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Science Journal


New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200, Monthly

Volume 8 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 82); December 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0812


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Replacing the parties will examine the role of customary law in civil law


Mona Amery pour 1, Dr. Hassan Heidari 2


1.  Department of Law, College Of Humanities, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2.  Department of Law, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran


Abstract: This research is an attempt to study the role and position of convention in contracts of civil law, that is, when and how convention affects the concluded contract between contracting parties and to what extent convention value and credibility are in law? After providing definitions of convention in this text, sorts, pillars and its elements have been discussed. Then, we have studied the concept of convention from the standpoint of jurisprudence, its basis of authority and credibility conditions of the convention, its role in the major legal system and especially its role in contracts. Then, we discussed those cases of civil law which is aimed at the convention and finally, it is concluded from considering discussion, given that the juristic entity has been proven in jurisprudence and it is considered as one of the sources of law and; unfortunately, despite its importance and impact particularly in contracts, it is not defined in law, hence it is essential to define it. The convention in the legal system within the scope of the contract, illuminates definition of ambiguous words and phrases and will be determined in the silence of the parties towards contract terms and resolving substitute contract ambiguities. Legislator prevents law rigidity and inefficiency by accreditingconvention in interpreting words and has made it synchronized with social development; that is why recognizing most of legal issues and determining their evidences are delegated to the convention.

[Mona Amery pour, Hassan Heidari. Replacing the parties will examine the role of customary law in civil law. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):1-8]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.01.


Key words: convention, contract, contracting parties’ will, law, silence of the contracting parties, contract words

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Computational Investigation of some Isomeric forms of 3-Ethyl Pyrrole


C.U. Ibeji, T.S. Adegboye, I.A., Adejoro, B.B. Adeleke


Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria


Abstract: Computational studies based on 3-ethyl pyrrole and its isomeric forms using semi-empirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT- BLYP/6-31G*) has been carried out. The addition of different substituents to the C-5 position of the 3-ethyl pyrrole ring led to significant changes in its properties. From the calculation, considering all the studied compounds, the parent compound was found to be less thermodynamically stable compared to the other four substituted compounds based on the lowest value of ΔH which is ˗288.651KJ/mol. Compound D has the highest enthalpy change (ΔH) which is ˗681.949KJ/mol. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap (Eg) were calculated using Density Functional Theory DFT B3LYP 6 -31G*, and Moller Plesset MP|6-31G*, to obtained compound with the lowest Energy gap. From the results, the energy gap of compounds were in the order; E <D <B <C <A. The polarizability of the compounds are in the order E >D >C >B >A. Therefore compound E is the most reactive based on its high polarizability and low Eg values.

[C.U. Ibeji, T.S. Adegboye, I.A., Adejoro, B.B. Adeleke. Computational Investigation of some Isomeric forms of 3-Ethyl Pyrrole. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):9-15]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.02.


Keywords: HOMO, LUMO, Band gap, Density Functional theory, Semi-empirical, polarizability

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Comparative Evaluation Of The Nutrient Compositions Of Andrographis Paniculata And Gongronema Latifolium


Nsor Odo Alobi1, Matthew Egbobor Eja2, Arikpo Ikpi Okoi2, Uno Agbo Uno1, Bassey, Godwin Asuqo1


1Department of Chemical Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, P.M.B. 1123, Calabar, Nigeria.

2Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar


Abstract: A lot of research has been carried out on Andrographis paniculata, including comparison of its nutritional profiles with those of other plants, but little information on Gongronema latifolium is available. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional compositions of A. paniculata with those of G. latifolium. The raw extract of each of the plants was analysed for phytochemical composition, while proximate values, mineral and vitamin contents of the plants were analysed using standard proceures. The results show that flavonoids (2.96+0.14%), and Saponins 2.8+0.25%) were higher in A. paniculata indicating greater potential to strengthen capillarity walls for blood circulation and anti-inflammation than G. latifolium. On the other hand, G. latifolium contained higher levels of tannin and hydrocyanides (2.01+0.01 and 12.9+0.04% respectively), indicating a greater resistance to infection and relaxant effect on the heart and muscles. Glatifolium contained higher levels of protein (31.1+0.07%), Carbohydrate (41.8+0.05%) and fat (17.01+0.01%) indicating greater energy supply and cellular build-up of the body than A. paniculata. A. paniculata contained higher calcium (106.3+2.00mg/1000ml), Magnesium (124.3+ 1.40mg/1000ml), Potassium (125.6+2.100mg/1000ml) than G. latifolium, while G. latifolium contained higher levels of vitamins A, C and E (381.6+0.28, 290.3+0.45 and 44.01+0.12mg/1000ml respectively). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two plants. In conclusion, the two plants are good sources of nutrients in a relatively similar status.

