japan, Niigata, Japan

*Corresponding Author: e-mail: dtnhuy2010@gmail.com, Tel +84-08-39934160, Skype ID: dinhhuy121


Abstract: Even though corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe and Asia show some certain evidence on weak corporate governance, weak internal control system and weak audit, Global corporate governance forum noted corporate governance has become an issue of worldwide importance. Therefore, this paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions. First, it classifies Eastern Africa representative corporate governance (CG) standards into two (2) groups: Malawi and Kenya latest CG principles covered in group 1 and, group 2, including corporate governance guidlines from EVCA 2005, so-called relative good CG group, while it uses ACCA and CFA principles as reference. Second, it, through analysis, shows differences between above set of standards which are and have been used as reference principles for many relevant organizations. Third, it establishes a selected comparative set of standards for Eastern Africa representative corporate governance system in accordance to international standards. Last but not least, this paper covers some ideas and policy suggestions.

[Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy. The Critical Analysis of Some Comparative Eastern Africa Corporate Governance Standards After Financial Crisis, Corporate Scandals and Manipulation. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):30-43]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.06.


Keywords: corporate governance standards, board structure, code of best practice, financial crisis, corporate scandals, market manipulation, internal audit

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The Risk Level of Viet Nam Hotel and Entertainment Industry Under Financial Leverage During and After The Global Crisis 2009-2011


Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy


Banking University HCMC Viet Nam – GSIM, International University of Japan, Japan

Email: dtnhuy2010@gmail.com


Abstract: This paperwork evaluates the impacts of external financing on market risk for the listed firms in the Viet nam tourism industry, esp. during and after the financial crisis 2007-2009. First of all, by using quantitative and analytical methods to estimate asset and equity beta of total 12 listed companies in Viet Nam hotel and entertainment industry with a proper traditional model, we found out that the beta values, in general, for many institutions are acceptable. Second, under 3 different scenarios of changing leverage (in 2011 financial reports, 30% up and 20% down), we recognized that the risk level, measured by equity and asset beta mean, decreases when leverage increases to 30% and increases more if leverage decreases down to 20%. Third, by changing leverage in 3 scenarios, we recognized the dispersion of risk level, measured by equity beta var, increases from 0,412 to 0,45 if the leverage increases to 30% whereas increases more to 0,46 if leverage decreases to 20%. But the dispersion measured by asste beta var decreases to 0,211 (leverage up 30%), showing leverage efficiency. Finally, this paper provides some outcomes that could provide companies and government more evidence in establishing their policies in governance.

[Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy. The Risk Level of Viet Nam Hotel and Entertainment Industry Under Financial Leverage During and After The Global Crisis 2009-2011. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):44-52]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.07.


keyword: equity beta, financial structure, financial crisis, risk, external financing, entertainment industry

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Altitudinal Variation In Species Composition Of Family- Pieridae And Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) In The State Of Uttarakhand (India)


Vinaya Kumar Singh1, P. C. Joshi1, S. P. S. Bisht2 and Sanjay Kumar1


1Dept.of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar

2Department of Zoology, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

1Email: vinaybiotech06@gmail.com, prakash127@yahoo.com


Abstract: Present study was conducted at six sites with different altitudes Viz. Raja Ji National Park (300 m.), Kaladhungi (610 m), Jeliokot (1370 m), Kailakhan (1820 m), Snow view (2252 m) and China Peak (2611m) in Garhwal and Kumaun region of Uttarakhand (India). A total of 322 individuals of 29 species belonging to two families were identified. Family Pieridae was found dominant with 19 species while 10 species belonged to family Nymphalidae. The dominant species in the family Pieridae included Pieris brassicae, while in Nymphalidae the dominant species was Vanessa cardui. Pieris brassicae was found dominant at lower altitude while Aglaiscas hmiriensis was found dominant at higher altitude. As many as 6 species of Pieridae and 4 species of Nymphalidae were common at all the sites while 26 species were recorded at lower altitude and 21 at higher altitude. The maximum Shannon Diversity (H’) 0.2077 was recorded for the species Pieris brassicae and minimum value was recorded for Vanessa cardui (0.03109). The mean Shannon diversity (H’) recorded was 2.9513. While the evenness ranged between 0.8850 to 0.2940.

[Vinaya Kumar Singh, P. C. Joshi, S. P. S. Bisht and Sanjay Kumar. Altitudinal Variation In Species Composition Of Family- Pieridae And Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) In The State Of Uttarakhand (India). N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):53-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.08.


Key words:Altitudinal variation, Species composition, Pieridae and Nymphalidae

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Designing an intelligent translation software by audio processing techniques


Neda Payande, Behname Ghavami


Computer Engineering Department, Javid Higher Education Institutions, Jiroft, Iran

Computer Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University


ندا پاینده, 1، بهنام قوامی2

1- دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی کامپیوتر گرایش نرم افزار، موسسه آموزش عالی غیردولتی و غیراتفاعی جاوید جیرفت

2- دکترای کامپیوتر، استادیار دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان


Abstract: a lot of researches in the fields of image processing and sound processing are being done nowadays in the world. Usually, they use artificial Intelligence techniques, and different processing algorithms such as DSP, Genetic algorithms, neural networks, etc. creating an intelligent method to add ability to recognize words is objective of this research. This methodology by proper network training is able to separate and classify different audio signals. Finally, it determines some concepts for each group of sounds to learn by user. In this research, network with audio signals of numbers from zero to nine were taught in Persian language. Aim of network after training is separating input signals and finding the number corresponding to the input signal.

[Neda Payande, Behname Ghavami. Designing an intelligent translation software by audio processing techniques. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):58-66]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.09.

Keywords:Speech recognition Technology, language processing, data to speech conversion

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Prevalence Of Helicobacter Pylori And Its Association With ABO Blood Group In Asymptomatic, Ulcer Students Of Western Delta University, Oghara, Nigeria


Mordi Raphael Mbadiwe 2, Braimah Mikalu Rashidat 1, Igere Bright1, Dr. (Rev) N.C. Oyeagwara 3


1 Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State.

2 Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State

3 University Of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State

Email: Raphael_mordi@yahoo.com


Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequency of the O blood group and rhesus positive antigen among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Controversies about the association of the ABO blood group and Rhesus factor in relation to the susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. This study aims to determine the involvement of H. pylori as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer, and also to determine if there is any correlation with ABO blood group in asymptomatic individuals. Blood samples were collected from (fifty) healthy individuals, consisting of 8 males and 42 females aged between 17-30 years (mean 23.5 years). This was accompanied with a questionnaire for demographic data. H. pylori one step test kit was used. ABO blood group and rhesus factors were determined by slide agglutination using serum that was serially diluted. Results showed that 640/0 were sero-positive for H pylori. Of the seropositive subjects, 62.50/0 (n=5/8) were male and 35.7% (n=15/42) were females. The frequency of the ABO and rhesus positive (Rh+) blood groups among seropositive subject was (A=6%, B=8%, AB=4% with rhesus positive 58% and rhesus negative 6%) and among seronegative subjects it was (A=8%, B=0%, AB=0%, 0=28% with rhesus positive 34% and rhesus negative 2%). The results of this study, showed that ABO blood group and rhesus compatibility greatly influenced the seropositivity for H pylori infection. Further dilution of the blood samples showed a clear significant rise in titer up to 1:160. The prevalence of cases after the dilution dropped in the following manner (1:20=26%, 1:40=12%, 1:80=8%, and 1:160=2%) the seronegative cases increased during the dilution as (1: 20=74%, 1:40=92%, and 1:160=98%). Prevalence of H. pylori infection still remains high after serial dilution. Conclusion: The detection of high prevalence of H. pylori infection among asymptomatic individuals and the involvement of ABO blood groups demands that there should be blood screening for every individual especially those that possess the blood groups that are at most risk of infection.