[Nsor Odo Alobi, Matthew Egbobor Eja, Arikpo Ikpi Okoi, Uno Agbo Uno, Bassey, Godwin Asuqo. Comparative Evaluation Of The Nutrient Compositions Of Andrographis Paniculata And Gongronema Latifolium. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):16-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.03.


Keywords: Nutritional profiles, phylochemical profiles, good nutrient sources, Andrographis paniculata, Gongronema latifolium

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Biotechnological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ogi a cereal fermented food product.


Ijeoma IO, Okerentugba PO., Oranusi NA


Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Email: ij4onyi@gmail.com, phillip.okerentugba@uniport.edu.ng, Tel +234 8063365298; +2348033087332


Abstract: Eleven strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from the fermentation of Ogi a Nigerian cereal fermented food product were screened for biotechnological potentials which included utilization of nondigestible α galactosidase, bile tolerance, production of β galactosidase, biogenic amine production, phytate utilization, production of α amylase and tannase. All eleven strains showed varying potentials. Most of the strains were observed as utilizers of nondigestible α galactosidase. Also Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp dextranicum was able to produce β galactosidae whereas Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were none producers. Lactobacillus plantarum  subsp plantarum and lactobacillus plantarum had the most potential. In conclusion, all eleven strains showed varying potentials in their biotechnological activities. Lactobacillus plantarum subsp plantarum and Lactobacillus plantarum could be applied as starter cultures for the fermentation of indigenous foods.

[Ijeoma IO, Okerentugba PO., Oranusi NA. Biotechnological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ogi a cereal fermented food product. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):21-26]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.04.


Keywords: lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Biotechnological characterization, Ogi, Cereal, Fermented food product

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Physico-chemical Characteristics of Golden Lake water, Clement town, District Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India


Pallavi P. Chauhan1, Sushil Bhadula2 and Anil Bisht1


Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Uttaranchal College of Bio medical Sciences & Hospital, Dehradun

*Department of Environmental Science, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar

E-mail: chauhanpallavi03@gmail.com


Abstract:-This study is emphasis on physico-chemical parameter of Golden lake water, clement town Dehradun. During the present study various physico-chemical parameters viz. water temperature, pH, turbidity total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, Conductivity, total alkalinity; total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chlorides etc. were analyzed. The result shows the significance correlation in different parameters that indicate the water quality of lake water. It was observed that physico-chemical parameters were fluctuated due to certain anthropogenic activities and seasonal variation.

[Pallavi P. Chauhan, Sushil Bhadula and Anil Bisht. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Golden Lake water, Clement town, District Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):27-31]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.05.


Key Words: Physico-chemical parameters, Golden Lake, correlation

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Investigation impacts of Aloe Vera medicinal products on cancer patients


Golpar Golmohammadzadeh


Faculty of Pharmacology, Sari University, Sari, Iran


Abstract: The plant Aloe vera is used in Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Allopathic streams of medicine, and not only tribal com-munity but also most of the people for food and medicine. Aloe Vera has been widely reported for its numerous medicinal effects but little is known of its effects on the reproductive organs. When Aloe was administered to mice bearing S-180 tumors, the tumor growth was inhibited. Aloe Vera is a dietary supplement and not a regulated drug. There is no guarantee of strength, purity, or safety of these products. Aloe Vera is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a food additive for flavor.

[Golpar Golmohammadzadeh. Investigation impacts of Aloe Vera medicinal products on cancer patients. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):32-37]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.06.