[Mordi Raphael Mbadiwe, Braimah Mikalu Rashidat, Igere Bright, N.C. Oyeagwara. Prevalence Of Helicobacter Pylori And Its Association With ABO Blood Group In Asymptomatic, Ulcer Students Of Western Delta University, Oghara, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):67-75]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.10.


Key words: Seroprevalence; Asymptomatic individuals; ABO blood group; Helicobacter pylori; Infection

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Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Central Indian Bamboo provenances using RAPD markers


Akhilesh Kumar Bharti1 and A K Yadava2


Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, SSJ campus, Kumaun University, Nainital

E-mail: 1 theforester82@gmail.com, 2 akyadav09@gmail.com

Mobile No: +919975224224


Abstract: Bamboo is one of the important plant for pulp, paper and charcoal industries. After China, India is the second largest bamboo reserve in Asia. Around the globe, wide genetic diversity of bamboo is present which serves as the base for selection and improvement. DNA based molecular markers appears to be powerful techniques for characterizing and evaluating genetic diversity in 33 genotype of bamboo from central India. Out of ninety primers, seventy four primers gave poor or no amplification at all, while sixteen primers produced distinct, highly reproducible amplified polymorphic products for all the 33 provenances. The RAPD primers produced 976 DNA frag­ments across 33 provenances, of which 961 were polymorphic. The number of amplified bands varied from 36 to 103, which varied in size from 100 to 1050 bp. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 93.62 to 100 with an average percentage polymorphism of 98.46. The PIC value varied from 0.348 to 0.719. The Jaccard’s similarity coeffi­cient ranging from 0.25 to 1.00. The dendrogram revealed that thirty three genotype collected from different location of central India classified in to two major cluster A and B showed 29 percent similarity.

[Akhilesh Kumar Bharti and A K Yadava. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Central Indian Bamboo provenances using RAPD markers. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):76-82]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.11.


Key words: Dendrocalamus, strictus, RAPD, Molecular marker, Genetic diversity, Dendrogram

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Food and Feeding Ecology of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in the Cross River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria

 Ubong Uwem George1, Edidiong Okokon Atakpa2

 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River  State, Nigeria.
2Department of Zoology, University of  Uyo, Akwa Ibom  State, Nigeria.


Abstract: Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus are important, highly valued and threatened brackish water species in the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria. Studies on the Food and Feeding Ecology of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in Cross River Estuary, was studied between July and September 2014 aimed at understanding the food and feeding ecology of C. nigrodigitatus. Food items in the gut of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus were evaluated by occurrence and numerical abundance methods. The results on the food and feeding habits of C. nigrodigitatus in the Cross River Estuary revealed that the species feed mostly on food from animal origin, although diatoms and other plant materials were also identified. Food items isolated from the gut of the species included; Amphipods, crab/ crab particle, mud / sand particle, diatom, shrimps / shrimp parts, bivalve, mollusk, small fish, Copepods, fish bones, fish scales, prawns, crustacean and detritus which could not be determine empirically. The condition factor calculated for the species varied during the study period with a mean value of 1.38 in July, 1.44 in August and 1.57 in September. Based on the food items isolated from the gut of the C. nigrodigitatus, the species could be considered as a voracious Omnivore in the Cross River Estuary, while the variations in the condition factor of the species in the Estuarine system may indicate a period of high yield or otherwise of the species in the Cross River Estuary.
George, U. U., & Atakpa, E. O. Food and Feeding Ecology of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in the Cross River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):83-90]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.12.

Key words: Food, Feeding Ecology, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Cross River Estuary, Nigeria.

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Proximate Analysis of Seed and Seed Coat (Kernel) of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch & Dalziel.): An Underutilized Woody Climber.


1Bello, O. A and A.A. Aiyeloja2


1. Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun, Osun State Nigeria

2. Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and some mineral contents of the seed and the seed coat (kernel) of walnut using standard methods. The result of proximate analysis reveals the presence of crude protein (20.43%), 7.22%, moisture content (44.95%), 38.11%, Ash (2.17%) 0.82%, crude fibre (19.62%), 1.30% in seed and seed coat respectively. The mineral analysis indicated the presence of zinc (0.035mg/ml, 0.04mg/ml), copper (-0,0038mg/ml, 0.04mg/ml) calcium (12.26mg/ml, 105.90mg/ml), iron (0.15mg/ml, -0.27mg/ml), lead (0.198, mg/ml, 0.11mg/ml) and magnesium (30.28mg/ml, -0.13mg/ml) in seed and seed coat (Kernel) respectively. The results showed that the seed (cotyledon) of Walnut is a very good source of protein, minerals and dietary fiber. The seed coat (kernel) also contained high content of calcium which can be used as ingredient in animal feed formulation.

[Bello, O. A and A.A. Aiyeloja. Proximate Analysis of Seed and Seed Coat (Kernel) of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch & Dalziel.): An Underutilized Woody Climber. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):91-93]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.13.


Keywords: Mineral, Potential, Seed, Seed coat, Walnut.

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Economic Importance Of Spices For Sustainable Livelihood And Development


Bello, O. A.


Department of Biology, Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun



Abstract: Availability of spices is under increasing pressure due to urban development, expansion and over-use of chemicals and pesticides. The increasing pressure on the Nigerian forest today results from increase in the demand for forest resources and forest products.  Spices are dried seeds, fruits, berries, leaves, roots or barks of plants grown as herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees, used to enhance the flavor of foods.  This paper therefore reviews the economic importance of spices for sustainable livelihood and development.

[Bello, O. A. Economic Importance Of Spices For Sustainable Livelihood And Development. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):94-98]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.14.


Keyword: Livelihood, development, spices, Economic, Botany.

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Investigation the relationship between personality types and procrastination


Hadis Hoseiniyan1, Karim Afsharinia2


1. MA in Counseling and Guidance, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran

2. Assistant professor in Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, faculty member of Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran


Abstract: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the type of personality of university teachers and students were procrastination. The study population consisted of all professors and students of Islamic Azad University of Gilangharb. The majority of the number of 50 professors and 50 students were selected by simple random sampling. Research tools include the type of personality questionnaires was Friedman and Rozenman and negligence of Takman. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods were used. The results of the analysis showed that the relationship between personality type and procrastination is total. This means that the type a personality is more delay and more delay in work among students and the type of personality B is greater than the amount of delay and procrastination among students less. The results of stepwise regression showed that the type of personality B with procrastination, but procrastination significant relationship between type a personality with a significant positive correlation and prediction of procrastination, and procrastination explain total variance is 0.13.

[Hadis Hoseiniyan, Karim Afsharinia. Investigation the relationship between personality types and procrastination. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):99-104]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.15.


Keywords: Type of personality, Procrastination, Professors and students

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The effectiveness of the conscious and unconscious in the course of the intellectual process

 Abdurahimov Kodirjon Abduxalilovich1

1 Philosophy Department of the National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent, Uzbekistan



Abstract: In this article, issues of interaction of conscious and unconscious during the thought process are considered. It has been conducted an additional empirical research which consisted of four main parts. In conclusion, it is shown that unconscious decisions much faster than conscious ones.

[Abdurahimov Kodirjon Abduxalilovich. The effectiveness of the conscious and unconscious in the course of the intellectual process. N Y Sci J 2015;8(11):105-108]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnys081115.16.


Key words: conscious and unconscious, intellectual thought process, an empirical study, improving the efficiency of unconscious decisions, the control group of respondents, the experimental group of respondents, intuition, consciousness.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 26, 2015. 

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