Keywords: Aloe vera; Medicinal Uses; Cancer Patients

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The Effectiveness Of The Conscious And Unconscious In The Course Of The Intellectual Process


Abdurahimov Kodirjon Abduxalilovich, Mirzo Ulugbek


Competitor of the Philosophy Faculty of the National University of Uzbekistan, gulchehra_3@mail.ru


Abstract: In this article, issues of interaction of conscious and unconscious during the thought process are considered. It has been conducted an additional empirical research which consisted of four main parts. In conclusion, it is shown that unconscious decisions much faster than conscious ones.

[Abdurahimov Kodirjon Abduxalilovich, Mirzo Ulugbek. The Effectiveness Of The Conscious And Unconscious In The Course Of The Intellectual Process. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):38-42]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.07.


Key words: The conscious and unconscious, intellectual thought process, an empirical study, improving the efficiency of unconscious decisions, the control group of respondents, the experimental group of respondents, intuition, consciousness

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Relation between Age at menopause, Reproductive life span and Type 2 diabetes.


Mohamed Yehia Seddek1, Mohamed Shawky El-sayed 1, Ahmed Yousef Rezq2, Ayman El-Badawy1

Nancy Moenes Mohamed.


1.Internal medicine department,Faculty of medicine, Banha University,Qalyubia, Egypt

2.Obstetrics and gynecology department faculty of Medicine, Banha University, Qalyubia, Egypt



Abstract: Background: The aims of this study are to (1) shed light on the temporal relation between development of menopause and development of type 2 diabetes. (2) Clarify whether early menopause and short reproductive life span could be considered as novel risk factor for type 2 diabetes. (3) Decide whether type 2 diabetes is to be considered a cause and /or a sequel of early menopause and short reproductive life span. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on four hundred post menopausal women. Their ages’ range was (40-87y) with average mean (59.289.01y), a questionnaire was done to every subject including reproductive factors, baseline characteristics, and laboratory investigations. Results: our study was on postmenopausal women. Their ages at menopause were (31-63) with mean average (47.735.02). The prevalence of diabetes in post menopausal women was 38%. There is a significant association between hyperglycemia and duration of menopausal status after adjustment for age and other risk factors of diabetes with p <.001 & OR 1.04. But no association was found between neither age at menopause nor reproductive life span and the development of diabetes with p value 0.56, 0.92 respectively. There was a significant association between waist circumference and risk of developing diabetes in post menopausal women with p value.009 & OR.001. No significant association between hysterectomy and risk of type 2 diabetes with p value 1.There was no significant association between HRT & diabetes with p value.6. However, there was a significant association between OCP and the risk of diabetes with p value.02.There was a significant association between gravidity and risk of diabetes with p.002 but not with parity with p value.16. Conclusion: There was association between the duration of menopause and development of type 2 diabetes. Waist circumference representing central adipose tissue playing the major role in risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women.

[Mohamed Yehia Seddek, Mohamed Shawky El-sayed, Ahmed Yousef Rezq, Ayman El-Badawy, Nancy moenes Mohamed. Relation between age at menopause, reproductive life span and type 2 diabetes. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):43-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.08.


Keywords: age at menopause, duration of menopause, reproductive life span, type2 DM, waist circumference.

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Cancer Stem Cell Research Literatures


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1


1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com


Abstract: Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the cancer stem cell related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Cancer Stem Cell Research Literatures. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):54-75]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.09.


Key words: cancer; stem cell; research; literatures; life

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Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO) and Renal Studies literatures


Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1


1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ma8080@gmail.com


Abstract: Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of progressive renal disease of virtually any etiology. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a experimental model of renal injury. The UUO model of in the rodent generates progressive renal fibrosis. The surgically created UUO can be experimentally manipulated with respect to timing, severity, and duration, while reversal of the obstruction permits the study of recovery. Symptoms and signs of obstruction are often mild, occurring over long periods of time and requiring a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. Early recognition and treatment are the keys to preventing renal loss.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO) and Renal Studies literatures. N Y Sci J 2015;8(12):76-101]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnys081215.10.


Key words: unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO); life; renal

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 10, 2015. 

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